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Full text of "The 1990 CIA World Factbook"

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Title: The World Factbook 2000

Author: The United States Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)

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This etext was prepared by Martin M. Pedersen, as taken from
the CIA's online version of the book published at the address:
http://www.odci.gov/cia/publications/factbook/guide.html  Note
the original book includes maps and other graphics.  These are
not included in the Project Gutenberg edition.  The tables may
not correctly align due to limitations of HTML conversion, but
are otherwise intact.  It is past experience that the CIA does
not maintain past versions of The Factbook online.  Hopefully,
the Project Gutenberg edition will be useful to you for a long
time in the future.





The World Factbook 2000




TABLE OF CONTENTS

Countries are listed in alphabetical order.
Notes and appendixes follow the country listings.

Afghanistan
Albania
Algeria
American Samoa
Andorra
Angola
Anguilla
Antarctica
Antigua and Barbuda
Arctic Ocean
Argentina
Armenia
Aruba
Ashmore and Cartier Islands
Atlantic Ocean
Australia
Austria
Azerbaijan
Bahamas
Bahrain
Baker Island
Bangladesh
Barbados
Bassas da India
Belarus
Belgium
Belize
Benin
Bermuda
Bhutan
Bolivia
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Botswana
Bouvet Island
Brazil
British Indian Ocean Territory
British Virgin Islands
Brunei
Bulgaria
Burkina Faso
Burma
Burundi
Cambodia
Cameroon
Canada
Cape Verde
Cayman Islands
Central African Republic
Chad
Chile
China
Christmas Island
Clipperton Island
Cocos
Colombia
Comoros
Congo
Congo
Cook Islands
Coral Sea Islands
Costa Rica
Cote d
Croatia
Cuba
Cyprus
Czech Republic
Denmark
Djibouti
Dominica
Dominican Republic
Ecuador
Egypt
El Salvador
Equatorial Guinea
Eritrea
Estonia
Ethiopia
Europa Island
Falkland Islands
Faroe Islands
Fiji
Finland
France
French Guiana
French Polynesia
French Southern and
Gabon
Gambia
Gaza Strip
Georgia
Germany
Ghana
Gibraltar
Glorioso Islands
Greece
Greenland
Grenada
Guadeloupe
Guam
Guatemala
Guernsey
Guinea
Guinea
Guyana
Haiti
Heard Island and McDonald  Islands
Holy See
Honduras
Hong Kong
Howland Island
Hungary
Iceland
India
Indian Ocean
Indonesia
Iran
Iraq
Ireland
Israel
Italy
Jamaica
Jan Mayen
Japan
Jarvis Island
Jersey
Johnston Atoll
Jordan
Juan de Nova Island
Kazakhstan
Kenya
Kingman Reef
Kiribati
Korea
Korea
Kuwait
Kyrgyzstan
Laos
Latvia
Lebanon
Lesotho
Liberia
Libya
Liechtenstein
Lithuania
Luxembourg
Macau
Macedonia
Madagascar
Malawi
Malaysia
Maldives
Mali
Malta
Man
Marshall Islands
Martinique
Mauritania
Mauritius
Mayotte
Mexico
Micronesia
Midway Islands
Moldova
Monaco
Mongolia
Montserrat
Morocco
Mozambique
Namibia
Nauru
Navassa Island
Nepal Country Flag of Nepal
Netherlands Antilles
Netherlands
New Caledonia
New Zealand
Nicaragua
Nigeria
Niger
Niue
Norfolk Island
Northern Mariana Islands
Norway
Oman
Pacific Ocean
Pakistan
Palau
Palmyra Atoll
Panama
Papua New Guinea
Paracel Islands
Paraguay
Peru
Philippines
Pitcairn Islands
Poland
Portugal
Puerto Rico
Qatar
Reunion
Romania
Russia Country Flag of Russia
Rwanda
Saint Helena
Saint Kitts and Nevis
Saint Lucia
Saint Pierre and Miquelon
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
Samoa Country Flag of Samoa
San Marino
Sao Tome and Principe
Saudi Arabia
Senegal
Serbia and Montenegro
Seychelles
Sierra Leone
Singapore
Slovakia
Slovenia Country Flag of Slovenia
Solomon Islands
Somalia
South Africa
Southern Ocean
South Georgia
Spain
Spratly Islands
Sri Lanka
Sudan
Suriname
Svalbard
Swaziland
Sweden
Switzerland
Syria
Taiwan
Tajikistan
Tanzania
Thailand
Togo
Tokelau
Tonga
Trinidad and Tobago
Tromelin Island
Tunisia
Turkey
Turkmenistan
Turks and Caicos Islands
Tuvalu
Uganda
Ukraine
United Arab Emirates
United Kingdom
United States
Uruguay
Uzbekistan
Vanuatu
Venezuela
Vietnam
Virgin Islands
Wake Island
Wallis and Futuna
West Bank
Western Sahara
World
Yemen
Zambia
Zimbabwe


        Notes and Definitions
        Appendixes 
                   Appendix A: Abbreviations
                   Appendix B: United Nations System
                   Appendix C: International Organizations and Groups
                   Appendix D: Selected International Environmental Agreements
                   Appendix E: Weights and Measures
                   Appendix F: Cross-Reference List of Country Data Codes
                   Appendix G: Cross-Reference List of Hydrographic Codes
                   Appendix H: Cross-Reference List of Geographic Names
        History 
        Contributors and Copyright Information 
        Purchase Information




AFGHANISTAN

@Afghanistan:Introduction

Background: Afghanistan was invaded and occupied by the Soviet Union
in 1979. The USSR was forced to withdraw 10 years later by
anti-communist mujahidin forces supplied and trained by the US, Saudi
Arabia, Pakistan, and others. Fighting subsequently continued among
the various mujahidin factions, but the fundamentalist Islamic Taliban
movement has been able to seize most of the country. In addition to
the continuing civil strife, the country suffers from enormous
poverty, a crumbling infrastructure, and widespread live mines.

@Afghanistan:Geography

Location: Southern Asia, north and west of Pakistan, east of Iran

Geographic coordinates: 33 00 N, 65 00 E

Map references: Asia

Area:
total: 652,000 sq km
land: 652,000 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Texas

Land boundaries:
total: 5,529 km
border countries: China 76 km, Iran 936 km, Pakistan 2,430 km,
Tajikistan 1,206 km, Turkmenistan 744 km, Uzbekistan 137 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: arid to semiarid; cold winters and hot summers

Terrain: mostly rugged mountains; plains in north and southwest

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Amu Darya 258 m
highest point: Nowshak 7,485 m

Natural resources: natural gas, petroleum, coal, copper, chromite,
talc, barites, sulfur, lead, zinc, iron ore, salt, precious and
semiprecious stones

Land use:
arable land: 12%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 46%
forests and woodland: 3%
other: 39% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 30,000 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: damaging earthquakes occur in Hindu Kush mountains;
flooding

Environment - current issues: soil degradation; overgrazing;
deforestation (much of the remaining forests are being cut down for
fuel and building materials); desertification

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental
Modification, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban
signed, but not ratified: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Hazardous
Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation

Geography - note: landlocked

@Afghanistan:People

Population: 25,838,797 (July 2000 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 42.37% (male 5,598,403; female 5,371,054)
15-64 years: 54.86% (male 7,362,961; female 6,839,914)
65 years and over: 2.77% (male 378,741; female 337,724) (2000 est.)

Population growth rate: 3.54% (2000 est.)
note: this rate reflects the continued return of refugees from Iran

Birth rate: 41.82 births/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 18.01 deaths/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: 11.54 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.08 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 1.12 male(s)/female
total population: 1.06 male(s)/female (2000 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 149.28 deaths/1,000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 45.88 years
male: 46.62 years
female: 45.1 years (2000 est.)

Total fertility rate: 5.87 children born/woman (2000 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Afghan(s)
adjective: Afghan

Ethnic groups: Pashtun 38%, Tajik 25%, Uzbek 6%, Hazara 19%, minor
ethnic groups (Aimaks, Turkmen, Baloch, and others)

Religions: Sunni Muslim 84%, Shi'a Muslim 15%, other 1%

Languages: Pashtu 35%, Afghan Persian (Dari) 50%, Turkic languages
(primarily Uzbek and Turkmen) 11%, 30 minor languages (primarily
Balochi and Pashai) 4%, much bilingualism

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 31.5%
male: 47.2%
female: 15% (1999 est.)

@Afghanistan:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Islamic State of Afghanistan; note - the
self-proclaimed Taliban government refers to the country as Islamic
Emirate of Afghanistan
conventional short form: Afghanistan
local long form: Dowlat-e Eslami-ye Afghanestan
local short form: Afghanestan
former: Republic of Afghanistan

Data code: AF

Government type: no functioning central government, administered by
factions

Capital: Kabul

Administrative divisions: 30 provinces (velayat, singular - velayat);
Badakhshan, Badghis, Baghlan, Balkh, Bamian, Farah, Faryab, Ghazni,
Ghowr, Helmand, Herat, Jowzjan, Kabol, Kandahar, Kapisa, Konar,
Kondoz, Laghman, Lowgar, Nangarhar, Nimruz, Oruzgan, Paktia, Paktika,
Parvan, Samangan, Sar-e Pol, Takhar, Vardak, Zabol
note: there may be two new provinces of Nurestan (Nuristan) and Khowst

Independence: 19 August 1919 (from UK control over Afghan foreign
affairs)

National holiday: Victory of the Muslim Nation, 28 April; Remembrance
Day for Martyrs and Disabled, 4 May; Independence Day, 19 August

Constitution: none

Legal system: a new legal system has not been adopted but all factions
tacitly agree they will follow Shari'a (Islamic law)

Suffrage: NA; previously males 15-50 years of age

Executive branch: on 27 September 1996, the ruling members of the
Afghan Government were displaced by members of the Islamic Taliban
movement; the Islamic State of Afghanistan has no functioning
government at this time, and the country remains divided among
fighting factions
note: the Taliban have declared themselves the legitimate government
of Afghanistan; however, the UN still recognizes the government of
Burhanuddin RABBANI; the Organization of the Islamic Conference has
left the Afghan seat vacant until the question of legitimacy can be
resolved through negotiations among the warring factions; the country
is essentially divided along ethnic lines; the Taliban controls the
capital of Kabul and approximately two-thirds of the country including
the predominately ethnic Pashtun areas in southern Afghanistan;
opposing factions have their stronghold in the ethnically diverse
north

Legislative branch: non-functioning as of June 1993

Judicial branch: non-functioning as of March 1995, although there are
local Shari'a (Islamic law) courts throughout the country

Political parties and leaders: Harakat-i-Islami (Islamic Movement)
; Harakat-Inqilab-i-Islami (Islamic
Revolutionary Movement) ; Hizbi
Islami-Gulbuddin (Islamic Party) ; Hizbi
Islami-Khalis (Islamic Party) ; Hizbi
Wahdat-Akbari faction (Islamic Unity Party) ;
Ittihad-i-Islami Barai Azadi Afghanistan (Islamic Union for the
Liberation of Afghanistan) ; Jabha-i-Najat-i-Milli
Afghanistan (Afghanistan National Liberation Front) [Sibghatullah
MOJADDEDI]; Mahaz-i-Milli-Islami (National Islamic Front) [Sayed
Ahamad GAILANI]; Taliban (Religious Students Movement) [Mohammad
OMAR]; United Islamic Front for the Salvation of Afghanistan comprised
of Jumbesh-i-Melli Islami (National Islamic Movement) [Abdul Rashid
DOSTAM]; Jamiat-i-Islami (Islamic Society) [Burhanuddin RABBANI and
Ahmad Shah MASOOD]; and Hizbi Wahdat-Khalili faction (Islamic Unity
Party) 

Political pressure groups and leaders: Afghan refugees in Pakistan,
Australia, US, and elsewhere have organized politically; Mellat
(Social Democratic Party) ; Peshawar, Pakistan-based groups
such as the Coordination Council for National Unity and Understanding
in Afghanistan or CUNUA ; tribal elders represent
traditional Pashtun leadership; Writers Union of Free Afghanistan or
WUFA 

International organization participation: AsDB, CP, ECO, ESCAP, FAO,
G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF,
Intelsat, IOC, IOM (observer), ITU, NAM, OIC, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD,
UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WMO, WToO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
note: embassy operations suspended 21 August 1997
chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant)
chancery: 2341 Wyoming Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone:  (202) 234-3770
FAX:  (202) 328-3516
consulate(s) general: New York

Diplomatic representation from the US: the US embassy in Kabul has
been closed since January 1989 due to security concerns

Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of green (top), white,
and black with a gold emblem centered on the three bands; the emblem
features a temple-like structure with Islamic inscriptions above and
below, encircled by a wreath on the left and right and by a bolder
Islamic inscription above, all of which are encircled by two crossed
scimitars
note: the Taliban uses a plain white flag

@Afghanistan:Economy

Economy - overview: Afghanistan is an extremely poor, landlocked
country, highly dependent on farming and livestock raising (sheep and
goats). Economic considerations have played second fiddle to political
and military upheavals during two decades of war, including the nearly
10-year Soviet military occupation (which ended 15 February 1989).
During that conflict one-third of the population fled the country,
with Pakistan and Iran sheltering a combined peak of more than 6
million refugees. In early 1999, 1.2 million Afghan refugees remained
in Pakistan and about 1.4 million in Iran. Gross domestic product has
fallen substantially over the past 20 years because of the loss of
labor and capital and the disruption of trade and transport. The
majority of the population continues to suffer from insufficient food,
clothing, housing, and medical care. Inflation remains a serious
problem throughout the country. International aid can deal with only a
fraction of the humanitarian problem, let alone promote economic
development. The economic situation did not improve in 1998-99, as
internal civil strife continued, hampering both domestic economic
policies and international aid efforts. Numerical data are likely to
be either unavailable or unreliable. Afghanistan was by far the
largest producer of opium poppies in 1999, and narcotics trafficking
is a major source of revenue.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $21 billion (1999 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: NA%

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $800 (1999 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 53%
industry: 28.5%
services: 18.5% (1990)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA%

Labor force: 8 million (1997 est.)

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 68%, industry 16%, services
16% (1980 est.)

Unemployment rate: 8% (1995 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $NA
expenditures: $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA

Industries: small-scale production of textiles, soap, furniture,
shoes, fertilizer, and cement; handwoven carpets; natural gas, oil,
coal, copper

Electricity - production: 430 million kWh (1998)

Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 41.86%
hydro: 58.14%
nuclear: 0%
other: 0% (1998)

Electricity - consumption: 510 million kWh (1998)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1998)

Electricity - imports: 110 million kWh (1998)

Agriculture - products: opium poppies, wheat, fruits, nuts, karakul
pelts; wool, mutton

Exports: $80 million (does not include opium) (1996 est.)

Exports - commodities: opium, fruits and nuts, handwoven carpets,
wool, cotton, hides and pelts, precious and semi-precious gems

Exports - partners: FSU, Pakistan, Iran, Germany, India, UK, Belgium,
Luxembourg, Czech Republic

Imports: $150 million (1996 est.)

Imports - commodities: capital goods, food and petroleum products;
most consumer goods

Imports - partners: FSU, Pakistan, Iran, Japan, Singapore, India,
South Korea, Germany

Debt - external: $5.5 billion (1996 est.)

Economic aid - recipient: US provided about $70 million in
humanitarian assistance in 1997; US continues to contribute to
multilateral assistance through the UN programs of food aid,
immunization, land mine removal, and a wide range of aid to refugees
and displaced persons

Currency: 1 afghani (AF) = 100 puls

Exchange rates: afghanis (Af) per US$1 - 4,700 (January 2000), 4,750
(February 1999), 17,000 (December 1996), 7,000 (January 1995), 1,900
(January 1994), 1,019 (March 1993), 850 (1991); note - these rates
reflect the free market exchange rates rather than the official
exchange rate, which was fixed at 50.600 afghanis to the dollar until
1996, when it rose to 2,262.65 per dollar, and finally became fixed
again at 3,000.00 per dollar in April 1996

Fiscal year: 21 March - 20 March

@Afghanistan:Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 31,200 (1983); note - there were
21,000 main lines in use in Kabul in 1998

Telephones - mobile cellular: NA

Telephone system:
domestic: very limited telephone and telegraph service; in 1997,
telecommunications links were established between Mazar-e Sharif,
Herat, Kandahar, Jalalabad, and Kabul through satellite and microwave
systems
international: satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean)
linked only to Iran and 1 Intersputnik (Atlantic Ocean region);
commercial satellite telephone center in Ghazni

Radio broadcast stations: AM 7 (6 are inactive; the active station is
in Kabul), FM 1, shortwave 1 (broadcasts in Pushtu, Dari, Urdu, and
English) (1999)

Radios: 167,000 (1999)

Television broadcast stations: at least 10 (one government run central
television station in Kabul and regional stations in nine of the 30
provinces; the regional stations operate on a reduced schedule; also,
in 1997, there was a station in Mazar-e Sharif reaching four northern
Afghanistan provinces) (1998)

Televisions: 100,000 (1999)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): NA

@Afghanistan:Transportation

Railways:
total: 24.6 km
broad gauge: 9.6 km 1.524-m gauge from Gushgy (Turkmenistan) to
Towraghondi; 15 km 1.524-m gauge from Termiz (Uzbekistan) to Kheyrabad
transshipment point on south bank of Amu Darya

Highways:
total: 21,000 km
paved: 2,793 km
unpaved: 18,207 km (1998 est.)

Waterways: 1,200 km; chiefly Amu Darya, which handles vessels up to
about 500 DWT

Pipelines: petroleum products - Uzbekistan to Bagram and Turkmenistan
to Shindand; natural gas 180 km

Ports and harbors: Kheyrabad, Shir Khan

Airports: 46 (1999 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 14
over 3,047 m: 3
2,438 to 3,047 m: 4
1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
914 to 1,523 m: 1
under 914 m: 2 (1999 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 32
2,438 to 3,047 m: 5
1,524 to 2,437 m: 13
914 to 1,523 m: 3
under 914 m: 11 (1999 est.)

Heliports: 3 (1999 est.)

@Afghanistan:Military

Military branches: NA; note - the military does not exist on a
national basis; some elements of the former Army, Air and Air Defense
Forces, National Guard, Border Guard Forces, National Police Force
(Sarandoi), and tribal militias still exist but are factionalized
among the various groups

Military manpower - military age: 22 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 6,401,980 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males age 15-49: 3,432,236 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 244,958 (2000 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $NA

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: NA%

@Afghanistan:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: support to Islamic militants worldwide by
some factions; question over which group should hold Afghanistan's
seat at the UN

Illicit drugs: world's largest illicit opium producer, surpassing
Burma (potential production in 1999 - 1,670 metric tons; cultivation
in 1999 - 51,500 hectares, a 23% increase over 1998); a major source
of hashish; increasing number of heroin-processing laboratories being
set up in the country; major political factions in the country profit
from drug trade

______________________________________________________________________



ALBANIA

@Albania:Introduction

Background: In 1990 Albania ended 44 years of xenophobic communist
rule and established a multiparty democracy. The transition has proven
difficult as corrupt governments have tried to deal with severe
unemployment, the collapse of a fraudulent nationwide investment
scheme, widespread gangsterism, and massive refugee influxes from
neighboring Kosovo.

@Albania:Geography

Location: Southeastern Europe, bordering the Adriatic Sea and Ionian
Sea, between Greece and Serbia and Montenegro

Geographic coordinates: 41 00 N, 20 00 E

Map references: Europe

Area:
total: 28,748 sq km
land: 27,398 sq km
water: 1,350 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Maryland

Land boundaries:
total: 720 km
border countries: Greece 282 km, The Former Yugoslav Republic of
Macedonia 151 km, Serbia and Montenegro 287 km (114 km with Serbia,
173 km with Montenegro)

Coastline: 362 km

Maritime claims:
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: mild temperate; cool, cloudy, wet winters; hot, clear, dry
summers; interior is cooler and wetter

Terrain: mostly mountains and hills; small plains along coast

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Adriatic Sea 0 m
highest point: Maja e Korabit (Golem Korab) 2,753 m

Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, coal, chromium, copper,
timber, nickel, hydropower

Land use:
arable land: 21%
permanent crops: 5%
permanent pastures: 15%
forests and woodland: 38%
other: 21% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 3,410 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: destructive earthquakes; tsunamis occur along
southwestern coast

Environment - current issues: deforestation; soil erosion; water
pollution from industrial and domestic effluents

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer
Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note: strategic location along Strait of Otranto (links
Adriatic Sea to Ionian Sea and Mediterranean Sea)

@Albania:People

Population: 3,490,435 (July 2000 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 30% (male 545,329; female 507,589)
15-64 years: 63% (male 1,056,583; female 1,141,664)
65 years and over: 7% (male 104,086; female 135,184) (2000 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.26% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 19.47 births/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 6.5 deaths/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: -10.36 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.08 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.07 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.93 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.77 male(s)/female
total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2000 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 41.33 deaths/1,000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 71.57 years
male: 68.75 years
female: 74.59 years (2000 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.37 children born/woman (2000 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Albanian(s)
adjective: Albanian

Ethnic groups: Albanian 95%, Greeks 3%, other 2% (Vlachs, Gypsies,
Serbs, and Bulgarians) (1989 est.)
note: in 1989, other estimates of the Greek population ranged from 1%
(official Albanian statistics) to 12% (from a Greek organization)

Religions: Muslim 70%, Albanian Orthodox 20%, Roman Catholic 10%
note: all mosques and churches were closed in 1967 and religious
observances prohibited; in November 1990, Albania began allowing
private religious practice

Languages: Albanian (Tosk is the official dialect), Greek

Literacy:
definition: age 9 and over can read and write
total population: 93% (1997 est.)
male: NA%
female: NA%

@Albania:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Albania
conventional short form: Albania
local long form: Republika e Shqiperise
local short form: Shqiperia
former: People's Socialist Republic of Albania

Data code: AL

Government type: emerging democracy

Capital: Tirana

Administrative divisions: 36 districts (rrethe, singular - rreth) and
1 municipality* (bashki); Berat, Bulqize, Delvine, Devoll (Bilisht),
Diber (Peshkopi), Durres, Elbasan, Fier, Gjirokaster, Gramsh, Has
(Krume), Kavaje, Kolonje (Erseke), Korce, Kruje, Kucove, Kukes,
Kurbin, Lezhe, Librazhd, Lushnje, Malesi e Madhe (Koplik), Mallakaster
(Ballsh), Mat (Burrel), Mirdite (Rreshen), Peqin, Permet, Pogradec,
Puke, Sarande, Shkoder, Skrapar (Corovode), Tepelene, Tirane (Tirana),
Tirane* (Tirana), Tropoje (Bajram Curri), Vlore
note: administrative divisions have the same names as their
administrative centers (exceptions have the administrative center name
following in parentheses)

Independence: 28 November 1912 (from Ottoman Empire)

National holiday: Independence Day, 28 November (1912)

Constitution: a new constitution was adopted by popular referendum on
28 November 1998; note - the opposition Democratic Party boycotted the
vote

Legal system: has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal and compulsory

Executive branch:
chief of state: President of the Republic Rexhep MEIDANI (since 24
July 1997)
head of government: Prime Minister Ilir META (since 29 October 1999)
cabinet: Council of Ministers nominated by the prime minister and
approved by the president
elections: president elected by the People's Assembly for a five-year
term; election last held 24 July 1997 (next to be held NA 2002); prime
minister appointed by the president
election results: Rexhep MEIDANI elected president; People's Assembly
vote by number - total votes 122, for 110, against 3, abstained 2,
invalid 7

Legislative branch: unicameral People's Assembly or Kuvendi Popullor
(155 seats; most members are elected by direct popular vote and some
by proportional vote for four-year terms)
elections: last held 29 June 1997 (next to be held NA 2001)
election results: percent of vote by party - PS 53.36%, PD 25.33%, PSD
2.5%, PBDNJ 2.78%, PBK 2.36%, PAD 2.85%, PR 2.25%, PLL 3.09%, PDK
1.00%, PBSD 0.84%; seats by party - PS 101, PD 27, PSD 8, PBDNJ 4, PBK
3, PAD 2, PR 2, PLL 2, PDK 1, PBSD 1, PUK 1, independents 3

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, chairman of the Supreme Court is
elected by the People's Assembly for a four-year term

Political parties and leaders: Albanian Republican Party or PR [Fatmir
MEHDIU]; Albanian Socialist Party or PS (formerly the Albania Workers
Party) ; Albanian United Right or DBSH (includes
PBK, Albanian Republican Party or PRS, AND PDD) ;
Christian Democratic Party or PDK ; Democratic Alliance
or PAD ; Democratic Party or PD ;
Democratic Party of the Right or PDD ; Liberal Union
Party ; Movement of Legality Party or PLL ;
National Front (Balli Kombetar) or PBK ; Party of
National Unity or PUK ; Right National Front [Hysni
SELFO]; Social Democratic Party or PSD ; Unity for
Human Rights Party or PBDNJ ; note - Teodar LACO
of the Liberal Union Party was leader of the Social Democratic Union
of Albania or PBSD

International organization participation: BSEC, CCC, CE, CEI, EAPC,
EBRD, ECE, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS,
ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat (nonsignatory user), Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO,
ITU, OIC, OPCW, OSCE, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNOMIG, UPU,
WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO (applicant)

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Petrit BUSHATI
chancery: 2100 S Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone:  (202) 223-4942
FAX:  (202) 628-7342

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Joseph LIMPRECHT
embassy: Rruga Elbasanit 103, Tirana
mailing address: American Embassy, Tirana, Department of State,
Washington, DC 20521-9510
telephone:  (42) 47285 through 47289
FAX:  (42) 32222

Flag description: red with a black two-headed eagle in the center

@Albania:Economy

Economy - overview: An extremely poor country by European standards,
Albania is making the difficult transition to a more open-market
economy. The economy rebounded in 1993-95 after a severe depression
accompanying the collapse of the previous centrally planned system in
1990 and 1991. However, a weakening of government resolve to maintain
stabilization policies in the election year of 1996 contributed to
renewal of inflationary pressures, spurred by the budget deficit which
exceeded 12%. The collapse of financial pyramid schemes in early 1997
- which had attracted deposits from a substantial portion of Albania's
population - triggered severe social unrest which led to more than
1,500 deaths, widespread destruction of property, and an 8% drop in
GDP. The new government, installed in July 1997, has taken strong
measures to restore public order and to revive economic activity and
trade. The economy continues to be bolstered by remittances of some
20% of the labor force that works abroad, mostly in Greece and Italy.
These remittances supplement GDP and help offset the large foreign
trade deficit. Most agricultural land was privatized in 1992,
substantially improving peasant incomes. In 1998, Albania recovered
the 8% drop in GDP of 1997 and pushed ahead by 7% in 1999.
International aid has helped defray the high costs of receiving and
returning refugees from the Kosovo conflict.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $5.6 billion (1999 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 8% (1999 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $1,650 (1999 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 54%
industry: 25%
services: 21% (1998)

Population below poverty line: 19.6% (1996 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 0.5% (1999 est.)

Labor force: 1.692 million (including 352,000 emigrant workers and
261,000 domestically unemployed) (1994 est.)

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 49.5%, industry and services
50.5%

Unemployment rate: 14% (October 1997) officially, but may be as high
as 28%

Budget:
revenues: $393 million
expenditures: $676 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1997 est.)

Industries: food processing, textiles and clothing; lumber, oil,
cement, chemicals, mining, basic metals, hydropower

Industrial production growth rate: 7% (1999 est.)

Electricity - production: 5.15 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 2.91%
hydro: 97.09%
nuclear: 0%
other: 0% (1998)

Electricity - consumption: 5.29 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1998)

Electricity - imports: 500 million kWh (1998)

Agriculture - products: wheat, corn, potatoes, vegetables, fruits,
sugar beets, grapes; meat, dairy products

Exports: $242 million (f.o.b., 1999 est.)

Exports - commodities: textiles and footwear; asphalt, metals and
metallic ores, crude oil; vegetables, fruits, tobacco

Exports - partners: Italy 63%, Greece 12%, Germany 6%, Netherlands,
Belgium, US (1998)

Imports: $925 million (f.o.b., 1999 est.)

Imports - commodities: machinery and equipment, foodstuffs, textiles,
chemicals

Imports - partners: Italy 43%, Greece 29%, Turkey 4%, Germany 4%,
Bulgaria, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (1998)

Debt - external: $820 million (1998)

Economic aid - recipient: EU pledged $100 million to share with The
Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (1999)

Currency: 1 lek (L) = 100 qintars

Exchange rates: leke (L) per US$1 - 135.31 (December 1999), 137.69
(1999), 150.63 (1998), 148.93 (1997), 104.50 (1996), 92.70 (1995)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Albania:Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 42,000 (1995)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 3,100 (1999)

Telephone system:
domestic: obsolete wire system; no longer provides a telephone for
every village; in 1992, following the fall of the communist
government, peasants cut the wire to about 1,000 villages and used it
to build fences
international: inadequate; international traffic carried by microwave
radio relay from the Tirana exchange to Italy and Greece

Radio broadcast stations: AM 16, FM 3, shortwave 2 (1999)

Radios: 810,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 13 (1999)

Televisions: 405,000 (1997)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 2 (1999)

@Albania:Transportation

Railways:
total: 670 km
standard gauge: 670 km 1.435-m gauge (1996)

Highways:
total: 18,000 km
paved: 5,400 km
unpaved: 12,600 km (1998 est.)

Waterways: 43 km plus Albanian sections of Lake Scutari, Lake Ohrid,
and Lake Prespa (1990)

Pipelines: crude oil 145 km; petroleum products 55 km; natural gas 64
km (1991)

Ports and harbors: Durres, Sarande, Shengjin, Vlore

Merchant marine:
total: 6 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 10,907 GRT/16,101 DWT
ships by type: cargo 6 (1999 est.)

Airports: 10 (1999 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 3
2,438 to 3,047 m: 3 (1999 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 7
over 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 2
under 914 m: 3 (1999 est.)

Heliports: 1 (1999 est.)

@Albania:Military

Military branches: Army, Navy, Air and Air Defense Forces, Interior
Ministry Troops, Border Guards

Military manpower - military age: 19 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 856,820 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males age 15-49: 701,194 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 35,508 (2000 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $42 million (FY99)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 1.5% (FY99)

@Albania:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: the Albanian Government supports protection
of the rights of ethnic Albanians outside of its borders but has
downplayed them to further its primary foreign policy goal of regional
cooperation; Albanian majority in Kosovo seeks independence from
Serbian Republic; Albanians in The Former Yugoslav Republic of
Macedonia claim discrimination in education, access to public-sector
jobs, and representation in government

Illicit drugs: increasingly active transshipment point for Southwest
Asian opiates, hashish, and cannabis transiting the Balkan route and -
to a far lesser extent - cocaine from South America destined for
Western Europe; limited opium and cannabis production; ethnic Albanian
narcotrafficking organizations active and rapidly expanding in Europe

______________________________________________________________________



ALGERIA

@Algeria:Introduction

Background: After a century of rule by France, Algeria became
independent in 1962. The surprising first round success of the
fundamentalist FIS (Islamic Salvation Front) party in December 1991
balloting caused the army to intervene, crack down on the FIS, and
postpone the subsequent elections. The FIS response has resulted in a
continuous low-grade civil conflict with the secular state apparatus,
which nonetheless has allowed elections featuring pro-government and
moderate religious-based parties. FIS's armed wing, the Islamic
Salvation Army, dissolved itself in January 2000 and many armed
insurgents surrendered under an amnesty program designed to promote
national reconciliation. Nevertheless, some residual fighting
continues. Other concerns include large-scale unemployment and the
need to diversify the petroleum-based economy.

@Algeria:Geography

Location: Northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between
Morocco and Tunisia

Geographic coordinates: 28 00 N, 3 00 E

Map references: Africa

Area:
total: 2,381,740 sq km
land: 2,381,740 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly less than 3.5 times the size of Texas

Land boundaries:
total: 6,343 km
border countries: Libya 982 km, Mali 1,376 km, Mauritania 463 km,
Morocco 1,559 km, Niger 956 km, Tunisia 965 km, Western Sahara 42 km

Coastline: 998 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive fishing zone: 32-52 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: arid to semiarid; mild, wet winters with hot, dry summers
along coast; drier with cold winters and hot summers on high plateau;
sirocco is a hot, dust/sand-laden wind especially common in summer

Terrain: mostly high plateau and desert; some mountains; narrow,
discontinuous coastal plain

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Chott Melrhir -40 m
highest point: Tahat 3,003 m

Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, phosphates,
uranium, lead, zinc

Land use:
arable land: 3%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 13%
forests and woodland: 2%
other: 82% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 5,550 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: mountainous areas subject to severe earthquakes; mud
slides

Environment - current issues: soil erosion from overgrazing and other
poor farming practices; desertification; dumping of raw sewage,
petroleum refining wastes, and other industrial effluents is leading
to the pollution of rivers and coastal waters; Mediterranean Sea, in
particular, becoming polluted from oil wastes, soil erosion, and
fertilizer runoff; inadequate supplies of potable water

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered
Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea,
Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Nuclear Test Ban

Geography - note: second-largest country in Africa (after Sudan)

@Algeria:People

Population: 31,193,917 (July 2000 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 35% (male 5,591,044; female 5,389,046)
15-64 years: 61% (male 9,582,864; female 9,381,088)
65 years and over: 4% (male 577,875; female 672,000) (2000 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.74% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 23.14 births/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 5.3 deaths/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.47 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.04 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.86 male(s)/female
total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (2000 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 41.97 deaths/1,000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 69.65 years
male: 68.34 years
female: 71.02 years (2000 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.8 children born/woman (2000 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Algerian(s)
adjective: Algerian

Ethnic groups: Arab-Berber 99%, European less than 1%

Religions: Sunni Muslim (state religion) 99%, Christian and Jewish 1%

Languages: Arabic (official), French, Berber dialects

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 61.6%
male: 73.9%
female: 49% (1995 est.)

@Algeria:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Democratic and Popular Republic of Algeria
conventional short form: Algeria
local long form: Al Jumhuriyah al Jaza'iriyah ad Dimuqratiyah ash
Shabiyah
local short form: Al Jaza'ir

Data code: AG

Government type: republic

Capital: Algiers

Administrative divisions: 48 provinces (wilayas, singular - wilaya);
Adrar, Ain Defla, Ain Temouchent, Alger, Annaba, Batna, Bechar,
Bejaia, Biskra, Blida, Bordj Bou Arreridj, Bouira, Boumerdes, Chlef,
Constantine, Djelfa, El Bayadh, El Oued, El Tarf, Ghardaia, Guelma,
Illizi, Jijel, Khenchela, Laghouat, Mascara, Medea, Mila, Mostaganem,
M'Sila, Naama, Oran, Ouargla, Oum el Bouaghi, Relizane, Saida, Setif,
Sidi Bel Abbes, Skikda, Souk Ahras, Tamanghasset, Tebessa, Tiaret,
Tindouf, Tipaza, Tissemsilt, Tizi Ouzou, Tlemcen

Independence: 5 July 1962 (from France)

National holiday: Anniversary of the Revolution, 1 November (1954)

Constitution: 19 November 1976, effective 22 November 1976; revised 3
November 1988, 23 February 1989, and 28 November 1996; note -
referendum approving the revisions of 28 November 1996 was signed into
law 7 December 1996

Legal system: socialist, based on French and Islamic law; judicial
review of legislative acts in ad hoc Constitutional Council composed
of various public officials, including several Supreme Court justices;
has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Abdelaziz BOUTEFLIKA (since 28 April 1999)
head of government: Prime Minister Ahmed BENBITOUR (since 2 December
1999)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term;
election last held 15 April 1999 (next to be held NA April 2004);
prime minister appointed by the president
election results: Abdelaziz BOUTEFLIKA elected president; percent of
vote - Abdelaziz BOUTEFLIKA 70%; note - six of the seven candidates
withdrew sighting persistent electoral fraud

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament consists of the National
People's Assembly or Al-Majlis Ech-Chaabi Al-Watani (380 seats;
members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms) and the
Council of Nations (144 seats; one-third of the members appointed by
the president, two-thirds elected by indirect vote; members serve
six-year terms; created as a result of the constitutional revision of
November 1996)
elections: National People's Assembly - last held 5 June 1997 (next to
be held NA 2001); elections for two-thirds of the Council of Nations -
last held 25 December 1997 (next to be held NA 2003)
election results: National People's Assembly - percent of vote by
party - RND 40.8%, MSP 18.2%, FLN 16.8%, Nahda Movement 8.9%, FFS 5%,
RCD 5%, PT 1.1%, Republican Progressive Party 0.8%, Union for
Democracy and Freedoms 0.3%, Liberal Social Party 0.3%, independents
2.8%; seats by party - RND 156, MSP 69, FLN 62, Nahda Movement 34, FFS
20, RCD 19, PT 4, Republican Progressive Party 3, Union for Democracy
and Freedoms 1, Liberal Social Party 1, independents 11; Council of
Nations - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - RND 80, FLN
10, FFS 4, MSP 2 (remaining 48 seats appointed by the president, party
breakdown NA)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Cour Supreme)

Political parties and leaders: Algerian Democratic Front or FAD
; Algerian National Front or ANF ;
Algerian Renewal Party or PRA ;
Democratic National Rally or RND ; Islamic
Salvation Front or FIS (outlawed April 1992) [Ali BELHADJ, Dr. Abassi
MADANI, Rabeh KEBIR (self-exile in Germany)]; Liberal Social Party
; Movement for Democracy in Algeria or MDA [Ahmed Ben
BELLA]; Movement for Loyalty and Justice [Ahmed Taleb IBRAHIMI,
president; Movement of a Peaceful Society or MSP [Mahfoud NAHNAH,
chairman]; Nahda Movement or Al Nahda ;
National Liberation Front or FLN [Boualem BENHAMOUDA, secretary
general]; National Party for Solidarity and Development or PNSD [Rabah
BENCHERIF]; National Republican Alliance or ANR ; Rally
for Culture and Democracy or RCD ;
Republican Progressive Party ; Social Democratic
Movement or MDS ; Socialist Forces Front or FFS
;
Union for Democracy and Freedoms ; Workers Party or
PT 
note: the government established a multiparty system in September 1989
and, as of 31 December 1990, over 50 legal parties existed; a new
party law was enacted in March 1997

International organization participation: ABEDA, AfDB, AFESD, AL, AMF,
AMU, CCC, ECA, FAO, G-15, G-19, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU,
ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat,
Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, MONUC, NAM, OAPEC,
OAS (observer), OAU, OIC, OPCW, OPEC, OSCE (partner), UN, UNCTAD,
UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO (applicant)

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Idriss JAZAIRY
chancery: 2118 Kalorama Road NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone:  (202) 265-2800
FAX:  (202) 667-2174

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Cameron R. HUME
embassy: 4 Chemin Cheikh Bachir El-Ibrahimi, Algiers
mailing address: B. P. Box 549, Alger-Gare, 16000 Algiers
telephone:  (2) 69-11-86, 69-12-55, 69-18-54, 69-38-75
FAX:  (2) 69-39-79

Flag description: two equal vertical bands of green (hoist side) and
white with a red, five-pointed star within a red crescent; the
crescent, star, and color green are traditional symbols of Islam (the
state religion)

@Algeria:Economy

Economy - overview: The hydrocarbons sector is the backbone of the
economy, accounting for roughly 52% of budget revenues, 25% of GDP,
and over 95% of export earnings. Algeria has the fifth-largest
reserves of natural gas in the world and is the second largest gas
exporter; it ranks fourteenth for oil reserves. Algiers' efforts to
reform one of the most centrally planned economies in the Arab world
stalled in 1992 as the country became embroiled in political turmoil.
Burdened with a heavy foreign debt, Algiers concluded a one-year
standby arrangement with the IMF in April 1994 and the following year
signed onto a three-year extended fund facility which ended 30 April
1998. Some progress on economic reform, Paris Club debt reschedulings
in 1995 and 1996, and oil and gas sector expansion contributed to a
recovery in growth since 1995. Still, the economy remains heavily
dependent on volatile oil and gas revenues. The government has
continued efforts to diversify the economy by attracting foreign and
domestic investment outside the energy sector, but has had little
success in reducing high unemployment and improving living standards.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $147.6 billion (1999 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 3.9% (1999 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $4,700 (1999 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 12%
industry: 51%
services: 37% (1997 est.)

Population below poverty line: 23% (1999 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 2.8%
highest 10%: 26.8% (1995)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 4.2% (1999 est.)

Labor force: 9.1 million (2000 est.)

Labor force - by occupation: government 29.5%, agriculture 22%,
construction and public works 16.2%, industry 13.6%, commerce and
services 13.5%, transportation and communication 5.2% (1989)

Unemployment rate: 30% (1999 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $15.5 billion
expenditures: $15.1 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1999 est.)

Industries: petroleum, natural gas, light industries, mining,
electrical, petrochemical, food processing

Industrial production growth rate: 7% (1999 est.)

Electricity - production: 21.38 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 99.77%
hydro: 0.23%
nuclear: 0%
other: 0% (1998)

Electricity - consumption: 19.882 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - exports: 313 million kWh (1998)

Electricity - imports: 312 million kWh (1998)

Agriculture - products: wheat, barley, oats, grapes, olives, citrus,
fruits; sheep, cattle

Exports: $13.7 billion (f.o.b., 1999 est.)

Exports - commodities: petroleum, natural gas, and petroleum products
97%

Exports - partners: Italy 21.2%, US 15.0%, France 12.9%, Spain 10.3%,
Brazil 5.9%, Netherlands 5.5% (1998)

Imports: $9.3 billion (f.o.b., 1999 est.)

Imports - commodities: capital goods, food and beverages, consumer
goods

Imports - partners: France 29.5%, Italy 9.8%, US 7.2%, Spain 6.8%,
Germany 6.2%, Canada 4.1% (1998)

Debt - external: $30 billion (1999 est.)

Economic aid - recipient: $897.5 million (1994)

Currency: 1 Algerian dinar (DA) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: Algerian dinars (DA) per US$1 - 69.046 (January 2000),
66.574 (1999), 58.739 (1998), 57.707 (1997), 54.749 (1996), 47.663
(1995)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Algeria:Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 1.176 million (1995)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 33,500 (1999)

Telephone system:
domestic: good service in north but sparse in south; domestic
satellite system with 12 earth stations (20 additional domestic earth
stations are planned)
international: 5 submarine cables; microwave radio relay to Italy,
France, Spain, Morocco, and Tunisia; coaxial cable to Morocco and
Tunisia; participant in Medarabtel; satellite earth stations - 2
Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean), 1 Intersputnik, and 1
Arabsat

Radio broadcast stations: AM 25, FM 1, shortwave 8 (1999)

Radios: 7.1 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 18 (not including low-power stations)
(1999)

Televisions: 3.1 million (1997)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 1 (1999)

@Algeria:Transportation

Railways:
total: 4,820 km (301 km electrified; 215 km double track)
standard gauge: 3,664 km 1.435-m gauge (301 km electrified; 215 km
double track)
narrow gauge: 1,156 km 1.055-m gauge (1996)

Highways:
total: 104,000 km
paved: 71,656 km (including 640 km of expressways)
unpaved: 32,344 km (1996 est.)

Pipelines: crude oil 6,612 km; petroleum products 298 km; natural gas
2,948 km

Ports and harbors: Algiers, Annaba, Arzew, Bejaia, Beni Saf, Dellys,
Djendjene, Ghazaouet, Jijel, Mostaganem, Oran, Skikda, Tenes

Merchant marine:
total: 78 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 940,196 GRT/1,094,104 DWT
ships by type: bulk 9, cargo 27, chemical tanker 7, liquified gas 11,
petroleum tanker 5, roll-on/roll-off 13, short-sea passenger 5,
specialized tanker 1 (1999 est.)

Airports: 137 (1999 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 51
over 3,047 m: 8
2,438 to 3,047 m: 25
1,524 to 2,437 m: 12
914 to 1,523 m: 5
under 914 m: 1 (1999 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 86
2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
1,524 to 2,437 m: 23
914 to 1,523 m: 41
under 914 m: 19 (1999 est.)

Heliports: 1 (1999 est.)

@Algeria:Military

Military branches: National Popular Army, Navy, Air Force, Territorial
Air Defense, National Gendarmerie

Military manpower - military age: 19 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 8,523,257 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males age 15-49: 5,220,318 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 373,547 (2000 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $1.3 billion (FY94)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 2.7% (FY94)

@Algeria:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: part of southeastern region claimed by Libya

______________________________________________________________________



AMERICAN SAMOA

@American Samoa:Introduction

Background: Settled as early as 1000 B. C., Samoa was "discovered" by
European explorers in the 18th century. International rivalries in the
latter half of the 19th century were settled by an 1899 treaty in
which Germany and the US divided the Samoan archipelago. The US
formally occupied its portion - a smaller group of eastern islands
with the excellent harbor of Pago Pago - the following year.

@American Samoa:Geography

Location: Oceania, group of islands in the South Pacific Ocean, about
one-half of the way from Hawaii to New Zealand

Geographic coordinates: 14 20 S, 170 00 W

Map references: Oceania

Area:
total: 199 sq km
land: 199 sq km
water: 0 sq km
note: includes Rose Island and Swains Island

Area - comparative: slightly larger than Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 116 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical marine, moderated by southeast trade winds; annual
rainfall averages about 3 m; rainy season from November to April, dry
season from May to October; little seasonal temperature variation

Terrain: five volcanic islands with rugged peaks and limited coastal
plains, two coral atolls (Rose Island, Swains Island)

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
highest point: Lata 966 m

Natural resources: pumice, pumicite

Land use:
arable land: 5%
permanent crops: 10%
permanent pastures: 0%
forests and woodland: 70%
other: 15% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: typhoons common from December to March

Environment - current issues: limited natural fresh water resources;
the water division of the government has spent substantial funds in
the past few years to improve water catchments and pipelines

Geography - note: Pago Pago has one of the best natural deepwater
harbors in the South Pacific Ocean, sheltered by shape from rough seas
and protected by peripheral mountains from high winds; strategic
location in the South Pacific Ocean

@American Samoa:People

Population: 65,446 (July 2000 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 39% (male 13,071; female 12,304)
15-64 years: 56% (male 18,358; female 18,597)
65 years and over: 5% (male 1,631; female 1,485) (2000 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.53% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 25.81 births/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 4.26 deaths/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: 3.74 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 1.1 male(s)/female
total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (2000 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 10.63 deaths/1,000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 75.12 years
male: 70.66 years
female: 79.84 years (2000 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.6 children born/woman (2000 est.)

Nationality:
noun: American Samoan(s)
adjective: American Samoan

Ethnic groups: Samoan (Polynesian) 89%, Caucasian 2%, Tongan 4%, other
5%

Religions: Christian Congregationalist 50%, Roman Catholic 20%,
Protestant and other 30%

Languages: Samoan (closely related to Hawaiian and other Polynesian
languages), English
note: most people are bilingual

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 97%
male: 98%
female: 97% (1980 est.)

@American Samoa:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Territory of American Samoa
conventional short form: American Samoa
abbreviation: AS

Data code: AQ

Dependency status: unincorporated and unorganized territory of the US;
administered by the Office of Insular Affairs, US Department of the
Interior

Government type: NA

Capital: Pago Pago

Administrative divisions: none (territory of the US); there are no
first-order administrative divisions as defined by the US Government,
but there are three districts and two islands* at the second order;
Eastern, Manu'a, Rose Island*, Swains Island*, Western

Independence: none (territory of the US)

National holiday: Territorial Flag Day, 17 April (1900)

Constitution: ratified 1966, in effect 1967

Legal system: NA

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President William Jefferson CLINTON of the US (since
20 January 1993) and Vice President Albert GORE, Jr. (since 20 January
1993)
head of government: Governor Tauese P. SUNIA (since 3 January 1997)
and Lieutenant Governor Togiola TULAFONO (since 3 January 1997)
cabinet: NA
elections: US president and vice president elected on the same ticket
for four-year terms; governor and lieutenant governor elected on the
same ticket by popular vote for four-year terms; election last held 3
November 1996 (next to be held 7 November 2000)
election results: Tauese P. SUNIA elected governor; percent of vote -
Tauese P. SUNIA (Democrat) 51%, Peter REID (independent) 49%

Legislative branch: bicameral Fono or Legislative Assembly consists of
the House of Representatives (21 seats - 20 of which are elected by
popular vote and 1 is an appointed, nonvoting delegate from Swains
Island; members serve two-year terms) and the Senate (18 seats;
members are elected from local chiefs and serve four-year terms)
elections: House of Representatives - last held NA November 1998 (next
to be held NA November 2000); Senate - last held 3 November 1996 (next
to be held 7 November 2000)
election results: House of Representatives - percent of vote by party
- NA; seats by party - NA; Senate - percent of vote by party - NA;
seats by party - NA
note: American Samoa elects one delegate to the US House of
Representatives; election last held 3 November 1998 (next to be held 7
November 2000); results - Eni R. F. H. FALEOMAVAEGA (Democrat)
reelected as delegate for a sixth term

Judicial branch: High Court (chief justice and associate justices are
appointed by the US Secretary of the Interior)

Political parties and leaders: Democratic Party ;
Republican Party 

International organization participation: ESCAP (associate), Interpol
(subbureau), IOC, SPC

Diplomatic representation in the US: none (territory of the US)

Diplomatic representation from the US: none (territory of the US)

Flag description: blue, with a white triangle edged in red that is
based on the outer side and extends to the hoist side; a brown and
white American bald eagle flying toward the hoist side is carrying two
traditional Samoan symbols of authority, a staff and a war club

@American Samoa:Economy

Economy - overview: This is a traditional Polynesian economy in which
more than 90% of the land is communally owned. Economic activity is
strongly linked to the US, with which American Samoa conducts the
great bulk of its foreign trade. Tuna fishing and tuna processing
plants are the backbone of the private sector, with canned tuna the
primary export. Transfers from the US Government add substantially to
American Samoa's economic well-being. Attempts by the government to
develop a larger and broader economy are restrained by Samoa's remote
location, its limited transportation, and its devastating hurricanes.
Tourism, a developing sector, may be held back by the current
financial difficulties in East Asia.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $150 million (1995 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: NA%

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $2,600 (1995 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: NA%
industry: NA%
services: NA%

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA%

Labor force: 13,949 (1996)

Labor force - by occupation: government 33%, tuna canneries 34%, other
33% (1990)

Unemployment rate: 12% (1991)

Budget:
revenues: $121 million (37% in local revenue and 63% in US grants)
expenditures: $127 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
(FY96/97)

Industries: tuna canneries (largely dependent on foreign fishing
vessels), handicrafts

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - production: 125 million kWh (1998)

Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 100%
hydro: 0%
nuclear: 0%
other: 0% (1998)

Electricity - consumption: 116 million kWh (1998)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1998)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1998)

Agriculture - products: bananas, coconuts, vegetables, taro,
breadfruit, yams, copra, pineapples, papayas; dairy products,
livestock

Exports: $313 million (1996)

Exports - commodities: canned tuna 93%

Exports - partners: US 99.6%

Imports: $471 million (1996)

Imports - commodities: materials for canneries 56%, food 8%, petroleum
products 7%, machinery and parts 6%

Imports - partners: US 62%, Japan 9%, NZ 7%, Australia 11%, Fiji 4%,
other 7%

Debt - external: $NA

Economic aid - recipient: $NA; note - important financial support from
the US

Currency: 1 US dollar (US$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: US currency is used

Fiscal year: 1 October - 30 September

@American Samoa:Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 10,000 (1994)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 1,200 (1994)

Telephone system:
domestic: good telex, telegraph, facsimile and cellular telephone
services; domestic satellite system with 1 Comsat earth station
international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 1, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios: 57,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 1 (1997)

Televisions: 14,000 (1997)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): NA

@American Samoa:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways:
total: 350 km
paved: 150 km
unpaved: 200 km

Ports and harbors: Aunu'u (new construction), Auasi, Faleosao, Ofu,
Pago Pago, Ta'u

Merchant marine: none (1999 est.)

Airports: 4 (1999 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
under 914 m: 1 (1999 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 2
under 914 m: 2 (1999 est.)

@American Samoa:Military

Military - note: defense is the responsibility of the US

@American Samoa:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

______________________________________________________________________



ANDORRA

@Andorra:Introduction

Background: Long isolated and impoverished, mountainous Andorra has
achieved considerable prosperity since World War II through its
tourist industry. Many immigrants (legal and illegal) are attracted to
the thriving economy with its lack of income taxes.

@Andorra:Geography

Location: Southwestern Europe, between France and Spain

Geographic coordinates: 42 30 N, 1 30 E

Map references: Europe

Area:
total: 468 sq km
land: 468 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: 2.5 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries:
total: 120.3 km
border countries: France 56.6 km, Spain 63.7 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: temperate; snowy, cold winters and warm, dry summers

Terrain: rugged mountains dissected by narrow valleys

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Riu Runer 840 m
highest point: Coma Pedrosa 2,946 m

Natural resources: hydropower, mineral water, timber, iron ore, lead

Land use:
arable land: 4%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 45%
forests and woodland: 35%
other: 16% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: snowslides, avalanches

Environment - current issues: deforestation; overgrazing of mountain
meadows contributes to soil erosion; air pollution; waste water
treatment and solid waste disposal

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Hazardous Wastes
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note: landlocked

@Andorra:People

Population: 66,824 (July 2000 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 15% (male 5,382; female 4,883)
15-64 years: 72% (male 25,463; female 22,837)
65 years and over: 13% (male 4,160; female 4,099) (2000 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.22% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 10.58 births/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 5.27 deaths/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: 6.9 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.1 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.11 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 1.01 male(s)/female
total population: 1.1 male(s)/female (2000 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 4.08 deaths/1,000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 83.46 years
male: 80.56 years
female: 86.56 years (2000 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.25 children born/woman (2000 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Andorran(s)
adjective: Andorran

Ethnic groups: Spanish 43%, Andorran 33%, Portuguese 11%, French 7%,
other 6% (1998)

Religions: Roman Catholic (predominant)

Languages: Catalan (official), French, Castilian

Literacy:
definition: NA
total population: 100%
male: NA%
female: NA%

@Andorra:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Principality of Andorra
conventional short form: Andorra
local long form: Principat d'Andorra
local short form: Andorra

Data code: AN

Government type: parliamentary democracy (since March 1993) that
retains as its heads of state a coprincipality; the two princes are
the president of France and bishop of Seo de Urgel, Spain, who are
represented locally by coprinces' representatives

Capital: Andorra la Vella

Administrative divisions: 7 parishes (parroquies, singular -
parroquia); Andorra la Vella, Canillo, Encamp, La Massana,
Escaldes-Engordany, Ordino, Sant Julia de Loria

Independence: 1278 (was formed under the joint suzerainty of France
and Spain)

National holiday: Mare de Deu de Meritxell, 8 September (1278)

Constitution: Andorra's first written constitution was drafted in
1991; approved by referendum 14 March 1993; came into force 4 May 1993

Legal system: based on French and Spanish civil codes; no judicial
review of legislative acts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: French Coprince Jacques CHIRAC (since 17 May 1995),
represented by Mr. Frederic de SAINT-SERNIN (since NA); Spanish
Coprince Episcopal Monseigneur Joan MARTI Alanis (since 31 January
1971), represented by Mr. Nemesi MARQUES OSTE (since NA)
head of government: Executive Council President Marc FORNE Molne
(since 21 December 1994)
cabinet: Executive Council or Govern designated by the Executive
Council president
elections: Executive Council president elected by the General Council
and formally appointed by the coprinces for a four-year term; election
last held 16 February 1997 (next to be held NA 2001)
election results: Marc FORNE Molne elected executive council
president; percent of General Council vote - 64%

Legislative branch: unicameral General Council of the Valleys or
Consell General de las Valls (28 seats; members are elected by direct
popular vote, 14 from a single national constituency and 14 to
represent each of the 7 parishes; members serve four-year terms)
elections: last held 16 February 1997 (next to be held NA February
2001)
election results: percent of vote by party - UL 57%, AND 21%, IDN 7%,
ND 7%, other 8%; seats by party - UL 16, AND 6, ND 2, IDN 2, UPO 2

Judicial branch: Tribunal of Judges or Tribunal de Batlles; Tribunal
of the Courts or Tribunal de Corts; Supreme Court of Justice of
Andorra or Tribunal Superior de Justicia d'Andorra; Supreme Council of
Justice or Consell Superior de la Justicia; Fiscal Ministry or
Ministeri Fiscal; Constitutional Tribunal or Tribunal Constitucional

Political parties and leaders: Liberal Party of Andorra (Partit
Liberal d'Andorra) or PLA ; Liberal Union or UL [Francesc
CERQUEDA]; National Democratic Group or AND ;
National Democratic Initiative or IDN ; New
Democracy or ND ; Unio Parroquial d'Ordino or
UPO 
note: there are two other small parties

International organization participation: CCC, CE, ECE, ICRM, IFRCS,
Interpol, IOC, ITU, OSCE, UN, UNESCO, WHO, WIPO, WToO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Juli MINOVES-TRIQUELL (also Permanent
Representative to the UN)
chancery: 2 United Nations Plaza, 25th Floor, New York, NY 10017
telephone:  (212) 750-8064
FAX:  (212) 750-6630

Diplomatic representation from the US: the US does not have an embassy
in Andorra; the US Ambassador to Spain is accredited to Andorra; US
interests in Andorra are represented by the Consulate General's office
in Barcelona (Spain); mailing address: Paseo Reina Elisenda, 23, 08034
Barcelona, Spain; telephone: (3493) 280-2227; FAX: (3493) 205-7705

Flag description: three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side),
yellow, and red with the national coat of arms centered in the yellow
band; the coat of arms features a quartered shield; similar to the
flags of Chad and Romania, which do not have a national coat of arms
in the center, and the flag of Moldova, which does bear a national
emblem

@Andorra:Economy

Economy - overview: Tourism, the mainstay of Andorra's tiny,
well-to-do economy, accounts for roughly 80% of GDP. An estimated 9
million tourists visit annually, attracted by Andorra's duty-free
status and by its summer and winter resorts. Andorra's comparative
advantage has recently eroded as the economies of neighboring France
and Spain have been opened up, providing broader availability of goods
and lower tariffs. The banking sector, with its "tax haven" status,
also contributes substantially to the economy. Agricultural production
is limited by a scarcity of arable land, and most food has to be
imported. The principal livestock activity is sheep raising.
Manufacturing consists mainly of cigarettes, cigars, and furniture.
Andorra is a member of the EU Customs Union and is treated as an EU
member for trade in manufactured goods (no tariffs) and as a non-EU
member for agricultural products.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $1.2 billion (1996 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: NA%

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $18,000 (1996 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: NA%
industry: NA%
services: NA%

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1.62% (1998)

Labor force: 30,787 salaried employees (1998)

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 1%, industry 21%, services
72%, other 6% (1998)

Unemployment rate: 0%

Budget:
revenues: $385 million
expenditures: $342 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1997)

Industries: tourism (particularly skiing), cattle raising, timber,
tobacco, banking

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - production: 116 million kWh (1998)

Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: NA%
hydro: NA%
nuclear: NA%
other: NA%

Electricity - consumption: NA kWh (1998 est.)

Electricity - exports: NA kWh

Electricity - imports: NA kWh; note - imports electricity from Spain
and France

Agriculture - products: small quantities of tobacco, rye, wheat,
barley, oats, vegetables; sheep

Exports: $58 million (f.o.b., 1998)

Exports - commodities: tobacco products, furniture

Exports - partners: France 34%, Spain 58% (1998)

Imports: $1.077 billion (c.i.f., 1998)

Imports - commodities: consumer goods, food, electricity

Imports - partners: Spain 48%, France 35%, US 2.3% (1998)

Debt - external: $NA

Economic aid - recipient: none

Currency: 1 French franc (F) = 100 centimes; 1 peseta (Pta) = 100
centimos; the French and Spanish currencies are used

Exchange rates: euros per US$1 - 0.9867 (January 2000), 0.9386 (1999);
French francs (F) per US$1 - 5.65 (January 1999), 5.8995 (1998),
5.8367 (1997), 5.1155 (1996), 4.9915 (1995); Spanish pesetas (Ptas)
per US$1 - 143.39 (January 1999), 149.40 (1998), 146.41 (1997), 126.66
(1996), 124.69 (1995)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Andorra:Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 31,980 (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 8,618 (1997)

Telephone system:
domestic: modern system with microwave radio relay connections between
exchanges
international: landline circuits to France and Spain

Radio broadcast stations: AM 0, FM 15, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios: 16,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 0 (1997)

Televisions: 27,000 (1997)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): NA

@Andorra:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways:
total: 269 km
paved: 198 km
unpaved: 71 km (1994 est.)

Ports and harbors: none

Airports: none

@Andorra:Military

Military - note: defense is the responsibility of France and Spain

@Andorra:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

______________________________________________________________________



ANGOLA

@Angola:Introduction

Background: Civil war has been the norm in Angola since independence
from Portugal in 1975. A 1994 peace accord between the government and
the National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA)
provided for the integration of former UNITA insurgents into the
government and armed forces. A national unity government was installed
in April of 1997, but serious fighting resumed in late 1998, rendering
hundreds of thousands of people homeless. Up to 1.5 million lives may
have been lost in fighting over the past quarter century.

@Angola:Geography

Location: Southern Africa, bordering the South Atlantic Ocean, between
Namibia and Democratic Republic of the Congo

Geographic coordinates: 12 30 S, 18 30 E

Map references: Africa

Area:
total: 1,246,700 sq km
land: 1,246,700 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly less than twice the size of Texas

Land boundaries:
total: 5,198 km
border countries: Democratic Republic of the Congo 2,511 km (of which
220 km is the boundary of discontiguous Cabinda Province), Republic of
the Congo 201 km, Namibia 1,376 km, Zambia 1,110 km

Coastline: 1,600 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: semiarid in south and along coast to Luanda; north has cool,
dry season (May to October) and hot, rainy season (November to April)

Terrain: narrow coastal plain rises abruptly to vast interior plateau

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Morro de Moco 2,620 m

Natural resources: petroleum, diamonds, iron ore, phosphates, copper,
feldspar, gold, bauxite, uranium

Land use:
arable land: 2%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 23%
forests and woodland: 43%
other: 32% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 750 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: locally heavy rainfall causes periodic flooding on
the plateau

Environment - current issues: overuse of pastures and subsequent soil
erosion attributable to population pressures; desertification;
deforestation of tropical rain forest, in response to both
international demand for tropical timber and to domestic use as fuel,
resulting in loss of biodiversity; soil erosion contributing to water
pollution and siltation of rivers and dams; inadequate supplies of
potable water

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Desertification, Law of the Sea
signed, but not ratified: Climate Change

Geography - note: Cabinda is separated from rest of country by the
Democratic Republic of the Congo

@Angola:People

Population: 10,145,267 (July 2000 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 43% (male 2,215,706; female 2,172,106)
15-64 years: 54% (male 2,792,313; female 2,692,790)
65 years and over: 3% (male 124,404; female 147,948) (2000 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.15% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 46.89 births/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 25.01 deaths/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.34 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.84 male(s)/female
total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (2000 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 195.78 deaths/1,000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 38.31 years
male: 37.11 years
female: 39.56 years (2000 est.)

Total fertility rate: 6.52 children born/woman (2000 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Angolan(s)
adjective: Angolan

Ethnic groups: Ovimbundu 37%, Kimbundu 25%, Bakongo 13%, mestico
(mixed European and Native African) 2%, European 1%, other 22%

Religions: indigenous beliefs 47%, Roman Catholic 38%, Protestant 15%
(1998 est.)

Languages: Portuguese (official), Bantu and other African languages

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 42%
male: 56%
female: 28% (1998 est.)

@Angola:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Angola
conventional short form: Angola
local long form: Republica de Angola
local short form: Angola
former: People's Republic of Angola

Data code: AO

Government type: transitional government, nominally a multiparty
democracy with a strong presidential system

Capital: Luanda

Administrative divisions: 18 provinces (provincias, singular -
provincia); Bengo, Benguela, Bie, Cabinda, Cuando Cubango, Cuanza
Norte, Cuanza Sul, Cunene, Huambo, Huila, Luanda, Lunda Norte, Lunda
Sul, Malanje, Moxico, Namibe, Uige, Zaire

Independence: 11 November 1975 (from Portugal)

National holiday: Independence Day, 11 November (1975)

Constitution: 11 November 1975; revised 7 January 1978, 11 August
1980, 6 March 1991, and 26 August 1992

Legal system: based on Portuguese civil law system and customary law;
recently modified to accommodate political pluralism and increased use
of free markets

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Jose Eduardo DOS SANTOS (since 21 September
1979); note - the president is both chief of state and head of
government
head of government: President Jose Eduardo DOS SANTOS (since January
1999); note - the president is both chief of state and head of
government
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
elections: President DOS SANTOS originally elected (in 1979) without
opposition under a one-party system and stood for reelection in
Angola's first multiparty elections 28-29 September 1992, the last
elections to be held (next to be held NA)
election results: DOS SANTOS received 49.6% of the total vote, making
a run-off election necessary between him and second-place finisher
Jonas SAVIMBI (40.1% of the vote); the run-off was not held and
SAVIMBI's National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA)
repudiated the results of the first election; the civil war resumed

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly or Assembleia
Nacional (220 seats; members elected by proportional vote to serve
four-year terms)
elections: last held 29-30 September 1992 (next to be held NA)
election results: percent of vote by party - MPLA 54%, UNITA 34%,
others 12%; seats by party - MPLA 129, UNITA 70, PRS 6, FNLA 5, PLD 3,
others 7

Judicial branch: Supreme Court or Tribunal da Relacao, judges of the
Supreme Court are appointed by the president

Political parties and leaders: Liberal Democratic Party or PLD [Analia
de Victoria PEREIRA]; National Front for the Liberation of Angola or
FNLA ; National
Union for the Total Independence of Angola or UNITA ,
largest opposition party engaged in years of armed resistance before
joining the current unity government in April 1997; Popular Movement
for the Liberation of Angola or MPLA  ruling
party in power since 1975; Social Renewal Party or PRS [disputed
leadership: Eduardo KUANGANA, Antonio MUACHICUNGO]
note: about a dozen minor parties participated in the 1992 elections
but won few seats and have little influence in the National Assembly

Political pressure groups and leaders: Front for the Liberation of the
Enclave of Cabinda or FLEC [N'zita Henriques TIAGO; Antonio Bento
BEMBE]
note: FLEC is waging a small-scale, highly factionalized, armed
struggle for the independence of Cabinda Province

International organization participation: ACP, AfDB, CCC, CEEAC, ECA,
FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO,
Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ITU, NAM, OAS (observer), OAU, SADC, UN,
UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Antonio dos Santos FRANCA "N'dalu"
chancery: 1615 M Street, NW, Suite 900, Washington, DC 20036
telephone:  (202) 785-1156
FAX:  (202) 785-1258
consulate(s) general: New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Joseph G. SULLIVAN
embassy: number 32 Rua Houari Boumedienne, Miramar, Luanda
mailing address: international mail: Caixa Postal 6484, Luanda; pouch:
American Embassy Luanda, Department of State, Washington, DC
20521-2550
telephone:  (2) 345-481, 346-418
FAX:  (2) 346-924

Flag description: two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and black
with a centered yellow emblem consisting of a five-pointed star within
half a cogwheel crossed by a machete (in the style of a hammer and
sickle)

@Angola:Economy

Economy - overview: Angola is an economy in disarray because of a
quarter century of nearly continuous warfare. Despite its abundant
natural resources, output per capita is among the world's lowest.
Subsistence agriculture provides the main livelihood for 85% of the
population. Oil production and the supporting activities are vital to
the economy, contributing about 45% to GDP and 90% of exports.
Notwithstanding the signing of a peace accord in November 1994,
violence continues, millions of land mines remain, and many farmers
are reluctant to return to their fields. As a result, much of the
country's food must still be imported. To take advantage of its rich
resources - gold, diamonds, extensive forests, Atlantic fisheries, and
large oil deposits - Angola will need to implement the peace agreement
and reform government policies. Despite the increase in the pace of
civil warfare in late 1998, the economy grew by an estimated 4% in
1999. The government introduced new currency denominations in 1999,
including a 1 and 5 kwanza note. Expanded oil production brightens
prospects for 2000, but internal strife discourages investment outside
of the petroleum sector.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $11.6 billion (1999 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 4% (1999 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $1,030 (1999 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 13%
industry: 53%
services: 34% (1998 est.)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 270% (1999 est.)

Labor force: 5 million (1997 est.)

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 85%, industry and services
15% (1997 est.)

Unemployment rate: extensive unemployment and underemployment
affecting more than half the population (1999 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $928 million
expenditures: $2.5 billion, including capital expenditures of $963
million (1992 est.)

Industries: petroleum; diamonds, iron ore, phosphates, feldspar,
bauxite, uranium, and gold; cement; basic metal products; fish
processing; food processing; brewing; tobacco products; sugar;
textiles

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - production: 1.886 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 24.97%
hydro: 75.03%
nuclear: 0%
other: 0% (1998)

Electricity - consumption: 1.754 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1998)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1998)

Agriculture - products: bananas, sugarcane, coffee, sisal, corn,
cotton, manioc (tapioca), tobacco, vegetables, plantains; livestock;
forest products; fish

Exports: $5 billion (f.o.b., 1999 est.)

Exports - commodities: crude oil 90%, diamonds, refined petroleum
products, gas, coffee, sisal, fish and fish products, timber, cotton

Exports - partners: US 63%, Benelux 9%, China, Chile, France (1998)

Imports: $3 billion (f.o.b., 1999 est.)

Imports - commodities: machinery and electrical equipment, vehicles
and spare parts; medicines, food, textiles, military goods

Imports - partners: Portugal 20%, US 17%, South Africa 10%, Spain,
Brazil, France (1998)

Debt - external: $10.5 billion (1999 est.)

Economic aid - recipient: $493.1 million (1995)

Currency: 1 kwanza (NKz) = 100 lwei

Exchange rates: kwanza (NKz) per US$1 - 577,304 (January 2000),
2,790,706 (1999), 392,824 (1998), 229,040 (1997), 128,029 (1996),
2,750 (1995); note - beginning in June 1998, the official rate is
determined weekly in accordance with a crawling peg scheme

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Angola:Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 60,000 (1995)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 1,994 (1995)

Telephone system: telephone service limited mostly to government and
business use; HF radiotelephone used extensively for military links
domestic: limited system of wire, microwave radio relay, and
tropospheric scatter
international: satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 34, FM 7, shortwave 9 (1999)

Radios: 630,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 7 (1999)

Televisions: 150,000 (1997)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 2 (1999)

@Angola:Transportation

Railways:
total: 2,952 km (inland, much of the track is unusable because of land
mines still in place from the civil war)
narrow gauge: 2,798 km 1.067-m gauge; 154 km 0.600-m gauge (1997)

Highways:
total: 76,626 km
paved: 19,156 km
unpaved: 57,470 km (1997 est.)

Waterways: 1,295 km navigable

Pipelines: crude oil 179 km

Ports and harbors: Ambriz, Cabinda, Lobito, Luanda, Malongo, Namibe,
Porto Amboim, Soyo

Merchant marine:
total: 9 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 39,305 GRT/63,067 DWT
ships by type: cargo 8, petroleum tanker 1 (1999 est.)

Airports: 249 (1999 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 32
over 3,047 m: 4
2,438 to 3,047 m: 8
1,524 to 2,437 m: 12
914 to 1,523 m: 7
under 914 m: 1 (1999 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 217
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 5
1,524 to 2,437 m: 31
914 to 1,523 m: 96
under 914 m: 83 (1999 est.)

@Angola:Military

Military branches: Army, Navy, Air and Air Defense Forces, National
Police Force

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 2,429,842 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males age 15-49: 1,221,277 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 101,434 (2000 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $1.2 billion (FY97/98)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 25% (FY97/98)

@Angola:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

Illicit drugs: increasingly used as a transshipment point for cocaine
and heroin destined for Western Europe and other African states

______________________________________________________________________



ANGUILLA

@Anguilla:Introduction

Background: Colonized by English settlers from Saint Kitts in 1650,
Anguilla was administered by Great Britain until the early 19th
century, when the island - against the wishes of the inhabitants - was
incorporated into a single British dependency along with Saint Kitts
and Nevis. Several attempts at separation failed. In 1971, two years
after a revolt, Anguilla was finally allowed to secede; this
arrangement was formally recognized in 1980 with Anguilla becoming a
separate British dependency.

@Anguilla:Geography

Location: Caribbean, island in the Caribbean Sea, east of Puerto Rico

Geographic coordinates: 18 15 N, 63 10 W

Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

Area:
total: 91 sq km
land: 91 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: about half the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 61 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 3 nm

Climate: tropical; moderated by northeast trade winds

Terrain: flat and low-lying island of coral and limestone

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m
highest point: Crocus Hill 65 m

Natural resources: salt, fish, lobster

Land use:
arable land: 0%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 0%
forests and woodland: 0%
other: 100% (mostly rock with sparse scrub oak, few trees, some
commercial salt ponds)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: frequent hurricanes and other tropical storms (July
to October)

Environment - current issues: supplies of potable water sometimes
cannot meet increasing demand largely because of poor distribution
system

@Anguilla:People

Population: 11,797 (July 2000 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 26% (male 1,565; female 1,519)
15-64 years: 67% (male 4,040; female 3,839)
65 years and over: 7% (male 369; female 465) (2000 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.93% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 15.34 births/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 5.76 deaths/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: 19.75 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.79 male(s)/female
total population: 1.03 male(s)/female (2000 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 25.44 deaths/1,000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 76.11 years
male: 73.22 years
female: 79.09 years (2000 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.8 children born/woman (2000 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Anguillan(s)
adjective: Anguillan

Ethnic groups: black

Religions: Anglican 40%, Methodist 33%, Seventh-Day Adventist 7%,
Baptist 5%, Roman Catholic 3%, other 12%

Languages: English (official)

Literacy:
definition: age 12 and over can read and write
total population: 95%
male: 95%
female: 95% (1984 est.)

@Anguilla:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Anguilla

Data code: AV

Dependency status: overseas territory of the UK

Government type: NA

Capital: The Valley

Administrative divisions: none (overseas territory of the UK)

Independence: none (overseas territory of the UK)

National holiday: Anguilla Day, 30 May

Constitution: Anguilla Constitutional Order 1 April 1982; amended 1990

Legal system: based on English common law

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952);
represented by Governor Alan HOOLE (since 1 November 1995)
head of government: Chief Minister Hubert HUGHES (since 16 March 1994)
cabinet: Executive Council appointed by the governor from among the
elected members of the House of Assembly
elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; governor appointed by the
monarch; chief minister appointed by the governor from among the
members of the House of Assembly

Legislative branch: unicameral House of Assembly (11 seats total, 7
elected by direct popular vote, 2 ex officio members and 2 appointed;
members serve five-year terms)
elections: last held 4 March 1999 (next to be held 10 March 2004)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - ANA
2, AUP 2, ADP 2, independent 1

Judicial branch: High Court (judge provided by Eastern Caribbean
Supreme Court)

Political parties and leaders: Anguilla Democratic Party or ADP
; Anguilla National Alliance or ANA ;
Anguilla United Party or AUP 

International organization participation: Caricom (associate), CDB,
Interpol (subbureau), OECS (associate), ECLAC (associate)

Diplomatic representation in the US: none (overseas territory of the
UK)

Diplomatic representation from the US: none (overseas territory of the
UK)

Flag description: blue, with the flag of the UK in the upper
hoist-side quadrant and the Anguillan coat of arms centered in the
outer half of the flag; the coat of arms depicts three orange dolphins
in an interlocking circular design on a white background with blue
wavy water below

@Anguilla:Economy

Economy - overview: Anguilla has few natural resources, and the
economy depends heavily on luxury tourism, offshore banking, lobster
fishing, and remittances from emigrants. The economy, and especially
the tourism sector, suffered a setback in late 1995 due to the effects
of Hurricane Luis in September but recovered in 1996. Increased
activity in the tourism industry, which has spurred the growth of the
construction sector, contributed to economic growth in 1997-98.
Anguillan officials have put substantial effort into developing the
offshore financing sector. A comprehensive package of financial
services legislation was enacted in late 1994. In the medium term,
prospects for the economy will depend on the tourism sector and,
therefore, on continuing income growth in the industrialized nations
as well as favorable weather conditions.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $88 million (1998 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 6.5% (1998 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $7,900 (1998 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 4%
industry: 18%
services: 78% (1997 est.)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.5% (1998 est.)

Labor force: 4,400 (1992)

Labor force - by occupation: commerce 36%, services 29%, construction
18%, transportation and utilities 10%, manufacturing 3%,
agriculture/fishing/forestry/mining 4%

Unemployment rate: 7% (1992 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $20.4 million
expenditures: $23.3 million, including capital expenditures of $3.8
million (1997 est.)

Industries: tourism, boat building, offshore financial services

Industrial production growth rate: 3.1% (1997 est.)

Electricity - production: NA kWh

Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: NA%
hydro: NA%
nuclear: NA%
other: NA%

Electricity - consumption: NA kWh

Electricity - exports: NA kWh

Electricity - imports: NA kWh

Agriculture - products: small quantities of tobacco, vegetables;
cattle raising

Exports: $4.5 million (1998)

Exports - commodities: lobster, fish, livestock, salt

Exports - partners: NA

Imports: $57.6 million (1998)

Imports - commodities: NA

Imports - partners: NA

Debt - external: $8.8 million (1998)

Economic aid - recipient: $3.5 million (1995)

Currency: 1 East Caribbean dollar (EC$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: East Caribbean dollars (EC$) per US$1 - 2.7000 (fixed
rate since 1976)

Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March

@Anguilla:Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 4,000 (1994)

Telephones - mobile cellular: NA

Telephone system:
domestic: modern internal telephone system
international: microwave radio relay to island of Saint Martin
(Guadeloupe and Netherlands Antilles)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 5, FM 6, shortwave 1 (1998)

Radios: 3,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 1 (1997)

Televisions: 1,000 (1997)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): NA

@Anguilla:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways:
total: 279 km
paved: 253 km
unpaved: 26 km (1998 est.)

Ports and harbors: Blowing Point, Road Bay

Merchant marine: none (1999 est.)

Airports: 3 (1999 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (1999 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 2
under 914 m: 2 (1999 est.)

@Anguilla:Military

Military - note: defense is the responsibility of the UK

@Anguilla:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

______________________________________________________________________



ANTARCTICA

@Antarctica:Geography

Location: continent mostly south of the Antarctic Circle

Geographic coordinates: 90 00 S, 0 00 E

Map references: Antarctic Region

Area:
total: 14 million sq km
land: 14 million sq km (280,000 sq km ice-free, 13.72 million sq km
ice-covered) (est.)
note: fifth-largest continent, following Asia, Africa, North America,
and South America, but larger than Australia and the subcontinent of
Europe

Area - comparative: slightly less than 1.5 times the size of the US

Land boundaries: 0 km
note: see entry on International disputes

Coastline: 17,968 km

Maritime claims: none, but see the Disputes - international entry

Climate: severe low temperatures vary with latitude, elevation, and
distance from the ocean; East Antarctica is colder than West
Antarctica because of its higher elevation; Antarctic Peninsula has
the most moderate climate; higher temperatures occur in January along
the coast and average slightly below freezing

Terrain: about 98% thick continental ice sheet and 2% barren rock,
with average elevations between 2,000 and 4,000 meters; mountain
ranges up to 5,140 meters; ice-free coastal areas include parts of
southern Victoria Land, Wilkes Land, the Antarctic Peninsula area, and
parts of Ross Island on McMurdo Sound; glaciers form ice shelves along
about half of the coastline, and floating ice shelves constitute 11%
of the area of the continent

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Southern Ocean 0 m
highest point: Vinson Massif 5,140 m

Natural resources: none presently exploited; iron ore, chromium,
copper, gold, nickel, platinum and other minerals, and coal and
hydrocarbons have been found in small, uncommercial quantities

Land use:
arable land: 0%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 0%
forests and woodland: 0%
other: 100% (ice 98%, barren rock 2%)

Irrigated land: 0 sq km (1993)

Natural hazards: katabatic (gravity-driven) winds blow coastward from
the high interior; frequent blizzards form near the foot of the
plateau; cyclonic storms form over the ocean and move clockwise along
the coast; volcanism on Deception Island and isolated areas of West
Antarctica; other seismic activity rare and weak

Environment - current issues: in 1998, NASA satellite data showed that
the antarctic ozone hole was the largest on record, covering 27
million square kilometers; researchers in 1997 found that increased
ultraviolet light coming through the hole damages the DNA of icefish,
an antarctic fish lacking hemoglobin; ozone depletion earlier was
shown to harm one-celled antarctic marine plants

Geography - note: the coldest, windiest, highest (on average), and
driest continent; during summer, more solar radiation reaches the
surface at the South Pole than is received at the Equator in an
equivalent period; mostly uninhabitable

@Antarctica:People

Population: no indigenous inhabitants, but there are seasonally
staffed research stations
note: approximately 29 nations, all signatory to the Antarctic Treaty,
send personnel to perform seasonal (summer) and year-round research on
the continent and in its surrounding oceans; the population of persons
doing and supporting science on the continent and its nearby islands
south of 60 degrees south latitude (the region covered by the
Antarctic Treaty) varies from approximately 4,000 in summer to 1,000
in winter; in addition, approximately 1,000 personnel including ship's
crew and scientists doing onboard research are present in the waters
of the treaty region; Summer (January) population - 3,687 total;
Argentina 302, Australia 201, Belgium 13, Brazil 80, Bulgaria 16,
Chile 352, China 70, Finland 11, France 100, Germany 51, India 60,
Italy 106, Japan 136, South Korea 14, Netherlands 10, NZ 60, Norway
40, Peru 28, Poland 70, Russia 254, South Africa 80, Spain 43, Sweden
20, UK 192, US 1,378 (1998-99); Winter (July) population - 964 total;
Argentina 165, Australia 75, Brazil 12, Chile 129, China 33, France
33, Germany 9, India 25, Japan 40, South Korea 14, NZ 10, Poland 20,
Russia 102, South Africa 10, UK 39, US 248 (1998-99); year-round
stations - 42 total; Argentina 6, Australia 4, Brazil 1, Chile 4,
China 2, Finland 1, France 1, Germany 1, India 1, Italy 1, Japan 1,
South Korea 1, NZ 1, Norway 1, Poland 1, Russia 6, South Africa 1,
Spain 1, Ukraine 1, UK 2, US 3, Uruguay 1 (1998-99); Summer-only
stations - 32 total; Argentina 3, Australia 4, Bulgaria 1, Chile 7,
Germany 1, India 1, Japan 3, NZ 1, Peru 1, Russia 3, Sweden 2, UK 5
(1998-99); in addition, during the austral summer some nations have
numerous occupied locations such as tent camps, summer-long temporary
facilities, and mobile traverses in support of research (July 2000
est.)

@Antarctica:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Antarctica

Data code: AY

Government type: Antarctic Treaty Summary - the Antarctic Treaty,
signed on 1 December 1959 and entered into force on 23 June 1961,
establishes the legal framework for the management of Antarctica.
Administration is carried out through consultative member meetings -
the 23rd Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meeting was in Peru in May
1999. At the end of 1999, there were 44 treaty member nations: 27
consultative and 17 acceding. Consultative (voting) members include
the seven nations that claim portions of Antarctica as national
territory (some claims overlap) and 20 nonclaimant nations. The US and
some other nations that have made no claims have reserved the right to
do so. The US does not recognize the claims of others. The year in
parentheses indicates when an acceding nation was voted to full
consultative (voting) status, while no date indicates the country was
an original 1959 treaty signatory. Claimant nations are - Argentina,
Australia, Chile, France, New Zealand, Norway, and the UK. Nonclaimant
consultative nations are - Belgium, Brazil (1983), Bulgaria (1998)
China (1985), Ecuador (1990), Finland (1989), Germany (1981), India
(1983), Italy (1987), Japan, South Korea (1989), Netherlands (1990),
Peru (1989), Poland (1977), Russia, South Africa, Spain (1988), Sweden
(1988), Uruguay (1985), and the US. Acceding (nonvoting) members, with
year of accession in parentheses, are - Austria (1987), Canada (1988),
Colombia (1988), Cuba (1984), Czech Republic (1993), Denmark (1965),
Greece (1987), Guatemala (1991), Hungary (1984), North Korea (1987),
Papua New Guinea (1981), Romania (1971), Slovakia (1993), Switzerland
(1990), Turkey (1995), Ukraine (1992), and Venezuela (1999). Article 1
- area to be used for peaceful purposes only; military activity, such
as weapons testing, is prohibited, but military personnel and
equipment may be used for scientific research or any other peaceful
purpose; Article 2 - freedom of scientific investigation and
cooperation shall continue; Article 3 - free exchange of information
and personnel in cooperation with the UN and other international
agencies; Article 4 - does not recognize, dispute, or establish
territorial claims and no new claims shall be asserted while the
treaty is in force; Article 5 - prohibits nuclear explosions or
disposal of radioactive wastes; Article 6 - includes under the treaty
all land and ice shelves south of 60 degrees 00 minutes south; Article
7 - treaty-state observers have free access, including aerial
observation, to any area and may inspect all stations, installations,
and equipment; advance notice of all activities and of the
introduction of military personnel must be given; Article 8 - allows
for jurisdiction over observers and scientists by their own states;
Article 9 - frequent consultative meetings take place among member
nations; Article 10 - treaty states will discourage activities by any
country in Antarctica that are contrary to the treaty; Article 11 -
disputes to be settled peacefully by the parties concerned or,
ultimately, by the ICJ; Articles 12, 13, 14 - deal with upholding,
interpreting, and amending the treaty among involved nations. Other
agreements - some 200 recommendations adopted at treaty consultative
meetings and ratified by governments include - Agreed Measures for the
Conservation of Antarctic Fauna and Flora (1964); Convention for the
Conservation of Antarctic Seals (1972); Convention on the Conservation
of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (1980); a mineral resources
agreement was signed in 1988 but was subsequently rejected; the
Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty was
signed 4 October 1991 and entered into force 14 January 1998; this
agreement provides for the protection of the Antarctic environment
through five specific annexes on marine pollution, fauna, and flora,
environmental impact assessments, waste management, and protected
areas; it prohibits all activities relating to mineral resources
except scientific research.

Legal system: US law, including certain criminal offenses by or
against US nationals, such as murder, may apply to areas not under
jurisdiction of other countries. Some US laws directly apply to
Antarctica. For example, the Antarctic Conservation Act, 16 U.S.C.
section 2401 et seq., provides civil and criminal penalties for the
following activities, unless authorized by regulation of statute: the
taking of native mammals or birds; the introduction of nonindigenous
plants and animals; entry into specially protected or scientific
areas; the discharge or disposal of pollutants; and the importation
into the US of certain items from Antarctica. Violation of the
Antarctic Conservation Act carries penalties of up to $10,000 in fines
and one year in prison. The Departments of Treasury, Commerce,
Transportation, and Interior share enforcement responsibilities.
Public Law 95-541, the US Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978, requires
expeditions from the US to Antarctica to notify, in advance, the
Office of Oceans and Polar Affairs, Room 5801, Department of State,
Washington, DC 20520, which reports such plans to other nations as
required by the Antarctic Treaty. For more information, contact Permit
Office, Office of Polar Programs, National Science Foundation,
Arlington, Virginia 22230; telephone: (703) 306-1031, or see their
website at www.nsf.gov.

@Antarctica:Economy

Economy - overview: No economic activity is conducted at present,
except for fishing off the coast and small-scale tourism, both based
abroad. Antarctic fisheries in 1998-99 (1 July-30 June) reported
landing 119,898 metric tons. Unregulated fishing landed five to six
times more than the regulated fishery, and allegedly illegal fishing
in antarctic waters in 1998 resulted in the seizure (by France and
Australia) of at least eight fishing ships. A total of 10,013 tourists
visited in the 1998-99 summer, up from the 9,604 who visited the
previous year. Nearly all of them were passengers on 16 commercial
(nongovernmental) ships and several yachts that made 116 trips during
the summer. Most tourist trips lasted approximately two weeks.

@Antarctica:Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 0 (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular: NA

Telephone system:
domestic: NA
international: NA

Radio broadcast stations: AM NA, FM 2, shortwave 1 (1998)

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 1 (American Forces Antarctic
Network-McMurdo) (1999)

Televisions: several hundred at McMurdo Sound

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): NA

@Antarctica:Transportation

Ports and harbors: McMurdo (77 51 S, 166 40 E), Palmer (64 43 S, 64 03
W); government use only except by permit (see Permit Office under
"Legal System"); offshore anchorage

Airports: 18
note: 27 stations, operated by 16 national governments party to the
Antarctic Treaty, have landing facilities for either helicopters
and/or fixed-wing aircraft; commercial enterprises operate two
additional air facilities; helicopter pads are available at 27
stations; runways at 15 locations are gravel, sea-ice, blue-ice, or
compacted snow suitable for landing wheeled, fixed-wing aircraft; of
these, 1 is greater than 3 km in length, 6 are between 2 km and 3 km
in length, 3 are between 1 km and 2 km in length, 3 are less than 1 km
in length, and 2 are of unknown length; snow surface skiways, limited
to use by ski-equipped, fixed-wing aircraft,are available at another
15 locations; of these, 4 are greater than 3 km in length, 3 are
between 2 km and 3 km in length, 2 are between 1 km and 2 km in
length, 2 are less than 1 km in length, and 4 are of unknown length;
airports generally subject to severe restrictions and limitations
resulting from extreme seasonal and geographic conditions; airports do
not meet ICAO standards; advance approval from the respective
governmental or nongovernmental operating organization required for
landing (1999 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 18
over 3,047 m: 3
2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 4
under 914 m: 5 (1999 est.)

Heliports: 1 (1999 est.)

@Antarctica:Military

Military - note: the Antarctic Treaty prohibits any measures of a
military nature, such as the establishment of military bases and
fortifications, the carrying out of military maneuvers, or the testing
of any type of weapon; it permits the use of military personnel or
equipment for scientific research or for any other peaceful purposes

@Antarctica:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: Antarctic Treaty defers claims (see
Antarctic Treaty Summary in Government type entry); sections (some
overlapping) claimed by Argentina, Australia, Chile, France (Adelie
Land), New Zealand (Ross Dependency), Norway (Queen Maud Land), and
UK; the US and most other nations do not recognize the territorial
claims of other nations and have made no claims themselves (the US
reserves the right to do so); no formal claims have been made in the
sector between 90 degrees west and 150 degrees west

______________________________________________________________________



ANTIGUA AND BARBUDA

@Antigua and Barbuda:Introduction

Background: The islands of Antigua and Barbuda became an independent
state within the British Commonwealth of Nations in 1981. Some 3,000
refugees fleeing a volcanic eruption on nearby Montserrat have settled
in Antigua and Barbuda since 1995.

@Antigua and Barbuda:Geography

Location: Caribbean, islands between the Caribbean Sea and the North
Atlantic Ocean, east-southeast of Puerto Rico

Geographic coordinates: 17 03 N, 61 48 W

Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

Area:
total: 442 sq km (Antigua 281 sq km; Barbuda 161 sq km)
land: 442 sq km
water: 0 sq km
note: includes Redonda

Area - comparative: 2.5 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 153 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 24 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical marine; little seasonal temperature variation

Terrain: mostly low-lying limestone and coral islands, with some
higher volcanic areas

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m
highest point: Boggy Peak 402 m

Natural resources: NEGL; pleasant climate fosters tourism

Land use:
arable land: 18%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 9%
forests and woodland: 11%
other: 62% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: hurricanes and tropical storms (July to October);
periodic droughts

Environment - current issues: water management - a major concern
because of limited natural fresh water resources - is further hampered
by the clearing of trees to increase crop production, causing rainfall
to run off quickly

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol,
Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification,
Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban,
Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

@Antigua and Barbuda:People

Population: 66,422 (July 2000 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 28% (male 9,414; female 9,098)
15-64 years: 67% (male 22,199; female 22,341)
65 years and over: 5% (male 1,424; female 1,946) (2000 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.73% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 19.6 births/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 5.99 deaths/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: -6.32 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.73 male(s)/female
total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2000 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 23.05 deaths/1,000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 70.46 years
male: 68.19 years
female: 72.84 years (2000 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.92 children born/woman (2000 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Antiguan(s), Barbudan(s)
adjective: Antiguan, Barbudan

Ethnic groups: black, British, Portuguese, Lebanese, Syrian

Religions: Anglican (predominant), other Protestant, some Roman
Catholic

Languages: English (official), local dialects

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over has completed five or more years of
schooling
total population: 89%
male: 90%
female: 88% (1960 est.)

@Antigua and Barbuda:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Antigua and Barbuda

Data code: AC

Government type: constitutional monarchy with Westminster-style
parliament

Capital: Saint John's

Administrative divisions: 6 parishes and 2 dependencies*; Barbuda*,
Redonda*, Saint George, Saint John, Saint Mary, Saint Paul, Saint
Peter, Saint Philip

Independence: 1 November 1981 (from UK)

National holiday: Independence Day, 1 November (1981)

Constitution: 1 November 1981

Legal system: based on English common law

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952),
represented by Governor General James B. CARLISLE (since NA 1993)
head of government: Prime Minister Lester Bryant BIRD (since 8 March
1994)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the governor general on the
advice of the prime minister
elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; governor general chosen by
the monarch on the advice of the prime minister; prime minister
appointed by the governor general

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament consists of the Senate
(17-member body appointed by the governor general) and the House of
Representatives (17 seats; members are elected by proportional
representation to serve five-year terms)
elections: House of Representatives - last held 9 March 1999 (next to
be held NA March 2004)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - ALP
12, UPP 4, independent 1

Judicial branch: Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court (based in Saint
Lucia) (one judge of the Supreme Court is a resident of the islands
and presides over the Court of Summary Jurisdiction)

Political parties and leaders: Antigua Caribbean Liberation Movement
or ACLM ; Antigua Labor Party or ALP ;
Barbuda People's Movement or BPM ; Progressive Labor
Movement or PLM ; United National Democratic Party or UNDP
; United Progressive Party or UPP , a
coalition of three opposition political parties - UNDP, ACLM, and PLM

Political pressure groups and leaders: Antigua Trades and Labor Union
or ATLU ; People's Democratic Movement or PDM [Hugh
MARSHALL]

International organization participation: ACP, C, Caricom, CDB, ECLAC,
FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO,
Intelsat (nonsignatory user), Interpol, IOC, ITU, NAM (observer), OAS,
OECS, OPANAL, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WMO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Lionel Alexander HURST
chancery: 3216 New Mexico Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20016
telephone:  (202) 362-5211
FAX:  (202) 362-5225
consulate(s) general: Miami

Diplomatic representation from the US: the US does not have an embassy
in Antigua and Barbuda (embassy closed 30 June 1994); the US
Ambassador to Barbados is accredited to Antigua and Barbuda

Flag description: red, with an inverted isosceles triangle based on
the top edge of the flag; the triangle contains three horizontal bands
of black (top), light blue, and white, with a yellow rising sun in the
black band

@Antigua and Barbuda:Economy

Economy - overview: Tourism continues to be the dominant activity in
the economy accounting directly or indirectly for more than half of
GDP. In 1999 the budding offshore financial sector was seriously hurt
by financial sanctions imposed by the US and UK as a result of the
loosening of its money-laundering controls. The government has made
efforts to comply with international demands in order to get the
sanctions lifted. The dual island nation's agricultural production is
mainly directed to the domestic market; the sector is constrained by
the limited water supply and labor shortages that reflect the pull of
higher wages in tourism and construction. Manufacturing comprises
enclave-type assembly for export with major products being bedding,
handicrafts, and electronic components. Prospects for economic growth
in the medium term will continue to depend on income growth in the
industrialized world, especially in the US, which accounts for about
one-third of all tourist arrivals.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $524 million (1999 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 2.8% (1999 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $8,200 (1999 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 4%
industry: 12.5%
services: 83.5% (1996 est.)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1.6% (1999 est.)

Labor force: 30,000

Labor force - by occupation: commerce and services 82%, agriculture
11%, industry 7% (1983)

Unemployment rate: 7% (1999 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $122.6 million
expenditures: $141.2 million, including capital expenditures of $17.3
million (1997 est.)

Industries: tourism, construction, light manufacturing (clothing,
alcohol, household appliances)

Industrial production growth rate: 6% (1997 est.)

Electricity - production: 90 million kWh (1998)

Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 100%
hydro: 0%
nuclear: 0%
other: 0% (1998)

Electricity - consumption: 84 million kWh (1998)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1998)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1998)

Agriculture - products: cotton, fruits, vegetables, bananas, coconuts,
cucumbers, mangoes, sugarcane; livestock

Exports: $38 million (1998)

Exports - commodities: petroleum products 48%, manufactures 23%, food
and live animals 4%, machinery and transport equipment 17%

Exports - partners: OECS 26%, Barbados 15%, Guyana 4%, Trinidad and
Tobago 2%, US 0.3%

Imports: $330 million (1998)

Imports - commodities: food and live animals, machinery and transport
equipment, manufactures, chemicals, oil

Imports - partners: US 27%, UK 16%, Canada 4%, OECS 3%

Debt - external: $357 million (1998)

Economic aid - recipient: $2.3 million (1995)

Currency: 1 East Caribbean dollar (EC$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: East Caribbean dollars (EC$) per US$1 - 2.7000 (fixed
rate since 1976)

Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March

@Antigua and Barbuda:Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 20,000 (1994)

Telephones - mobile cellular: NA

Telephone system:
domestic: good automatic telephone system
international: 1 coaxial submarine cable; satellite earth station - 1
Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean); tropospheric scatter to Saba (Netherlands
Antilles) and Guadeloupe

Radio broadcast stations: AM 4, FM 2, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios: 36,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 2 (1997)

Televisions: 31,000 (1997)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): NA

@Antigua and Barbuda:Transportation

Railways:
total: 77 km
narrow gauge: 64 km 0.760-m gauge; 13 km 0.610-m gauge (used almost
exclusively for handling sugarcane)

Highways:
total: 250 km (1996 est.)
paved: NA km
unpaved: NA km

Ports and harbors: Saint John's

Merchant marine:
total: 607 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 3,528,944 GRT/4,590,590
DWT
ships by type: bulk 17, cargo 385, chemical tanker 9, combination bulk
2, container 149, liquified gas 3, petroleum tanker 2, refrigerated
cargo 12, roll-on/roll-off 28 (1999 est.)
note: a flag of convenience registry: Germany owns 10 ships, Slovenia
2, and Cyprus 2 (1998 est.)

Airports: 3 (1999 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
under 914 m: 1 (1999 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 1
under 914 m: 1 (1999 est.)

@Antigua and Barbuda:Military

Military branches: Royal Antigua and Barbuda Defense Force, Royal
Antigua and Barbuda Police Force (includes Coast Guard)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $NA

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: NA%

@Antigua and Barbuda:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

Illicit drugs: considered a minor transshipment point for narcotics
bound for the US and Europe; more significant as a
drug-money-laundering center

______________________________________________________________________



ARCTIC OCEAN

@Arctic Ocean:Introduction

Background: A spring 2000 decision by the International Hydrographic
Organization delimited a fifth world ocean from the southern portions
of the Atlantic Ocean, Indian Ocean, and Pacific Ocean. The new ocean
extends from the coast of Antarctica north to 60 degrees south
latitude which coincides with the Antarctic Treaty Limit. The Arctic
Ocean remains the smallest of the world's five oceans (after the
Pacific Ocean, Atlantic Ocean, Indian Ocean, and Southern Ocean).

@Arctic Ocean:Geography

Location: body of water mostly north of the Arctic Circle

Geographic coordinates: 90 00 N, 0 00 E

Map references: Arctic Region

Area:
total: 14.056 million sq km
note: includes Baffin Bay, Barents Sea, Beaufort Sea, Chukchi Sea,
East Siberian Sea, Greenland Sea, Hudson Bay, Hudson Strait, Kara Sea,
Laptev Sea, Northwest Passage, and other tributary water bodies

Area - comparative: slightly less than 1.5 times the size of the US

Coastline: 45,389 km

Climate: polar climate characterized by persistent cold and relatively
narrow annual temperature ranges; winters characterized by continuous
darkness, cold and stable weather conditions, and clear skies; summers
characterized by continuous daylight, damp and foggy weather, and weak
cyclones with rain or snow

Terrain: central surface covered by a perennial drifting polar icepack
that averages about 3 meters in thickness, although pressure ridges
may be three times that size; clockwise drift pattern in the Beaufort
Gyral Stream, but nearly straight-line movement from the New Siberian
Islands (Russia) to Denmark Strait (between Greenland and Iceland);
the icepack is surrounded by open seas during the summer, but more
than doubles in size during the winter and extends to the encircling
landmasses; the ocean floor is about 50% continental shelf (highest
percentage of any ocean) with the remainder a central basin
interrupted by three submarine ridges (Alpha Cordillera, Nansen
Cordillera, and Lomonosov Ridge)

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Fram Basin -4,665 m
highest point: sea level 0 m

Natural resources: sand and gravel aggregates, placer deposits,
polymetallic nodules, oil and gas fields, fish, marine mammals (seals
and whales)

Natural hazards: ice islands occasionally break away from northern
Ellesmere Island; icebergs calved from glaciers in western Greenland
and extreme northeastern Canada; permafrost in islands; virtually ice
locked from October to June; ships subject to superstructure icing
from October to May

Environment - current issues: endangered marine species include
walruses and whales; fragile ecosystem slow to change and slow to
recover from disruptions or damage; thinning polar icepack

Geography - note: major chokepoint is the southern Chukchi Sea
(northern access to the Pacific Ocean via the Bering Strait);
strategic location between North America and Russia; shortest marine
link between the extremes of eastern and western Russia; floating
research stations operated by the US and Russia; maximum snow cover in
March or April about 20 to 50 centimeters over the frozen ocean; snow
cover lasts about 10 months

@Arctic Ocean:Government

Data code: none; the US Government has not approved a standard for
hydrographic codes - see the Cross-Reference List of Hydrographic Data
Codes appendix

@Arctic Ocean:Economy

Economy - overview: Economic activity is limited to the exploitation
of natural resources, including petroleum, natural gas, fish, and
seals.

@Arctic Ocean:Transportation

Ports and harbors: Churchill (Canada), Murmansk (Russia), Prudhoe Bay
(US)

Transportation - note: sparse network of air, ocean, river, and land
routes; the Northwest Passage (North America) and Northern Sea Route
(Eurasia) are important seasonal waterways

@Arctic Ocean:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: some maritime disputes (see littoral
states); Svalbard is the focus of a maritime boundary dispute between
Norway and Russia

______________________________________________________________________



ARGENTINA

@Argentina:Introduction

Background: Following independence from Spain in 1816, Argentina
experienced periods of internal political conflict between
conservatives and liberals and between civilian and military factions.
After World War II, a long period of Peronist dictatorship was
followed by a military junta that took power in 1976. Democracy
returned in 1983, and four free elections since then have underscored
Argentina's progress in democratic consolidation.

@Argentina:Geography

Location: Southern South America, bordering the South Atlantic Ocean,
between Chile and Uruguay

Geographic coordinates: 34 00 S, 64 00 W

Map references: South America

Area:
total: 2,766,890 sq km
land: 2,736,690 sq km
water: 30,200 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly less than three-tenths the size of the US

Land boundaries:
total: 9,665 km
border countries: Bolivia 832 km, Brazil 1,224 km, Chile 5,150 km,
Paraguay 1,880 km, Uruguay 579 km

Coastline: 4,989 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 24 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: mostly temperate; arid in southeast; subantarctic in
southwest

Terrain: rich plains of the Pampas in northern half, flat to rolling
plateau of Patagonia in south, rugged Andes along western border

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Salinas Chicas -40 m (located on Peninsula Valdes)
highest point: Cerro Aconcagua 6,960 m

Natural resources: fertile plains of the pampas, lead, zinc, tin,
copper, iron ore, manganese, petroleum, uranium

Land use:
arable land: 9%
permanent crops: 1%
permanent pastures: 52%
forests and woodland: 19%
other: 19% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 17,000 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: San Miguel de Tucuman and Mendoza areas in the Andes
subject to earthquakes; pamperos are violent windstorms that can
strike the Pampas and northeast; heavy flooding

Environment - current issues: environmental problems (urban and rural)
typical of an industrializing economy such as soil degradation,
desertification, air pollution, and water pollution
note: Argentina is a world leader in setting voluntary greenhouse gas
targets

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty,
Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species,
Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine
Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution,
Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Marine Life
Conservation

Geography - note: second-largest country in South America (after
Brazil); strategic location relative to sea lanes between South
Atlantic and South Pacific Oceans (Strait of Magellan, Beagle Channel,
Drake Passage)

@Argentina:People

Population: 36,955,182 (July 2000 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 27% (male 5,061,588; female 4,827,582)
15-64 years: 63% (male 11,625,574; female 11,613,358)
65 years and over: 10% (male 1,582,861; female 2,244,219) (2000 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.16% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 18.59 births/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 7.59 deaths/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: 0.65 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.71 male(s)/female
total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2000 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 18.31 deaths/1,000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 75.05 years
male: 71.67 years
female: 78.61 years (2000 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.47 children born/woman (2000 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Argentine(s)
adjective: Argentine

Ethnic groups: white (mostly Spanish and Italian) 97%, mestizo,
Amerindian, or other nonwhite groups 3%

Religions: nominally Roman Catholic 92% (less than 20% practicing),
Protestant 2%, Jewish 2%, other 4%

Languages: Spanish (official), English, Italian, German, French

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 96.2%
male: 96.2%
female: 96.2% (1995 est.)

@Argentina:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Argentine Republic
conventional short form: Argentina
local long form: Republica Argentina
local short form: Argentina

Data code: AR

Government type: republic

Capital: Buenos Aires

Administrative divisions: 23 provinces (provincias, singular -
provincia), and 1 federal district* (distrito federal); Buenos Aires;
Catamarca; Chaco; Chubut; Cordoba; Corrientes; Distrito Federal*;
Entre Rios; Formosa; Jujuy; La Pampa; La Rioja; Mendoza; Misiones;
Neuquen; Rio Negro; Salta; San Juan; San Luis; Santa Cruz; Santa Fe;
Santiago del Estero; Tierra del Fuego, Antartica e Islas del Atlantico
Sur; Tucuman
note: the US does not recognize any claims to Antarctica

Independence: 9 July 1816 (from Spain)

National holiday: Revolution Day, 25 May (1810)

Constitution: 1 May 1853; revised August 1994

Legal system: mixture of US and West European legal systems; has not
accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Fernando DE LA RUA (since 10 December 1999);
Vice President Carlos Alberto ALVAREZ (since 10 December 1999); note -
the president is both the chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Fernando DE LA RUA (since 10 December
1999); Vice President Carlos Alberto ALVAREZ (since 10 December 1999);
note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
elections: president and vice president elected on the same ticket by
popular vote for four-year terms; election last held 24 October 1999
(next to be held NA October 2003)
election results: Fernando DE LA RUA elected president; percent of
vote - 48.5%

Legislative branch: bicameral National Congress or Congreso Nacional
consists of the Senate (72 seats; formerly, three members appointed by
each of the provincial legislatures; presently transitioning to
one-third of the members being elected every two years to six-year
terms) and the Chamber of Deputies (257 seats; one-half of the members
elected every two years to four-year terms)
elections: Senate - transition phase will begin in 2001 elections when
all seats will be fully contested; winners will randomly draw to
determine whether they will serve a two-year, four-year, or full
six-year term, beginning a rotating cycle renovating a third of the
body every two years; Chamber of Deputies - last held 24 October 1999
(next to be held NA October 2001)
election results: Senate - percent of vote by bloc or party - NA;
seats by bloc or party - Peronist 40, UCR 20, Frepaso 1, other 11;
Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by bloc or party - NA; seats by
bloc or party - Alliance 124 (UCR 85, Frepaso 36, others 3), Peronist
101, AR 12, other 20

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Corte Suprema), the nine Supreme Court
judges are appointed by the president with approval of the Senate

Political parties and leaders: Action for the Republic or AR [Domingo
CAVALLO]; Alliance (UCR, Frepaso and others) ; Front for a
Country in Solidarity or Frepaso (a four-party coalition) [Carlos
ALVAREZ]; Justicialist Party or PJ  (Peronist
umbrella political organization); Radical Civic Union or UCR [Raul
ALFONSIN]; several provincial parties

Political pressure groups and leaders: Argentine Association of
Pharmaceutical Labs (CILFA); Argentine Industrial Union
(manufacturers' association); Argentine Rural Society (large
landowners' association); Armed Forces; business organizations;
General Confederation of Labor or CGT (Peronist-leaning umbrella labor
organization); Peronist-dominated labor movement; Roman Catholic
Church; students

International organization participation: AfDB, Australia Group, BCIE,
CCC, ECLAC, FAO, G- 6, G-11, G-15, G-19, G-24, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD,
ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO,
Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LAES, LAIA,
Mercosur, MINURSO, MIPONUH, MTCR, NSG, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, PCA, RG, UN,
UN Security Council (temporary), UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR,
UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNITAR, UNMIBH, UNMIK, UNMOP, UNTAET, UNTSO, UNU, UPU,
WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Guillermo GONZALEZ Enrique
chancery: 1600 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20009
telephone:  (202) 238-6400
FAX:  (202) 238-6471
consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami,
New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant)
embassy: 4300 Colombia, 1425 Buenos Aires
mailing address: international mail: use street address; APO address:
Unit 4334, APO AA 34034
telephone:  (1) 777-4533, 4534
FAX:  (1) 777-0197

Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of light blue (top),
white, and light blue; centered in the white band is a radiant yellow
sun with a human face known as the Sun of May

@Argentina:Economy

Economy - overview: Argentina benefits from rich natural resources, a
highly literate population, an export-oriented agricultural sector,
and a diversified industrial base. However, when President Carlos
MENEM took office in 1989, the country had piled up huge external
debts, inflation had reached 200% per month, and output was
plummeting. To combat the economic crisis, the government embarked on
a path of trade liberalization, deregulation, and privatization. In
1991, it implemented radical monetary reforms which pegged the peso to
the US dollar and limited the growth in the monetary base by law to
the growth in reserves. Inflation fell sharply in subsequent years. In
1995, the Mexican peso crisis produced capital flight, the loss of
banking system deposits, and a severe, but short-lived, recession; a
series of reforms to bolster the domestic banking system followed.
Real GDP growth recovered strongly, reaching 8% in 1997. In 1998,
international financial turmoil caused by Russia's problems and
increasing investor anxiety over Brazil produced the highest domestic
interest rates in more than three years, halving the growth rate of
the economy. Conditions worsened in 1999 with GDP falling by 3%.
President Fernando DE LA RUA, who took office in December 1999,
sponsored tax increases and spending cuts to reduce the deficit, which
had ballooned to 2.5% of GDP in 1999. The new government also arranged
a new $7.4 billion stand-by facility with the IMF for contingency
purposes - almost three times the size of the previous arrangement.
Key challenges facing the new government include reforming the
country's rigid labor code and addressing the precarious financial
situation of several highly indebted provinces.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $367 billion (1999 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: -3% (1999 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $10,000 (1999 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 7%
industry: 29%
services: 64% (1999 est.)

Population below poverty line: 36% (1998 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): -2% (1999 est.)

Labor force: 15 million (1999)

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture NA%, industry NA%, services
NA%

Unemployment rate: 14% (December 1999)

Budget:
revenues: $44 billion
expenditures: $48 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
billion (2000 est.)

Industries: food processing, motor vehicles, consumer durables,
textiles, chemicals and petrochemicals, printing, metallurgy, steel

Industrial production growth rate: -7% (1999 est.)

Electricity - production: 75.237 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 42.71%
hydro: 47.55%
nuclear: 9.47%
other: 0.27% (1998)

Electricity - consumption: 75.57 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - exports: 250 million kWh (1998)

Electricity - imports: 5.85 billion kWh (1998)

Agriculture - products: sunflower seeds, lemons, soybeans, grapes,
corn, tobacco, peanuts, tea, wheat; livestock

Exports: $23 billion (f.o.b., 1999 est.)

Exports - commodities: edible oils, fuels and energy, cereals, feed,
motor vehicles

Exports - partners: Brazil 24%, EU 21%, US 11% (1999 est.)

Imports: $25 billion (c.i.f., 1999 est.)

Imports - commodities: machinery and equipment, motor vehicles,
chemicals, metal manufactures, plastics

Imports - partners: EU 28%, US 22%, Brazil 21% (1999 est.)

Debt - external: $149 billion (1999 est.)

Economic aid - recipient: $2.833 billion (1995)

Currency: 1 peso = 100 centavos

Exchange rates: peso is pegged to the US dollar at an exchange rate of
1 peso = $1

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Argentina:Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 7.5 million (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 1.8 million (1997)

Telephone system: 12,000 public telephones; extensive modern system
but many families do not have telephones; despite extensive use of
microwave radio relay, the telephone system frequently fails during
rainstorms, even in Buenos Aires
domestic: microwave radio relay and a domestic satellite system with
40 earth stations serve the trunk network
international: satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean);
two international gateways near Buenos Aires; Atlantis II submarine
cable (1999)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 260 (including 10 inactive stations), FM
NA (probably more than 1,000, mostly unlicensed), shortwave 6 (1998)

Radios: 24.3 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 42 (plus 444 repeaters) (1997)

Televisions: 7.95 million (1997)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 47 (1999)

@Argentina:Transportation

Railways:
total: 38,326 km (160 km electrified)
broad gauge: 24,481 km 1.676-m gauge (134 km electrified)
standard gauge: 2,765 km 1.435-m gauge (26 km electrified)
narrow gauge: 11,080 km 1.000-m gauge (1999)

Highways:
total: 215,434 km
paved: 63,553 km (including 734 km of expressways)
unpaved: 151,881 km (1998 est.)

Waterways: 10,950 km navigable

Pipelines: crude oil 4,090 km; petroleum products 2,900 km; natural
gas 9,918 km

Ports and harbors: Bahia Blanca, Buenos Aires, Comodoro Rivadavia,
Concepcion del Uruguay, La Plata, Mar del Plata, Necochea, Rio
Gallegos, Rosario, Santa Fe, Ushuaia

Merchant marine:
total: 26 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 218,540 GRT/333,413 DWT
ships by type: cargo 9, petroleum tanker 11, rail car carrier 1,
refrigerated cargo 2, roll-on/roll-off 1, short-sea passenger 2 (1999
est.)

Airports: 1,359 (1999 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 142
over 3,047 m: 5
2,438 to 3,047 m: 26
1,524 to 2,437 m: 60
914 to 1,523 m: 44
under 914 m: 7 (1999 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 1,217
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 63
914 to 1,523 m: 614
under 914 m: 536 (1999 est.)

@Argentina:Military

Military branches: Argentine Army, Navy of the Argentine Republic
(includes Naval Aviation, Marines, and Coast Guard), Argentine Air
Force, National Gendarmerie, National Aeronautical Police Force

Military manpower - military age: 20 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 9,287,499 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males age 15-49: 7,530,476 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 341,544 (2000 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $4.3 billion (FY99)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 1.3% (FY99)

@Argentina:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: claims UK-administered Falkland Islands
(Islas Malvinas); claims UK-administered South Georgia and the South
Sandwich Islands; territorial claim in Antarctica

Illicit drugs: increasing use as a transshipment country for cocaine
headed for Europe and the US; increasing use as a money-laundering
center; domestic consumption of drugs has skyrocketed

______________________________________________________________________



ARMENIA

@Armenia:Introduction

Background: An Orthodox Christian country, Armenia was incorporated
into Russia in 1828 and the USSR in 1920. Armenian leaders remain
preoccupied by the long conflict with Azerbaijan over
Nagorno-Karabakh, a primarily Armenian-populated exclave, assigned to
Soviet Azerbaijan in the 1920s by Moscow. Armenia and Azerbaijan began
fighting over the exclave in 1988; the struggle escalated after both
countries attained independence from the Soviet Union in 1991. By May
1994, when a cease-fire took hold, Armenian forces held not only
Nagorno-Karabakh but also a significant portion of Azerbaijan proper.
The economies of both sides have been hurt by their inability to make
substantial progress toward a peaceful resolution.

@Armenia:Geography

Location: Southwestern Asia, east of Turkey

Geographic coordinates: 40 00 N, 45 00 E

Map references: Commonwealth of Independent States

Area:
total: 29,800 sq km
land: 28,400 sq km
water: 1,400 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Maryland

Land boundaries:
total: 1,254 km
border countries: Azerbaijan-proper 566 km, Azerbaijan-Naxcivan
exclave 221 km, Georgia 164 km, Iran 35 km, Turkey 268 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: highland continental, hot summers, cold winters

Terrain: Armenian Highland with mountains; little forest land; fast
flowing rivers; good soil in Aras River valley

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Debed River 400 m
highest point: Aragats Lerr 4,095 m

Natural resources: small deposits of gold, copper, molybdenum, zinc,
alumina

Land use:
arable land: 17%
permanent crops: 3%
permanent pastures: 24%
forests and woodland: 15%
other: 41% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 2,870 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: occasionally severe earthquakes; droughts

Environment - current issues: soil pollution from toxic chemicals such
as DDT; energy blockade, the result of conflict with Azerbaijan, has
led to deforestation when citizens scavenged for firewood; pollution
of Hrazdan (Razdan) and Aras Rivers; the draining of Sevana Lich (Lake
Sevan), a result of its use as a source for hydropower, threatens
drinking water supplies; restart of Metsamor nuclear power plant
without adequate (IAEA-recommended) safety and backup systems

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change,
Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer
Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants

Geography - note: landlocked

@Armenia:People

Population: 3,344,336 (July 2000 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 24% (male 415,297; female 400,590)
15-64 years: 66% (male 1,084,588; female 1,131,387)
65 years and over: 10% (male 129,890; female 182,584) (2000 est.)

Population growth rate: -0.28% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 10.97 births/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 9.53 deaths/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: -4.23 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.71 male(s)/female
total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2000 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 41.48 deaths/1,000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 66.4 years
male: 61.98 years
female: 71.04 years (2000 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.47 children born/woman (2000 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Armenian(s)
adjective: Armenian

Ethnic groups: Armenian 93%, Azeri 3%, Russian 2%, other (mostly
Yezidi Kurds) 2% (1989)
note: as of the end of 1993, virtually all Azeris had emigrated from

Religions: Armenian Orthodox 94%

Languages: Armenian 96%, Russian 2%, other 2%

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99%
male: 99%
female: 98% (1989 est.)

@Armenia:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Armenia
conventional short form: Armenia
local long form: Hayastani Hanrapetut'yun
local short form: Hayastan
former: Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic; Armenian Republic

Data code: AM

Government type: republic

Capital: Yerevan

Administrative divisions: 10 provinces (marzer, singular - marz) and 1
city* (k'aghak'ner, singular - k'aghak'); Aragatsotn, Ararat, Armavir,
Geghark'unik', Kotayk', Lorri, Shirak, Syunik', Tavush, Vayots' Dzor,
Yerevan*

Independence: 28 May 1918-2 December 1920 (First Armenian Republic);
23 September 1991 (from Soviet Union)

National holiday: Referendum Day, 21 September

Constitution: adopted by nationwide referendum 5 July 1995

Legal system: based on civil law system

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Robert KOCHARIAN (since 30 March 1998)
head of government: Prime Minister Aram SARKISYAN (since 3 November
1999)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term;
special election last held 30 March 1998 (next to be held NA March
2003); prime minister appointed by the president
election results: Robert KOCHARIAN elected president; percent of vote
- Robert KOCHARIAN 59%, Karen DEMIRCHYAN 41%

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly (Parliament) or
Azgayin Zhoghov (131 seats; members serve four-year terms)
elections: last held 30 May 1999 (next to be held in the spring of
2003)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party -
unity bloc 61 (Republican Party 41, People's Party of Armenia 20),
Stability Group (independent Armenian deputies who have formed a bloc)
21, ACP 10, independents 10, ARF (Dashnak) 8, Law and Unity Party 7,
NDU 6, Law-Governed Party 6, unfilled 2; note - seats by party change
frequently

Judicial branch: Supreme Court; Constitutional Court

Political parties and leaders: Armenian Communist Party or ACP
; Armenian National Movement or ANM [Vano
SIRADEGIAN, chairman]; Armenian Revolutionary Federation ("Dashnak"
Party) or ARF ; Christian Democratic Union or CDU
; Democratic Liberal Party [Ramkavar
AZATAKAN, chairman]; Free Armenian's Mission [Ruben MNATSANIAN,
chairman]; Law and Unity Party ;
Law-Governed Party ; Mission Party
; National Democratic Union or NDU [Vazgen
MANUKIAN]; National State Party ; People's Party of
Armenia ; Republican Party ;
Shamiram Women's Movement or SWM ; Social Democratic
(Hnchakian) Party ; Stability Group [Vartan
AYVAZIAN, chairman]; Union of National Self-Determination or NSDU
International organization participation: BSEC, CCC, CE (guest), CIS,
EAPC, EBRD, ECE, ESCAP, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC,
IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, NAM
(observer), OPCW, OSCE, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU,
WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO (applicant)

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Arman KIRAKOSIAN
chancery: 2225 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone:  (202) 319-1976
FAX:  (202) 319-2982
consulate(s) general: Los Angeles

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Michael LEMMON
embassy: 18 General Bagramian Avenue, Yerevan
mailing address: American Embassy Yerevan, Department of State,
Washington, DC 20521-7020
telephone:  (2) 151-551
FAX:  (2) 151-550

Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of red (top), blue, and
orange

@Armenia:Economy

Economy - overview: Under the old Soviet central planning system,
Armenia had developed a modern industrial sector, supplying machine
tools, textiles, and other manufactured goods to sister republics in
exchange for raw materials and energy. Since the implosion of the USSR
in December 1991, Armenia has switched to small-scale agriculture away
from the large agroindustrial complexes of the Soviet era. The
agricultural sector has long-term needs for more investment and
updated technology. The privatization of industry has been at a slower
pace, but has been given renewed emphasis by the current
administration. Armenia is a food importer, and its mineral deposits
(gold, bauxite) are small. The ongoing conflict with Azerbaijan over
the ethnic Armenian-dominated region of Nagorno-Karabakh and the
breakup of the centrally directed economic system of the former Soviet
Union contributed to a severe economic decline in the early 1990s. By
1994, however, the Armenian Government had launched an ambitious
IMF-sponsored economic program that has resulted in positive growth
rates in 1995-99. Armenia also managed to slash inflation and to
privatize most small- and medium-sized enterprises. The chronic energy
shortages Armenia suffered in recent years have been largely offset by
the energy supplied by one of its nuclear power plants at Metsamor.
Continued Russian financial difficulties have hurt the trade sector
especially, but have been offset by international aid, domestic
restructuring, and foreign direct investment.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $9.9 billion (1999 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 5% (1999 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $2,900 (1999 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 40%
industry: 25%
services: 35% (1999 est.)

Population below poverty line: 45% (1999 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.5% (1999)

Labor force: 1.5 million (1999)

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 55%, services 25%,
manufacturing, mining, and construction 20% (1999 est.)

Unemployment rate: 20% (1998 est.)
note: official rate is 9.3% for 1998

Budget:
revenues: $360 million
expenditures: $566 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1999 est.)

Industries: metal-cutting machine tools, forging-pressing machines,
electric motors, tires, knitted wear, hosiery, shoes, silk fabric,
washing machines, chemicals, trucks, watches, instruments,
microelectronics

Industrial production growth rate: -2% (1998)

Electricity - production: 5.764 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 48.92%
hydro: 26.44%
nuclear: 24.64%
other: 0% (1998)

Electricity - consumption: 5.361 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1998)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1998)

Agriculture - products: fruit (especially grapes), vegetables;
livestock

Exports: $240 million (1999 est.)

Exports - commodities: diamonds, scrap metal, machinery and equipment,
cognac, copper ore

Exports - partners: Belgium, Russia, Iran, Turkmenistan, US, Georgia
(1998)

Imports: $782 million (1999 est.)

Imports - commodities: natural gas, petroleum, tobacco products,
foodstuffs, diamonds

Imports - partners: Russia, US, UK, Iran, Turkey, Belgium (1998)

Debt - external: $862.7 million (1999)

Economic aid - recipient: $245.5 million (1995)

Currency: 1 dram = 100 luma

Exchange rates: dram per US$1 - 527.02 (January 2000), 535.06 (1999),
504.92 (1998), 490.85 (1997), 414.04 (1996), 405.91 (1995)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Armenia:Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 583,000 (1995)

Telephones - mobile cellular: NA

Telephone system: system inadequate; now 90% privately owned and
undergoing modernization and expansion
domestic: the majority of subscribers and the most modern equipment
are in Yerevan (this includes paging and mobile cellular service)
international: Yerevan is connected to the Trans-Asia-Europe
fiber-optic cable through Iran; additional international service is
available by microwave radio relay and landline connections to the
other countries of the Commonwealth of Independent States and through
the Moscow international switch and by satellite to the rest of the
world; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat

Radio broadcast stations: AM 9, FM 6, shortwave 1 (1998)

Radios: 850,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 4 (1998)

Televisions: 825,000 (1997)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 1 (1999)

@Armenia:Transportation

Railways:
total: 825 km in common carrier service; does not include industrial
lines
broad gauge: 825 km 1.520-m gauge (825 km electrified) (1995)

Highways:
total: 15,998 km
paved: 15,998 km (including 7,567 km of expressways)
unpaved: 0 km (1998 est.)

Waterways: NA km

Pipelines: natural gas 900 km (1991)

Ports and harbors: none

Airports: 11 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 5
over 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 2 (1996 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 6
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 3
under 914 m: 1 (1996 est.)

@Armenia:Military

Military branches: Army, Air Force and Air Defense Aviation, Air
Defense Force, Security Forces (internal and border troops)

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 896,646 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males age 15-49: 708,940 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 33,391 (2000 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $75 million (FY99)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 4% (FY99)

@Armenia:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: Armenia supports ethnic Armenians in the
Nagorno-Karabakh region of Azerbaijan in the longstanding, separatist
conflict against the Azerbaijani Government; traditional demands
regarding former Armenian lands in Turkey have subsided

Illicit drugs: illicit cultivator of cannabis mostly for domestic
consumption; increasingly used as a transshipment point for illicit
drugs - mostly opium and hashish - to Western Europe and the US via
Iran, Central Asia, and Russia

______________________________________________________________________



ARUBA

@Aruba:Introduction

Background: Formerly one of the Netherlands Antilles, Aruba became an
autonomous part of the Netherlands in 1986.

@Aruba:Geography

Location: Caribbean, island in the Caribbean Sea, north of Venezuela

Geographic coordinates: 12 30 N, 69 58 W

Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

Area:
total: 193 sq km
land: 193 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly larger than Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 68.5 km

Maritime claims:
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical marine; little seasonal temperature variation

Terrain: flat with a few hills; scant vegetation

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m
highest point: Mount Jamanota 188 m

Natural resources: NEGL; white sandy beaches

Land use:
arable land: 7% aloe plantations included (0.01%)
permanent crops: NA%
permanent pastures: NA%
forests and woodland: NA%
other: 93% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 0.01 sq km

Natural hazards: lies outside the Caribbean hurricane belt

Environment - current issues: NA

@Aruba:People

Population: 69,539 (July 2000 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 22% (male 7,770; female 7,194)
15-64 years: 69% (male 22,944; female 24,810)
65 years and over: 9% (male 2,831; female 3,990) (2000 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.7% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 13.1 births/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 6.13 deaths/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.08 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.92 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.71 male(s)/female
total population: 0.93 male(s)/female (2000 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 6.51 deaths/1,000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 78.37 years
male: 75 years
female: 81.9 years (2000 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.8 children born/woman (2000 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Aruban(s)
adjective: Aruban

Ethnic groups: mixed white/Caribbean Amerindian 80%

Religions: Roman Catholic 82%, Protestant 8%, Hindu, Muslim,
Confucian, Jewish

Languages: Dutch (official), Papiamento (a Spanish, Portuguese, Dutch,
English dialect), English (widely spoken), Spanish

Literacy:
definition: NA
total population: 97%
male: NA%
female: NA%

@Aruba:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Aruba

Data code: AA

Dependency status: part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands; full
autonomy in internal affairs obtained in 1986 upon separation from the
Netherlands Antilles

Government type: parliamentary democracy

Capital: Oranjestad

Administrative divisions: none (part of the Kingdom of the
Netherlands)

Independence: none (part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands; in 1990,
Aruba requested and received from the Netherlands cancellation of the
agreement to automatically give independence to the island in 1996)

National holiday: Flag Day, 18 March

Constitution: 1 January 1986

Legal system: based on Dutch civil law system, with some English
common law influence

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: Queen BEATRIX Wilhelmina Armgard of the Netherlands
(since 30 April 1980), represented by Governor General Olindo KOOLMAN
(since 1 January 1992)
head of government: Prime Minister Jan (Henny) H. EMAN (since 29 July
1994) and Deputy Prime Minister Dr. Lili BEKE-MARTINEZ (since NA)
cabinet: Council of Ministers (elected by the Staten)
elections: the monarch is hereditary; governor general appointed for a
six-year term by the monarch; prime minister and deputy prime minister
elected by the Staten for four-year terms; election last held 12 July
1997 (next to be held by December 2001)
election results: Jan (Henny) H. EMAN elected prime minister; percent
of legislative vote - NA; Dr. Lili BEKE-MARTINEZ elected deputy prime
minister; percent of legislative vote - NA

Legislative branch: unicameral Legislature or Staten (21 seats;
members elected by direct popular vote to serve four-year terms)
elections: last held 12 December 1997 (next to be held by NA December
2001)
election results: percent of vote by party - AVP 43%, MEP 39%, OLA 9%
PPA 4%, ADN 2%, PARA 1%, MAS 0.5%; seats by party - AVP 10, MEP 9, OLA
2

Judicial branch: Joint High Court of Justice (judges are appointed by
the monarch)

Political parties and leaders: Aruban Democratic Party or PDA [Leo
BERLINSKI]; Aruban Liberal Party or OLA ; Aruban
Patriotic Party or PPA ; Aruban People's Party or AVP
; Aruba Solidarity Movement or MAS ;
Democratic Action '86 or AD '86 ; Electoral Movement
Party or MEP ; Electoral People's Movement or MEP
; For a Restructured Aruba Now or PARA ;
National Democratic Action or ADN ; New Patriotic
Party or PPN 

International organization participation: Caricom (observer), ECLAC
(associate), Interpol, IOC, UNESCO (associate), WCL, WToO (associate)

Diplomatic representation in the US: none (represented by the Kingdom
of the Netherlands)

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Consul General James L. WILLIAMS
embassy: J. B. Gorsiraweg #1, Curacao
mailing address: P. O. Box 158, Willemstad, Curacao
telephone:  (9) 461-3066
FAX:  (9) 461-6489

Flag description: blue, with two narrow, horizontal, yellow stripes
across the lower portion and a red, four-pointed star outlined in
white in the upper hoist-side corner

@Aruba:Economy

Economy - overview: Tourism is the mainstay of the Aruban economy,
although offshore banking and oil refining and storage are also
important. The rapid growth of the tourism sector over the last decade
has resulted in a substantial expansion of other activities.
Construction has boomed, with hotel capacity five times the 1985
level. In addition, the reopening of the country's oil refinery in
1993, a major source of employment and foreign exchange earnings, has
further spurred growth. Aruba's small labor force and less than 1%
unemployment rate have led to a large number of unfilled job
vacancies, despite sharp rises in wage rates in recent years.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $1.6 billion (1998 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 3% (1998)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $22,800 (1998 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: NA%
industry: NA%
services: NA%

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2% (1999 est.)

Labor force: 41,501 (1997 est.)

Labor force - by occupation: most employment is in wholesale and
retail trade and repair, followed by hotels and restaurants (1997
est.)

Unemployment rate: 0.6% (1996 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $NA
expenditures: $541 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
(2000 est.)

Industries: tourism, transshipment facilities, oil refining

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - production: 475 million kWh (1998)

Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 100%
hydro: 0%
nuclear: 0%
other: 0% (1998)

Electricity - consumption: 442 million kWh (1998)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1998)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1998)

Agriculture - products: aloes; livestock; fish

Exports: $1.17 billion (including oil reexports)(1998)

Exports - commodities: transport equipment, live animals and animal
products, art and collectibles, machinery and electrical equipment

Exports - partners: US 53.2%, Colombia 14.9%, Netherlands 8.8% (1998)

Imports: $1.52 billion (1998)

Imports - commodities: machinery and transport equipment, crude oil
for refining and reexport; foodstuffs

Imports - partners: US 55.5%, Netherlands 12.3%, Japan 3.5% (1998)

Debt - external: $285 million (1996)

Economic aid - recipient: $26 million (1995); note - the Netherlands
provided a $127 million aid package to Aruba and Suriname in 1996

Currency: 1 Aruban florin (Af.) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Aruban florins (Af.) per US$1 - 1.7900 (fixed rate
since 1986)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Aruba:Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 27,000 (1995)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 1,718 (1995)

Telephone system:
domestic: more than adequate
international: 1 submarine cable to Sint Maarten (Netherlands
Antilles); extensive interisland microwave radio relay links

Radio broadcast stations: AM 4, FM 6, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios: 50,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 1 (1997)

Televisions: 20,000 (1997)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): NA

@Aruba:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways:
total: 800 km
paved: 513 km
unpaved: 287 km
note: most coastal roads are paved, while unpaved roads serve large
tracts of the interior (1995 est.)

Ports and harbors: Barcadera, Oranjestad, Sint Nicolaas

Airports: 2 (1999 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (1999 est.)

@Aruba:Military

Military - note: defense is the responsibility of the Kingdom of the
Netherlands

@Aruba:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

Illicit drugs: drug-money-laundering center and transit point for
narcotics bound for the US and Europe

______________________________________________________________________



ASHMORE AND CARTIER ISLANDS

@Ashmore and Cartier Islands:Geography

Location: Southeastern Asia, islands in the Indian Ocean, northwest of
Australia

Geographic coordinates: 12 14 S, 123 05 E

Map references: Southeast Asia

Area:
total: 5 sq km
land: 5 sq km
water: 0 sq km
note: includes Ashmore Reef (West, Middle, and East Islets) and
Cartier Island

Area - comparative: about eight times the size of The Mall in
Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 74.1 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 12 nm
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 3 nm

Climate: tropical

Terrain: low with sand and coral

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point: unnamed location 3 m

Natural resources: fish

Land use:
arable land: 0%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 0%
forests and woodland: 0%
other: 100% (all grass and sand)

Irrigated land: 0 sq km (1993)

Natural hazards: surrounded by shoals and reefs that can pose maritime
hazards

Environment - current issues: NA

Geography - note: Ashmore Reef National Nature Reserve established in
August 1983

@Ashmore and Cartier Islands:People

Population: no indigenous inhabitants
note: there are only seasonal caretakers (July 2000 est.)

@Ashmore and Cartier Islands:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Territory of Ashmore and Cartier Islands
conventional short form: Ashmore and Cartier Islands

Data code: AT

Dependency status: territory of Australia; administered from Canberra
by the Australian Department of the Environment, Sport, and
Territories

Legal system: relevant laws of the Northern Territory of Australia

Diplomatic representation in the US: none (territory of Australia)

Diplomatic representation from the US: none (territory of Australia)

Flag description: the flag of Australia is used

@Ashmore and Cartier Islands:Economy

Economy - overview: no economic activity

@Ashmore and Cartier Islands:Transportation

Ports and harbors: none; offshore anchorage only

@Ashmore and Cartier Islands:Military

Military - note: defense is the responsibility of Australia; periodic
visits by the Royal Australian Navy and Royal Australian Air Force

@Ashmore and Cartier Islands:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

______________________________________________________________________



ATLANTIC OCEAN

@Atlantic Ocean:Introduction

Background: A spring 2000 decision by the International Hydrographic
Organization delimited a fifth world ocean from the southern portions
of the Atlantic Ocean, Indian Ocean, and Pacific Ocean. The new ocean
extends from the coast of Antarctica north to 60 degrees south
latitude which coincides with the Antarctic Treaty Limit. The Atlantic
Ocean remains the second-largest of the world's five oceans (after the
Pacific Ocean, but larger than the Indian Ocean, Southern Ocean, and
Arctic Ocean).

@Atlantic Ocean:Geography

Location: body of water between Africa, Europe, the Southern Ocean,
and the Western Hemisphere

Geographic coordinates: 0 00 N, 25 00 W

Map references: World

Area:
total: 76.762 million sq km
note: includes Baltic Sea, Black Sea, Caribbean Sea, Davis Strait,
Denmark Strait, part of the Drake Passage, Gulf of Mexico,
Mediterranean Sea, North Sea, Norwegian Sea, almost all of the Scotia
Sea, and other tributary water bodies

Area - comparative: slightly less than 6.5 times the size of the US

Coastline: 111,866 km

Climate: tropical cyclones (hurricanes) develop off the coast of
Africa near Cape Verde and move westward into the Caribbean Sea;
hurricanes can occur from May to December, but are most frequent from
August to November

Terrain: surface usually covered with sea ice in Labrador Sea, Denmark
Strait, and Baltic Sea from October to June; clockwise warm-water gyre
(broad, circular system of currents) in the northern Atlantic,
counterclockwise warm-water gyre in the southern Atlantic; the ocean
floor is dominated by the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, a rugged north-south
centerline for the entire Atlantic basin

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Milwaukee Deep in the Puerto Rico Trench -8,605 m
highest point: sea level 0 m

Natural resources: oil and gas fields, fish, marine mammals (seals and
whales), sand and gravel aggregates, placer deposits, polymetallic
nodules, precious stones

Natural hazards: icebergs common in Davis Strait, Denmark Strait, and
the northwestern Atlantic Ocean from February to August and have been
spotted as far south as Bermuda and the Madeira Islands; ships subject
to superstructure icing in extreme northern Atlantic from October to
May; persistent fog can be a maritime hazard from May to September;
hurricanes (May to December)

Environment - current issues: endangered marine species include the
manatee, seals, sea lions, turtles, and whales; drift net fishing is
hastening the decline of fish stocks and contributing to international
disputes; municipal sludge pollution off eastern US, southern Brazil,
and eastern Argentina; oil pollution in Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Mexico,
Lake Maracaibo, Mediterranean Sea, and North Sea; industrial waste and
municipal sewage pollution in Baltic Sea, North Sea, and Mediterranean
Sea

Geography - note: major chokepoints include the Dardanelles, Strait of
Gibraltar, access to the Panama and Suez Canals; strategic straits
include the Strait of Dover, Straits of Florida, Mona Passage, The
Sound (Oresund), and Windward Passage; the Equator divides the
Atlantic Ocean into the North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean

@Atlantic Ocean:Government

Data code: none; the US Government has not approved a standard for
hydrographic codes - see the Cross-Reference List of Hydrographic Data
Codes appendix

@Atlantic Ocean:Economy

Economy - overview: The Atlantic Ocean provides some of the world's
most heavily trafficked sea routes, between and within the Eastern and
Western Hemispheres. Other economic activity includes the exploitation
of natural resources, e.g., fishing, the dredging of aragonite sands
(The Bahamas), and production of crude oil and natural gas (Caribbean
Sea, Gulf of Mexico, and North Sea).

@Atlantic Ocean:Transportation

Ports and harbors: Alexandria (Egypt), Algiers (Algeria), Antwerp
(Belgium), Barcelona (Spain), Buenos Aires (Argentina), Casablanca
(Morocco), Colon (Panama), Copenhagen (Denmark), Dakar (Senegal),
Gdansk (Poland), Hamburg (Germany), Helsinki (Finland), Las Palmas
(Canary Islands, Spain), Le Havre (France), Lisbon (Portugal), London
(UK), Marseille (France), Montevideo (Uruguay), Montreal (Canada),
Naples (Italy), New Orleans (US), New York (US), Oran (Algeria), Oslo
(Norway), Peiraiefs or Piraeus (Greece), Rio de Janeiro (Brazil),
Rotterdam (Netherlands), Saint Petersburg (Russia), Stockholm (Sweden)

Transportation - note: Kiel Canal and Saint Lawrence Seaway are two
important waterways

@Atlantic Ocean:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: some maritime disputes (see littoral states)

______________________________________________________________________



AUSTRALIA

@Australia:Introduction

Background: Australia became a commonwealth of the British Empire in
1901. It was able to take advantage of its natural resources to
rapidly develop its agricultural and manufacturing industries and to
make a major contribution to the British effort in World Wars I and
II. Long-term concerns include pollution, particularly depletion of
the ozone layer, and management and conservation of coastal areas,
especially the Great Barrier Reef. A referendum to change Australia's
status, from a commonwealth headed by the British monarch to an
independent republic, was defeated in 1999.

@Australia:Geography

Location: Oceania, continent between the Indian Ocean and the South
Pacific Ocean

Geographic coordinates: 27 00 S, 133 00 E

Map references: Oceania

Area:
total: 7,686,850 sq km
land: 7,617,930 sq km
water: 68,920 sq km
note: includes Lord Howe Island and Macquarie Island

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than the US

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 25,760 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 24 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: generally arid to semiarid; temperate in south and east;
tropical in north

Terrain: mostly low plateau with deserts; fertile plain in southeast

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Lake Eyre -15 m
highest point: Mount Kosciuszko 2,229 m

Natural resources: bauxite, coal, iron ore, copper, tin, silver,
uranium, nickel, tungsten, mineral sands, lead, zinc, diamonds,
natural gas, petroleum

Land use:
arable land: 6%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 54%
forests and woodland: 19%
other: 21% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 21,070 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: cyclones along the coast; severe droughts

Environment - current issues: soil erosion from overgrazing,
industrial development, urbanization, and poor farming practices; soil
salinity rising due to the use of poor quality water; desertification;
clearing for agricultural purposes threatens the natural habitat of
many unique animal and plant species; the Great Barrier Reef off the
northeast coast, the largest coral reef in the world, is threatened by
increased shipping and its popularity as a tourist site; limited
natural fresh water resources

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty,
Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Environmental
Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine
Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship
Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol,
Desertification

Geography - note: world's smallest continent but sixth-largest
country; population concentrated along the eastern and southeastern
coasts; regular, tropical, invigorating, sea breeze known as "the
Doctor" occurs along the west coast in the summer

@Australia:People

Population: 19,169,083 (July 2000 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 21% (male 2,052,095; female 1,954,543)
15-64 years: 67% (male 6,458,083; female 6,322,475)
65 years and over: 12% (male 1,040,950; female 1,340,937) (2000 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.02% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 13.08 births/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 7.12 deaths/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: 4.26 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.78 male(s)/female
total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2000 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 5.04 deaths/1,000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 79.75 years
male: 76.9 years
female: 82.74 years (2000 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.79 children born/woman (2000 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Australian(s)
adjective: Australian

Ethnic groups: Caucasian 92%, Asian 7%, aboriginal and other 1%

Religions: Anglican 26.1%, Roman Catholic 26%, other Christian 24.3%,
non-Christian 11%

Languages: English, native languages

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 100%
male: 100%
female: 100% (1980 est.)

@Australia:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Commonwealth of Australia
conventional short form: Australia

Data code: AS

Government type: democratic, federal-state system recognizing the
British monarch as sovereign

Capital: Canberra

Administrative divisions: 6 states and 2 territories*; Australian
Capital Territory*, New South Wales, Northern Territory*, Queensland,
South Australia, Tasmania, Victoria, Western Australia

Dependent areas: Ashmore and Cartier Islands, Christmas Island, Cocos
(Keeling) Islands, Coral Sea Islands, Heard Island and McDonald
Islands, Norfolk Island

Independence: 1 January 1901 (federation of UK colonies)

National holiday: Australia Day, 26 January (1788)

Constitution: 9 July 1900, effective 1 January 1901

Legal system: based on English common law; accepts compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction, with reservations

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal and compulsory

Executive branch:
chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952),
represented by Governor General Sir William DEANE (since 16 February
1996)
head of government: Prime Minister John Winston HOWARD (since 11 March
1996); Deputy Prime Minister John ANDERSON (since NA)
cabinet: Cabinet selected from among the members of Federal Parliament
by the governor general on the advice of the prime minister
elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; governor general appointed
by the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the
majority party or leader of a majority coalition is usually appointed
prime minister by the governor general for a three-year term
note: government coalition - Liberal Party and National Party

Legislative branch: bicameral Federal Parliament consists of the
Senate (76 seats - 12 from each of the six states and two from each of
the two territories; one-half of the members elected every three years
by popular vote to serve six-year terms) and the House of
Representatives (148 seats; members elected by popular vote on the
basis of proportional representation to serve three-year terms; no
state can have fewer than five representatives)
elections: Senate - last held 3 October 1998 (next to be held by
October 2001); House of Representatives - last held 3 October 1998
(next to be held by October 2001)
election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by
party - Liberal Party-National Party coalition 35, Australian Labor
Party 29, Australian Democratic Party 9, Green Party 1, One Nation
Party 1, independent 1; House of Representatives - percent of vote by
party - NA; seats by party - Liberal Party-National Party coalition
80, Australian Labor Party 67, independent 1

Judicial branch: High Court, the Chief Justice and six other justices
are appointed by the governor general

Political parties and leaders: Australian Democratic Party ;
Australian Labor Party ; Green Party ; Liberal
Party ; National Party ; One
Nation Party 

Political pressure groups and leaders: Australian Democratic Labor
Party (anti-Communist Labor Party splinter group); Peace and Nuclear
Disarmament Action (Nuclear Disarmament Party splinter group)

International organization participation: ANZUS, APEC, AsDB, Australia
Group, BIS, C, CCC, CP, EBRD, ESCAP, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC,
ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat,
Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, NAM (guest), NEA, NSG, OECD,
OPCW, PCA, Sparteca, SPC, SPF, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR,
UNITAR, UNTAET, UNTSO, UNU, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Michael THAWLEY
chancery: 1601 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
telephone:  (202) 797-3000
FAX:  (202) 797-3168
consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Honolulu, Los Angeles, New York, and
San Francisco

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Genta Hawkins HOLMES
embassy: Moonah Place, Yarralumla, Canberra, Australian Capital
Territory 2600
mailing address: APO AP 96549
telephone:  (6) 6214-5600
FAX:  (6) 6214-5970
consulate(s) general: Melbourne, Perth, and Sydney

Flag description: blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side
quadrant and a large seven-pointed star in the lower hoist-side
quadrant; the remaining half is a representation of the Southern Cross
constellation in white with one small five-pointed star and four,
larger, seven-pointed stars

@Australia:Economy

Economy - overview: Australia has a prosperous Western-style
capitalist economy, with a per capita GDP at the level of the four
dominant West European economies. Rich in natural resources, Australia
is a major exporter of agricultural products, minerals, metals, and
fossil fuels. Commodities account for 57% of the value of total
exports, so that a downturn in world commodity prices can have a big
impact on the economy. The government is pushing for increased exports
of manufactured goods, but competition in international markets
continues to be severe. While Australia has suffered from the low
growth and high unemployment characterizing the OECD countries in the
early 1990s and during the recent financial problems in East Asia, the
economy has expanded at a solid 4% annual growth pace in the last five
years. Canberra's emphasis on reforms is a key factor behind the
economy's resilience to the regional crisis and its stronger than
expected growth rate. Growth in 2000 will depend on key international
commodity prices, the extent of recovery in nearby Asian economies,
and the strength of US and European markets.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $416.2 billion (1999 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 4.3% (1999 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $22,200 (1999 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 3%
industry: 26%
services: 71% (1998 est.)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 2.5%
highest 10%: 24.8% (1989)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1.8% (1999 est.)

Labor force: 8.9 million (December 1999)

Labor force - by occupation: services 73%, industry 22%, agriculture
5% (1997 est.)

Unemployment rate: 7.5% (1999)

Budget:
revenues: $90.73 billion
expenditures: $89.04 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
(FY98/99 est.)

Industries: mining, industrial and transportation equipment, food
processing, chemicals, steel

Industrial production growth rate: 1.5% (1999 est.)

Electricity - production: 186.387 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 89.85%
hydro: 8.35%
nuclear: 0%
other: 1.8% (1998)

Electricity - consumption: 173.34 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1998)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1998)

Agriculture - products: wheat, barley, sugarcane, fruits; cattle,
sheep, poultry

Exports: $58 billion (f.o.b., 1999 est.)

Exports - commodities: coal, gold, meat, wool, alumina, iron ore,
wheat, machinery and transport equipment

Exports - partners: Japan 20%, EU 14%, ASEAN 11%, US 10%, South Korea,
NZ, Taiwan, Hong Kong, China (1998)

Imports: $67 billion (f.o.b., 1999 est.)

Imports - commodities: machinery and transport equipment, computers
and office machines, telecommunication equipment and parts; crude oil
and petroleum products

Imports - partners: EU 24%, US 22%, Japan 14%, ASEAN 12% (1998)

Debt - external: $222 billion (1999)

Economic aid - donor: ODA, $1.43 billion (FY97/98)

Currency: 1 Australian dollar ($A) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Australian dollars ($A) per US$1 - 1.52068 (January
2000), 1.5497 (1999), 1.5888 (1998), 1.3439 (1997), 1.2773 (1996),
1.3486 (1995)

Fiscal year: 1 July - 30 June

@Australia:Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 92 million (1995)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 5.29 million (1998)

Telephone system: excellent domestic and international service
domestic: domestic satellite system
international: submarine cables to New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, and
Indonesia; satellite earth stations - 10 Intelsat (4 Indian Ocean and
6 Pacific Ocean), 2 Inmarsat (Indian and Pacific Ocean regions)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 262, FM 345, shortwave 1 (1998)

Radios: 25.5 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 104 (1997)

Televisions: 10.15 million (1997)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 709 (1999)

@Australia:Transportation

Railways:
total: 33,819 km (2,540 km electrified)
broad gauge: 3,719 km 1.600-m gauge
standard gauge: 15,422 km 1.435-m gauge
narrow gauge: 14,506 km 1.067-m gauge
dual gauge: 172 km NA gauges (1999)

Highways:
total: 913,000 km
paved: 353,331 km (including 13,630 km of expressways)
unpaved: 559,669 km (1996 est.)

Waterways: 8,368 km; mainly by small, shallow-draft craft

Pipelines: crude oil 2,500 km; petroleum products 500 km; natural gas
5,600 km

Ports and harbors: Adelaide, Brisbane, Cairns, Darwin, Devonport
(Tasmania), Fremantle, Geelong, Hobart (Tasmania), Launceston
(Tasmania), Mackay, Melbourne, Sydney, Townsville

Merchant marine:
total: 57 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,657,194 GRT/2,206,574
DWT
ships by type: bulk 28, cargo 4, chemical tanker 4, container 1,
liquified gas 4, passenger 2, petroleum tanker 8, roll-on/roll-off 6
(1999 est.)

Airports: 408 (1999 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 265
over 3,047 m: 11
2,438 to 3,047 m: 11
1,524 to 2,437 m: 115
914 to 1,523 m: 120
under 914 m: 8 (1999 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 143
1,524 to 2,437 m: 18
914 to 1,523 m: 113
under 914 m: 12 (1999 est.)

@Australia:Military

Military branches: Australian Army, Royal Australian Navy, Royal
Australian Air Force

Military manpower - military age: 17 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 4,963,948 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males age 15-49: 4,282,821 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 135,434 (2000 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $6.9 billion (FY98/99)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 1.9% (FY98/99)

@Australia:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: territorial claim in Antarctica (Australian
Antarctic Territory)

Illicit drugs: Tasmania is one of the world's major suppliers of licit
opiate products; government maintains strict controls over areas of
opium poppy cultivation and output of poppy straw concentrate

______________________________________________________________________



AUSTRIA

@Austria:Introduction

Background: Once the center of power for the large Austro-Hungarian
Empire, Austria was reduced to a small republic after its defeat in
World War I. Following annexation by Nazi Germany in 1938 and
subsequent occupation by the victorious Allies, Austria's 1955 State
Treaty declared the country "permanently neutral" as a condition of
Soviet military withdrawal. Neutrality, once ingrained as part of the
Austrian cultural identity, has been called into question since the
Soviet collapse and Austria's increasingly prominent role in European
affairs. A prosperous country, Austria joined the European Union in
1995 and the euro monetary system in 1999.

@Austria:Geography

Location: Central Europe, north of Italy and Slovenia

Geographic coordinates: 47 20 N, 13 20 E

Map references: Europe

Area:
total: 83,858 sq km
land: 82,738 sq km
water: 1,120 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Maine

Land boundaries:
total: 2,562 km
border countries: Czech Republic 362 km, Germany 784 km, Hungary 366
km, Italy 430 km, Liechtenstein 35 km, Slovakia 91 km, Slovenia 330
km, Switzerland 164 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: temperate; continental, cloudy; cold winters with frequent
rain in lowlands and snow in mountains; cool summers with occasional
showers

Terrain: in the west and south mostly mountains (Alps); along the
eastern and northern margins mostly flat or gently sloping

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Neusiedler See 115 m
highest point: Grossglockner 3,798 m

Natural resources: iron ore, oil, timber, magnesite, lead, coal,
lignite, copper, hydropower

Land use:
arable land: 17%
permanent crops: 1%
permanent pastures: 23%
forests and woodland: 39%
other: 20% (1996 est.)

Irrigated land: 40 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: NA

Environment - current issues: some forest degradation caused by air
and soil pollution; soil pollution results from the use of
agricultural chemicals; air pollution results from emissions by coal-
and oil-fired power stations and industrial plants and from trucks
transiting Austria between northern and southern Europe

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air
Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile
Organic Compounds, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change,
Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification,
Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer
Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94,
Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants,
Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol

Geography - note: landlocked; strategic location at the crossroads of
central Europe with many easily traversable Alpine passes and valleys;
major river is the Danube; population is concentrated on eastern
lowlands because of steep slopes, poor soils, and low temperatures
elsewhere

@Austria:People

Population: 8,131,111 (July 2000 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 17% (male 697,283; female 663,459)
15-64 years: 68% (male 2,787,555; female 2,731,446)
65 years and over: 15% (male 474,067; female 777,301) (2000 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.25% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 9.9 births/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 9.91 deaths/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: 2.46 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.61 male(s)/female
total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2000 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 4.5 deaths/1,000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 77.68 years
male: 74.52 years
female: 80.99 years (2000 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.39 children born/woman (2000 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Austrian(s)
adjective: Austrian

Ethnic groups: German 98%, Croatian, Slovene, other (includes
Hungarians, Czechs, Slovaks, Roma)

Religions: Roman Catholic 78%, Protestant 5%, Muslim and other 17%

Languages: German

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 98%
male: NA%
female: NA%

@Austria:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Austria
conventional short form: Austria
local long form: Republik Oesterreich
local short form: Oesterreich

Data code: AU

Government type: federal republic

Capital: Vienna

Administrative divisions: 9 states (bundeslaender, singular -
bundesland); Burgenland, Kaernten, Niederoesterreich, Oberoesterreich,
Salzburg, Steiermark, Tirol, Vorarlberg, Wien

Independence: 1156 (from Bavaria)

National holiday: National Day, 26 October (1955)

Constitution: 1920; revised 1929 (reinstated 1 May 1945)

Legal system: civil law system with Roman law origin; judicial review
of legislative acts by the Constitutional Court; separate
administrative and civil/penal supreme courts; has not accepted
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 19 years of age; universal; compulsory for presidential
elections

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Thomas KLESTIL (since 8 July 1992)
head of government: Chancellor Wolfgang SCHUESSEL (OeVP)(since 4
February 2000); Vice Chancellor Susanne RIESS-PASSER (FPOe) (since 4
February 2000)
cabinet: Council of Ministers chosen by the president on the advice of
the chancellor
elections: president elected by direct popular vote for a six-year
term; presidential election last held 19 April 1998 (next to be held
in the spring of 2004); chancellor traditionally chosen by the
president from the plurality party in the National Council; in the
case of the current coalition, the chancellor was chosen from another
party after the plurality party failed to form a government; vice
chancellor chosen by the president on the advice of the chancellor
election results: Thomas KLESTIL reelected president; percent of vote
- Thomas KLESTIL 63%, Gertraud KNOLL 14%, Heide SCHMIDT 11%, Richard
LUGNER 10%, Karl NOWAK 2%
note: government coalition - FPOe and OeVP

Legislative branch: bicameral Federal Assembly or Bundesversammlung
consists of Federal Council or Bundesrat (64 members; members
represent each of the states on the basis of population, but with each
state having at least three representatives; members serve a four- or
six-year term) and the National Council or Nationalrat (183 seats;
members elected by direct popular vote to serve four-year terms)
elections: National Council - last held 3 October 1999 (next to be
held in the fall of 2003)
election results: National Council - percent of vote by party - SPOe
33.2%, OeVP 26.9%, FPOe 26.9%, Greens 7.4%; seats by party - SPOe 65,
OeVP 52, FPOe 52, Greens 14

Judicial branch: Supreme Judicial Court or Oberster Gerichtshof;
Administrative Court or Verwaltungsgerichtshof; Constitutional Court
or Verfassungsgerichtshof

Political parties and leaders: Austrian People's Party or OeVP
; Communist Party or KPOe [Walter BAIER,
chairman]; Freedom Party of Austria or FPOe ;
Liberal Forum or LF ; Social Democratic Party of
Austria or SPOe ; The Greens or GA [Alexander
VAN DER BELLEN, party spokesman]

Political pressure groups and leaders: Austrian Trade Union Federation
(primarily Socialist) or OeGB; Federal Economic Chamber; OeVP-oriented
League of Austrian Industrialists or VOeI; Roman Catholic Church,
including its chief lay organization, Catholic Action; three composite
leagues of the Austrian People's Party or OeVP representing business,
labor, and farmers

International organization participation: AfDB, AsDB, Australia Group,
BIS, BSEC (observer), CCC, CE, CEI, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, EIB, EMU,
ESA, EU, FAO, G- 9, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA,
IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM,
ISO, ITU, MINURSO, NAM (guest), NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW,
OSCE, PCA, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNDOF, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO,
UNIKOM, UNITAR, UNMIBH, UNMIK, UNMOT, UNOMIG, UNTAET, UNTSO, UPU, WCL,
WEU (observer), WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Peter MOSER
chancery: 3524 International Court NW, Washington, DC 20008-3035
telephone:  (202) 895-6700
FAX:  (202) 895-6750
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Los Angeles, and New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Kathryn Walt HALL
embassy: Boltzmanngasse 16, A-1091, Vienna
mailing address: use embassy street address
telephone:  (1) 313-39
FAX:  (1) 310-0682

Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white,
and red

@Austria:Economy

Economy - overview: Austria with its well-developed market economy and
high standard of living is closely tied to other EU economies,
especially Germany's. Membership in the EU has drawn an influx of
foreign investors attracted by Austria's access to the single European
market. Through privatization efforts, the 1996-98 budget
consolidation programs, and austerity measures, Austria has brought
its total public sector deficit down to 2.1% of GDP in 1999 and public
debt - at 63.1% of GDP in 1998 - more or less in line with the 60% of
GDP required by the EMU's Maastricht criteria. Cuts mainly have
affected the civil service and Austria's generous social benefit
system, the two major causes of the government's deficit. To meet
increased competition from both EU and Central European countries,
Austria will need to emphasize knowledge-based sectors of the economy
and deregulate the service sector. Growth, which slowed to 2.0% in
1999, probably will rebound to 2.8% in both 2000 and 2001.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $190.6 billion (1999 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 2% (1999 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $23,400 (1999 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 1.3%
industry: 32.4%
services: 66.3% (1998 est.)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 0.5% (1999)

Labor force: 3.7 million (1999)

Labor force - by occupation: services 68%, industry and crafts 29%,
agriculture and forestry 3% (1999 est.)

Unemployment rate: 4.4% (1999)

Budget:
revenues: $54 billion
expenditures: $59.5 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1999 est.)

Industries: construction, machinery, vehicles and parts, food,
chemicals, lumber and wood processing, paper and paperboard,
communications equipment, tourism (1997)

Industrial production growth rate: 2.3% (1999)

Electricity - production: 56.066 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 31.46%
hydro: 65.92%
nuclear: 0%
other: 2.62% (1998)

Electricity - consumption: 51.891 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - exports: 10.5 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - imports: 10.25 billion kWh (1998)

Agriculture - products: grains, potatoes, sugar beets, wine, fruit;
dairy products, cattle, pigs, poultry; lumber

Exports: $62.9 billion (1999 est.)

Exports - commodities: machinery and equipment, paper and paperboard,
metal goods, chemicals, iron and steel; textiles, foodstuffs (1998)

Exports - partners: EU 65% (Germany 36%, Italy 9%, France 5%),
Switzerland 5%, Hungary 5%, US 4.5% (1999 est.)

Imports: $69.9 billion (1999 est.)

Imports - commodities: machinery and equipment, chemicals, metal
goods, oil and oil products; foodstuffs (1998)

Imports - partners: EU 70% (Germany 42%, Italy 8%, France 5%), US 5%,
Hungary 3%, Switzerland 3% (1999 est.)

Debt - external: $31.7 billion (1998)

Economic aid - donor: ODA, $452 million (1998)

Currency: 1 Austrian schilling (AS) = 100 groschen

Exchange rates: euros per US$1 - 0.9867 (January 2000), 0.9386 (1999);
Austrian schillings (AS) per US$1 - 11.86 (January 1999), 12.91
(1999), 12.379 (1998), 12.204 (1997), 10.587 (1996), 10.081 (1995)
note: on 1 January 1999, the EU introduced a common currency that is
now being used by financial institutions in some member countries at a
fixed rate of 13.7603 Austrian shillings per euro; the euro will
replace the local currency in consenting countries for all
transactions in 2002

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Austria:Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 3.726 million (plus 83,100 ISDN or
Integrated Services Digital Network connections) (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 2.31 million (1998)

Telephone system:
domestic: highly developed and efficient
international: satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean
and 1 Indian Ocean) and 2 Eutelsat

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 61 (plus several hundred
repeaters), shortwave 1 (1998)

Radios: 6.08 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 51 (plus 920 repeaters) (1999)

Televisions: 4.25 million (1997)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 35 (1999)

@Austria:Transportation

Railways:
total: 6,123 km (3,523 km electrified)
standard gauge: 5,639 km 1.435-m gauge (3,429 km electrified)
narrow gauge: 484 km (13 km 0.600-m gauge, 468 km 0.760-m gauge - 94
km electrified, and 3 km 0.600-m gauge) (1999)

Highways: 200,000 km
paved: 200,000 km (including 1,613 km of expressways)
unpaved: 0 km (1999)

Waterways: 358 km (1999)

Pipelines: crude oil 777 km; natural gas 840 km (1999)

Ports and harbors: Linz, Vienna, Enns, Krems

Merchant marine:
total: 20 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 65,284 GRT/91,951 DWT
ships by type: bulk 1, cargo 15, combination bulk 2, container 2 (1999
est.)

Airports: 55 (1999 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 22
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 5
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 3
under 914 m: 12 (1999 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 33
914 to 1,523 m: 4
under 914 m: 29 (1999 est.)

Heliports: 1 (1999 est.)

@Austria:Military

Military branches: Army (includes Flying Division)

Military manpower - military age: 19 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 2,088,993 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males age 15-49: 1,733,681 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 51,335 (2000 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $1.7 billion (FY98)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 1.2% (FY98)

@Austria:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin and
South American cocaine destined for Western Europe

______________________________________________________________________



AZERBAIJAN

@Azerbaijan:Introduction

Background: Azerbaijan - a nation of Turkic Muslims - has been an
independent republic since the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991.
Despite a cease-fire, in place since 1994, Azerbaijan has yet to
resolve its conflict with Armenia over the Azerbaijani
Nagorno-Karabakh enclave (largely Armenian populated). Azerbaijan has
lost almost 20% of its territory and must support some 750,000
refugees as a result of the conflict. Corruption is ubiquitous and the
promise of wealth from Azerbaijan's undeveloped petroleum resources
remains largely unfulfilled.

@Azerbaijan:Geography

Location: Southwestern Asia, bordering the Caspian Sea, between Iran
and Russia

Geographic coordinates: 40 30 N, 47 30 E

Map references: Commonwealth of Independent States

Area:
total: 86,600 sq km
land: 86,100 sq km
water: 500 sq km
note: includes the exclave of Naxcivan Autonomous Republic and the
Nagorno-Karabakh region; the region's autonomy was abolished by
Azerbaijani Supreme Soviet on 26 November 1991

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Maine

Land boundaries:
total: 2,013 km
border countries: Armenia (with Azerbaijan-proper) 566 km, Armenia
(with Azerbaijan-Naxcivan exclave) 221 km, Georgia 322 km, Iran (with
Azerbaijan-proper) 432 km, Iran (with Azerbaijan-Naxcivan exclave) 179
km, Russia 284 km, Turkey 9 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)
note: Azerbaijan borders the Caspian Sea (800 km, est.)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: dry, semiarid steppe

Terrain: large, flat Kur-Araz Ovaligi (Kura-Araks Lowland) (much of it
below sea level) with Great Caucasus Mountains to the north, Qarabag
Yaylasi (Karabakh Upland) in west; Baku lies on Abseron Yasaqligi
(Apsheron Peninsula) that juts into Caspian Sea

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Caspian Sea -28 m
highest point: Bazarduzu Dagi 4,485 m

Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, nonferrous
metals, alumina

Land use:
arable land: 18%
permanent crops: 5%
permanent pastures: 25%
forests and woodland: 11%
other: 41% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 10,000 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: droughts; some lowland areas threatened by rising
levels of the Caspian Sea

Environment - current issues: local scientists consider the Abseron
Yasaqligi (Apsheron Peninsula) (including Baku and Sumqayit) and the
Caspian Sea to be the ecologically most devastated area in the world
because of severe air, water, and soil pollution; soil pollution
results from the use of DDT as a pesticide and also from toxic
defoliants used in the production of cotton

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Marine
Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection
signed, but not ratified: Biodiversity

Geography - note: landlocked

@Azerbaijan:People

Population: 7,748,163 (July 2000 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 30% (male 1,172,944; female 1,127,624)
15-64 years: 63% (male 2,388,737; female 2,525,797)
65 years and over: 7% (male 210,774; female 322,287) (2000 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.27% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 18.08 births/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 9.47 deaths/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: -5.92 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.65 male(s)/female
total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2000 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 83.41 deaths/1,000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 62.87 years
male: 58.51 years
female: 67.45 years (2000 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.19 children born/woman (2000 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Azerbaijani(s)
adjective: Azerbaijani

Ethnic groups: Azeri 90%, Dagestani 3.2%, Russian 2.5%, Armenian 2%,
other 2.3% (1998 est.)
note: almost all Armenians live in the separatist Nagorno-Karabakh
region

Religions: Muslim 93.4%, Russian Orthodox 2.5%, Armenian Orthodox
2.3%, other 1.8% (1995 est.)
note: religious affiliation is still nominal in Azerbaijan;
percentages for actual practicing adherents are much lower

Languages: Azeri 89%, Russian 3%, Armenian 2%, other 6% (1995 est.)

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 97%
male: 99%
female: 96% (1989 est.)

@Azerbaijan:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Azerbaijani Republic
conventional short form: Azerbaijan
local long form: Azarbaycan Respublikasi
local short form: none
former: Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic

Data code: AJ

Government type: republic

Capital: Baku (Baki)

Administrative divisions: 59 rayons (rayonlar; rayon - singular), 11
cities* (saharlar; sahar - singular), 1 autonomous republic** (muxtar
respublika); Abseron Rayonu, Agcabadi Rayonu, Agdam Rayonu, Agdas
Rayonu, Agstafa Rayonu, Agsu Rayonu, Ali Bayramli Sahari*, Astara
Rayonu, Baki Sahari*, Balakan Rayonu, Barda Rayonu, Beylaqan Rayonu,
Bilasuvar Rayonu, Cabrayil Rayonu, Calilabad Rayonu, Daskasan Rayonu,
Davaci Rayonu, Fuzuli Rayonu, Gadabay Rayonu, Ganca Sahari*, Goranboy
Rayonu, Goycay Rayonu, Haciqabul Rayonu, Imisli Rayonu, Ismayilli
Rayonu, Kalbacar Rayonu, Kurdamir Rayonu, Lacin Rayonu, Lankaran
Rayonu, Lankaran Sahari*, Lerik Rayonu, Masalli Rayonu, Mingacevir
Sahari*, Naftalan Sahari*, Naxcivan Muxtar Respublikasi**, Neftcala
Rayonu, Oguz Rayonu, Qabala Rayonu, Qax Rayonu, Qazax Rayonu, Qobustan
Rayonu, Quba Rayonu, Qubadli Rayonu, Qusar Rayonu, Saatli Rayonu,
Sabirabad Rayonu, Saki Rayonu, Saki Sahari*, Salyan Rayonu, Samaxi
Rayonu, Samkir Rayonu, Samux Rayonu, Siyazan Rayonu, Sumqayit Sahari*,
Susa Rayonu, Susa Sahari*, Tartar Rayonu, Tovuz Rayonu, Ucar Rayonu,
Xacmaz Rayonu, Xankandi Sahari*, Xanlar Rayonu, Xizi Rayonu, Xocali
Rayonu, Xocavand Rayonu, Yardimli Rayonu, Yevlax Rayonu, Yevlax
Sahari*, Zangilan Rayonu, Zaqatala Rayonu, Zardab Rayonu

Independence: 30 August 1991 (from Soviet Union)

National holiday: Independence Day, 28 May (1918)

Constitution: adopted 12 November 1995

Legal system: based on civil law system

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Heydar ALIYEV (since 18 June 1993)
head of government: Prime Minister Artur RASIZADE (since 26 November
1996)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president and confirmed
by the National Assembly
elections: president elected by popular vote to a five-year term;
election last held 11 October 1998 (next to be held October 2003);
prime minister and first deputy prime ministers appointed by the
president and confirmed by the National Assembly
election results: Heydar ALIYEV reelected president; percent of vote -
Heydar ALIYEV 76%

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly or Milli Mejlis (125
seats; members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: last held 12 and 26 November 1995 (next to be held NA 2000)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NAP
and allies 115, APF 4, PNIA 3, Musavat Party 1, vacant 2

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders: Azerbaijan Democratic Party or ADP
; Azerbaijan Popular Front or APF [Abulfaz ELCHIBEY,
chairman]; Civic Solidarity ; Communist Party of
Azerbaijan or CPA-2 ; Democratic Party of
Independence of Azerbaijan ; Liberal Party of
Azerbaijan ; Motherland Party ; Musavat
Party ; New Azerbaijan Party or NAP [Heydar
ALIYEV, chairman]; Party for National Independence of Azerbaijan or
PNIA ; People's Democratic Party of
Azerbaijan ; Social Democratic Party of Azerbaijan
or SDP ; Vahdat Party [Leyla YUNUSOV,
Jabrayil ALIZADE]

Political pressure groups and leaders: Sadval, Lezgin movement;
self-proclaimed Armenian Nagorno-Karabakh Republic; Talysh
independence movement

International organization participation: BSEC, CCC, CE (guest), CIS,
EAPC, EBRD, ECE, ECO, ESCAP, FAO, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD,
IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ISO
(correspondent), ITU, NAM (observer), OIC, OPCW, OSCE, PFP, UN,
UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO (observer)

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Hafiz Mir Jalal PASHAYEV
chancery: (temporary) Suite 700, 927 15th Street NW, Washington, DC
20005 or P. O. Box 28790, Washington, DC 20038-8790
telephone:  (202) 842-0001
FAX:  (202) 842-0004

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Stanley T. ESCUDERO
embassy: Azadliq Prospekt 83, Baku 370007
mailing address: American Embassy Baku, Department of State,
Washington, DC 20521-7050
telephone:  (9412) 98-03-35, 36, 37
FAX:  (9412) 90-66-71

Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of blue (top), red, and
green; a crescent and eight-pointed star in white are centered in red
band

@Azerbaijan:Economy

Economy - overview: Azerbaijan is less developed industrially than
either Armenia or Georgia, the other Caucasian states. It resembles
the Central Asian states in its majority Muslim population, high
structural unemployment, and low standard of living. The economy's
most prominent products are oil, cotton, and natural gas. Production
from the Caspian oil field declined through 1997 but registered an
increase in 1998-99. Negotiation of 19 production-sharing arrangements
(PSAs) with foreign firms, which have thus far committed $60 billion
to oil field development, should generate the funds needed to spur
future industrial development. Oil production under the first of these
PSAs, with the Azerbaijan International Operating Company, began in
November 1997. Azerbaijan shares all the formidable problems of the
former Soviet republics in making the transition from a command to a
market economy, but its considerable energy resources brighten its
long-term prospects. Baku has only recently begun making progress on
economic reform, and old economic ties and structures are slowly being
replaced. An obstacle to economic progress, including stepped up
foreign investment, is the continuing conflict with Armenia over the
Nagorno-Karabakh region. Trade with Russia and the other former Soviet
republics is declining in importance while trade is building up with
Turkey, Iran, UAE, and the nations of Europe. Growth in 2000 should
match growth in 1999. Long-term prospects will depend on world oil
prices and the location of new pipelines in the region.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $14 billion (1999 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 7% (1999 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $1,770 (1999 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 22%
industry: 18%
services: 60% (1997 est.)

Population below poverty line: 60% (1999 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): -6.8% (1999 est.)

Labor force: 2.9 million (1997)

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture and forestry 32%, industry
and construction 15%, services 53% (1997)

Unemployment rate: 20% (1999 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $565 million
expenditures: $682 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1996 est.)

Industries: petroleum and natural gas, petroleum products, oilfield
equipment; steel, iron ore, cement; chemicals and petrochemicals;
textiles

Industrial production growth rate: 3% (1999 est.)

Electricity - production: 18.062 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 90.98%
hydro: 9.02%
nuclear: 0%
other: 0% (1998)

Electricity - consumption: 15.508 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - exports: 1 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - imports: 1.2 billion kWh (1998)

Agriculture - products: cotton, grain, rice, grapes, fruit,
vegetables, tea, tobacco; cattle, pigs, sheep, goats

Exports: $885 million (f.o.b., 1999 est.)

Exports - commodities: oil and gas 70%, machinery, cotton, foodstuffs

Exports - partners: Turkey, Russia, Georgia, Italy, Iran

Imports: $1.62 billion (c.i.f., 1999 est.)

Imports - commodities: machinery and equipment, foodstuffs, metals,
chemicals

Imports - partners: Turkey, Russia, Ukraine, UAE, Iran

Debt - external: $684 million (1998)

Economic aid - recipient: ODA, $113 million (1996)

Currency: 1 manat = 100 gopiks

Exchange rates: manats per US$1 - 4,342 (October 1999), 4,373 (1999),
3,869 (1998), 3,985.38 (1997), 4,301.26 (1996), 4,413.54 (1995)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Azerbaijan:Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 640,000 (1995)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 6,000 (1995)

Telephone system: Azerbaijan's telephone system is a combination of
old Soviet era technology used by Azerbaijani citizens and small- to
medium-size commercial establishments, and modern cellular telephones
used by an increasing middle class, large commercial ventures,
international companies, and most government officials; the average
citizen waits on a 200,000-person list for telephone service; Internet
and e-mail service are available in Baku
domestic: local - the majority of telephones are in Baku or other
industrial centers - about 700 villages still do not have public
telephone service; intercity; all long distance service must use
Azertel's (Ministry of Communications) lines; satellite service
connects Baku to a modern switch in its separated enclave of Naxcivan
international: the old Soviet system of cable and microwave is still
serviceable; satellite service between Baku and Turkey provides access
to 200 countries; additional satellite providers supply services
between Baku and specific countries; Azerbaijan is a signator of the
Trans-Asia-Europe Fiber-Optic Line (TAE); their lines are not laid but
a Turkish satellite and a microwave link between Azerbaijan and Iran
could provide Azerbaijan worldwide access

Radio broadcast stations: AM 10, FM 17, shortwave 1 (1998)

Radios: 175,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 2 (1997)

Televisions: 170,000 (1997)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 2 (1999)

@Azerbaijan:Transportation

Railways:
total: 2,125 km in common carrier service; does not include industrial
lines
broad gauge: 2,125 km 1.520-m gauge (1,278 km electrified) (1993)

Highways:
total: 24,981 km
paved: 23,057 km
unpaved: 1,924 km (1998 est.)

Pipelines: crude oil 1,130 km; petroleum products 630 km; natural gas
1,240 km

Ports and harbors: Baku (Baki)

Merchant marine:
total: 55 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 248,155 GRT/304,215 DWT
ships by type: cargo 12, petroleum tanker 40, roll-on/roll-off 2,
short-sea passenger 1 (1999 est.)

Airports: 69 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 29
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 6
1,524 to 2,437 m: 17
914 to 1,523 m: 3
under 914 m: 1 (1996 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 40
914 to 1,523 m: 7
under 914 m: 33 (1996 est.)

@Azerbaijan:Military

Military branches: Army, Navy, Air and Air Defense Forces, Border
Guards

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 2,073,067 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males age 15-49: 1,662,435 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 74,496 (2000 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $121 million (FY99)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 2.6% (FY99)

@Azerbaijan:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: Armenia supports ethnic Armenians in the
Nagorno-Karabakh region of Azerbaijan in the longstanding, separatist
conflict against the Azerbaijani Government; Caspian Sea boundaries
are not yet determined among Azerbaijan, Iran, Kazakhstan, Russia, and
Turkmenistan

Illicit drugs: limited illicit cultivation of cannabis and opium
poppy, mostly for CIS consumption; limited government eradication
program; transshipment point for opiates via Iran, Central Asia, and
Russia to Western Europe

______________________________________________________________________



BAHAMAS

______________________________________________________________________



BAHRAIN

@Bahrain:Introduction

Background: Bahrain's small size and central location among Persian
Gulf countries require it to play a delicate balancing act in foreign
affairs among its larger neighbors. Possessing minimal oil reserves,
Bahrain has turned to petroleum processing and refining, and has
transformed itself into an international banking center. The new amir
is pushing economic and political reforms, and has worked to improve
relations with the Shi'a community.

@Bahrain:Geography

Location: Middle East, archipelago in the Persian Gulf, east of Saudi
Arabia

Geographic coordinates: 26 00 N, 50 33 E

Map references: Middle East

Area:
total: 620 sq km
land: 620 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: 3.5 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 161 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 24 nm
continental shelf: extending to boundaries to be determined
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: arid; mild, pleasant winters; very hot, humid summers

Terrain: mostly low desert plain rising gently to low central
escarpment

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Persian Gulf 0 m
highest point: Jabal ad Dukhan 122 m

Natural resources: oil, associated and nonassociated natural gas, fish

Land use:
arable land: 1%
permanent crops: 1%
permanent pastures: 6%
forests and woodland: 0%
other: 92% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 10 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: periodic droughts; dust storms

Environment - current issues: desertification resulting from the
degradation of limited arable land, periods of drought, and dust
storms; coastal degradation (damage to coastlines, coral reefs, and
sea vegetation) resulting from oil spills and other discharges from
large tankers, oil refineries, and distribution stations; no natural
fresh water resources so that groundwater and sea water are the only
sources for all water needs

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Hazardous
Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note: close to primary Middle Eastern petroleum sources;
strategic location in Persian Gulf which much of Western world's
petroleum must transit to reach open ocean

@Bahrain:People

Population: 634,137
note: includes 228,424 non-nationals (July 2000 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 30% (male 96,240; female 93,846)
15-64 years: 67% (male 252,767; female 173,072)
65 years and over: 3% (male 9,270; female 8,942) (2000 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.78% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 20.61 births/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 3.89 deaths/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: 1.12 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.46 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 1.04 male(s)/female
total population: 1.3 male(s)/female (2000 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 20.48 deaths/1,000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 72.98 years
male: 70.58 years
female: 75.45 years (2000 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.82 children born/woman (2000 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Bahraini(s)
adjective: Bahraini

Ethnic groups: Bahraini 63%, Asian 19%, other Arab 10%, Iranian 8%

Religions: Shi'a Muslim 75%, Sunni Muslim 25%

Languages: Arabic, English, Farsi, Urdu

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 85.2%
male: 89.1%
female: 79.4% (1995 est.)

@Bahrain:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: State of Bahrain
conventional short form: Bahrain
local long form: Dawlat al Bahrayn
local short form: Al Bahrayn

Data code: BA

Government type: traditional monarchy

Capital: Manama

Administrative divisions: 12 municipalities (manatiq, singular -
mintaqah); Al Hadd, Al Manamah, Al Mintaqah al Gharbiyah, Al Mintaqah
al Wusta, Al Mintaqah ash Shamaliyah, Al Muharraq, Ar Rifa' wa al
Mintaqah al Janubiyah, Jidd Hafs, Madinat Hamad, Madinat 'Isa, Juzur
Hawar, Sitrah
note: all municipalities administered from Manama

Independence: 15 August 1971 (from UK)

National holiday: National Day, 16 December (1971)

Constitution: 26 May 1973, effective 6 December 1973

Legal system: based on Islamic law and English common law

Suffrage: none

Executive branch:
chief of state: Amir HAMAD bin Isa Al Khalifa (since 6 March 1999);
Heir Apparent Crown Prince SALMAN bin Hamad (son of the monarch, born
21 October 1969)
head of government: Prime Minister KHALIFA bin Salman Al Khalifa
(since NA 1971)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the monarch
elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; prime minister appointed
by the monarch

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly was dissolved 26
August 1975 and legislative powers were assumed by the Cabinet;
appointed Advisory Council established 16 December 1992

Judicial branch: High Civil Appeals Court

Political parties and leaders: political parties prohibited

Political pressure groups and leaders: Shi'a activists have fomented
unrest sporadically since late 1994, demanding the return of an
elected National Assembly and an end to unemployment; several small,
clandestine leftist and Islamic fundamentalist groups are active

International organization participation: ABEDA, AFESD, AL, AMF,
ESCWA, FAO, G-77, GCC, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDB, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO,
IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ISO (correspondent), ITU,
NAM, OAPEC, OIC, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO,
WIPO, WMO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Dr. Muhammad ABD AL-GHAFFAR Abdallah
chancery: 3502 International Drive NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone:  (202) 342-0741
FAX:  (202) 362-2192
consulate(s) general: New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Johnny YOUNG
embassy: Building Number 979, Road 3119 (next to Al-Ahli Sports Club),
Block 311, Zinj District, Manama
mailing address: American Embassy Manama, PSC 451, FPO AE 09834-5100;
International Mail: American Embassy, Box 26431, Manama
telephone:  273-300
FAX:  272-594

Flag description: red with a white serrated band (eight white points)
on the hoist side

@Bahrain:Economy

Economy - overview: In Bahrain, petroleum production and processing
account for about 60% of export receipts, 60% of government revenues,
and 30% of GDP. Economic conditions have fluctuated with the changing
fortunes of oil since 1985, for example, during and following the Gulf
crisis of 1990-91. With its highly developed communication and
transport facilities, Bahrain is home to numerous multinational firms
with business in the Gulf. A large share of exports consists of
petroleum products made from imported crude. Construction proceeds on
several major industrial projects. Unemployment, especially among the
young, and the depletion of both oil and underground water resources
are major long-term economic problems.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $8.6 billion (1999 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 4% (1999 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $13,700 (1999 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 1%
industry: 46%
services: 53% (1996 est.)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 0.5% (1998 est.)

Labor force: 295,000 (1998 est.)
note: 44% of the population in the 15-64 age group is non-national
(July 1998 est.)

Labor force - by occupation: industry, commerce, and service 79%,
government 20%, agriculture 1% (1997 est.)

Unemployment rate: 15% (1998 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $1.5 billion
expenditures: $1.9 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1998)

Industries: petroleum processing and refining, aluminum smelting,
offshore banking, ship repairing; tourism

Industrial production growth rate: 3.4% (1995)

Electricity - production: 4.77 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 100%
hydro: 0%
nuclear: 0%
other: 0% (1998)

Electricity - consumption: 1.09 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1998)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1998)

Agriculture - products: fruit, vegetables; poultry, dairy products;
shrimp, fish

Exports: $3.3 billion (f.o.b., 1998)

Exports - commodities: petroleum and petroleum products 61%, aluminum
7%

Exports - partners: India 18%, Japan 11%, Saudi Arabia 8%, South Korea
7%, UAE 5% (1997)

Imports: $3.5 billion (f.o.b., 1998)

Imports - commodities: nonoil 59%, crude oil 41%

Imports - partners: Saudi Arabia 45%, US 10%, UK 6%, Japan 5%, Germany
4% (1997)

Debt - external: $2 billion (1997)

Economic aid - recipient: $48.4 million (1995)

Currency: 1 Bahraini dinar (BD) = 1,000 fils

Exchange rates: Bahraini dinars (BD) per US$1 - 0.3760 (fixed rate)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Bahrain:Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 141,000 (1995)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 130,000 (1999 est.)

Telephone system: modern system; good domestic services and excellent
international connections
domestic: modern fiber-optic integrated services; digital network with
rapidly growing use of mobile cellular telephones
international: tropospheric scatter to Qatar and UAE; microwave radio
relay to Saudi Arabia; submarine cable to Qatar, UAE, and Saudi
Arabia; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1
Indian Ocean) and 1 Arabsat

Radio broadcast stations: AM 2, FM 3, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios: 338,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 4 (1997)

Televisions: 275,000 (1997)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 3 (1999)

@Bahrain:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways:
total: 3,164 km
paved: 2,433 km
unpaved: 731 km (1998 est.)
note: there is a paved causeway connecting Bahrain to Saudi Arabia

Pipelines: crude oil 56 km; petroleum products 16 km; natural gas 32
km

Ports and harbors: Manama, Mina' Salman, Sitrah

Merchant marine:
total: 8 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 228,273 GRT/304,654 DWT
ships by type: bulk 2, cargo 3, container 2, petroleum tanker 1 (1999
est.)

Airports: 3 (1999 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 2
over 3,047 m: 2 (1999 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (1999 est.)

Heliports: 1 (1999 est.)

@Bahrain:Military

Military branches: Ground Force, Navy, Air Force, Coast Guard, Police
Force

Military manpower - military age: 15 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 221,109 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males age 15-49: 121,442 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 5,699 (2000 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $318 million (FY99)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 5.2% (FY99)

@Bahrain:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: the territorial dispute with Qatar over the
Hawar Islands and the maritime boundary dispute with Qatar are
currently before the International Court of Justice (ICJ)

______________________________________________________________________



BAKER ISLAND

@Baker Island:Geography

Location: Oceania, atoll in the North Pacific Ocean, about one-half of
the way from Hawaii to Australia

Geographic coordinates: 0 13 N, 176 31 W

Map references: Oceania

Area:
total: 1.4 sq km
land: 1.4 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: about 2.5 times the size of The Mall in
Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 4.8 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: equatorial; scant rainfall, constant wind, burning sun

Terrain: low, nearly level coral island surrounded by a narrow
fringing reef

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
highest point: unnamed location 8 m

Natural resources: guano (deposits worked until 1891)

Land use:
arable land: 0%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 0%
forests and woodland: 0%
other: 100%

Irrigated land: 0 sq km (1993)

Natural hazards: the narrow fringing reef surrounding the island can
be a maritime hazard

Environment - current issues: no natural fresh water resources

Geography - note: treeless, sparse, and scattered vegetation
consisting of grasses, prostrate vines, and low growing shrubs;
primarily a nesting, roosting, and foraging habitat for seabirds,
shorebirds, and marine wildlife

@Baker Island:People

Population: uninhabited
note: American civilians evacuated in 1942 after Japanese air and
naval attacks during World War II; occupied by US military during
World War II, but abandoned after the war; public entry is by
special-use permit from US Fish and Wildlife Service only and
generally restricted to scientists and educators; a cemetery and
remnants of structures from early settlement are located near the
middle of the west coast; visited annually by US Fish and Wildlife
Service (July 2000 est.)

@Baker Island:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Baker Island

Data code: FQ

Dependency status: unincorporated territory of the US; administered
from Washington, DC by the Fish and Wildlife Service of the US
Department of the Interior as part of the National Wildlife Refuge
system

Legal system: NA

Flag description: the flag of the US is used

@Baker Island:Economy

Economy - overview: no economic activity

@Baker Island:Transportation

Ports and harbors: none; offshore anchorage only; note - there is one
boat landing area along the middle of the west coast

Airports: 1 abandoned World War II runway of 1,665 m, completely
covered with vegetation and unusable

Transportation - note: there is a day beacon near the middle of the
west coast

@Baker Island:Military

Military - note: defense is the responsibility of the US; visited
annually by the US Coast Guard

@Baker Island:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

______________________________________________________________________



BANGLADESH

@Bangladesh:Introduction

Background: Bangladesh came into existence in 1971 when Bengali East
Pakistan seceded from its union with West Pakistan. A third of this
desperately poor country annually floods during the monsoon rainy
season, hampering normal economic development.

@Bangladesh:Geography

Location: Southern Asia, bordering the Bay of Bengal, between Burma
and India

Geographic coordinates: 24 00 N, 90 00 E

Map references: Asia

Area:
total: 144,000 sq km
land: 133,910 sq km
water: 10,090 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Wisconsin

Land boundaries:
total: 4,246 km
border countries: Burma 193 km, India 4,053 km

Coastline: 580 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 18 nm
continental shelf: up to the outer limits of the continental margin
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; cool, dry winter (October to March); hot, humid
summer (March to June); cool, rainy monsoon (June to October)

Terrain: mostly flat alluvial plain; hilly in southeast

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point: Keokradong 1,230 m

Natural resources: natural gas, arable land, timber

Land use:
arable land: 73%
permanent crops: 2%
permanent pastures: 5%
forests and woodland: 15%
other: 5% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 31,000 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: droughts, cyclones; much of the country routinely
flooded during the summer monsoon season

Environment - current issues: many people are landless and forced to
live on and cultivate flood-prone land; limited access to potable
water; water-borne diseases prevalent; water pollution especially of
fishing areas results from the use of commercial pesticides;
intermittent water shortages because of falling water tables in the
northern and central parts of the country; soil degradation;
deforestation; severe overpopulation

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered
Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Nuclear Test
Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea

@Bangladesh:People

Population: 129,194,224 (July 2000 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 36% (male 24,055,675; female 22,918,354)
15-64 years: 60% (male 39,924,040; female 37,992,459)
65 years and over: 4% (male 2,342,134; female 1,961,562) (2000 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.59% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 25.44 births/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 8.73 deaths/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.77 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 1.19 male(s)/female
total population: 1.05 male(s)/female (2000 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 71.66 deaths/1,000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 60.16 years
male: 60.4 years
female: 59.91 years (2000 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.85 children born/woman (2000 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Bangladeshi(s)
adjective: Bangladesh

Ethnic groups: Bengali 98%, Biharis 250,000, tribals less than 1
million

Religions: Muslim 88.3%, Hindu 10.5%, other 1.2%

Languages: Bangla (official), English

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 38.1%
male: 49.4%
female: 26.1% (1995 est.)

@Bangladesh:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: People's Republic of Bangladesh
conventional short form: Bangladesh
former: East Pakistan

Data code: BG

Government type: republic

Capital: Dhaka

Administrative divisions: 5 divisions; Barisal, Chittagong, Dhaka,
Khulna, Rajshahi
note: there may be one additional division named Sylhet

Independence: 16 December 1971 (from Pakistan)

National holiday: Independence Day, 26 March (1971)

Constitution: 4 November 1972, effective 16 December 1972, suspended
following coup of 24 March 1982, restored 10 November 1986, amended
many times

Legal system: based on English common law

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Shahabuddin AHMED (since 9 October 1996);
note - the president's duties are normally ceremonial, but with the
13th amendment to the constitution ("Caretaker Government Amendment"),
the president's role becomes significant at times when Parliament is
dissolved and a caretaker government is installed - at presidential
direction - to supervise the elections
head of government: Prime Minister Sheikh HASINA Wajed (since 23 June
1996)
cabinet: Cabinet selected by the prime minister and appointed by the
president
elections: president elected by National Parliament for a five-year
term; election last held 24 July 1996 (next to be held by NA October
2001); following legislative elections, the leader of the party that
wins the most seats is usually appointed prime minister by the
president
election results: Shahabuddin AHMED elected president without
opposition; percent of National Parliament vote - NA

Legislative branch: unicameral National Parliament or Jatiya Sangsad
(330 seats; 300 elected by popular vote from single territorial
constituencies, 30 seats reserved for women; members serve five-year
terms)
elections: last held 12 June 1996 (next to be held NA 2001)
election results: percent of vote by party - AL 33.87%, BNP 30.87%;
seats by party - AL 178, BNP 113, JP 33, JI 3, other 2, election still
to be held for 1 seat; note - the elections of 12 June 1996 brought to
power an Awami League government for the first time in twenty-one
years; held under a neutral, caretaker administration, the elections
were characterized by a peaceful, orderly process and massive voter
turnout, ending a bitter two-year impasse between the former BNP and
opposition parties that had paralyzed National Parliament and led to
widespread street violence

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, the Chief Justices and other judges
are appointed by the president

Political parties and leaders: Awami League or AL [Sheikh HASINA
Wajed]; Bangladesh Communist Party or BCP ;
Bangladesh Nationalist Party or BNP ;
Jamaat-E-Islami or JI ; Jatiyo Party or JP
International organization participation: AsDB, C, CCC, CP, ESCAP,
FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC,
IFRCS, IHO (pending member), ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat,
Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MINURSO, MONUC, NAM, OIC, OPCW, SAARC,
UN, UN Security Council (temporary), UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO,
UNIKOM, UNMIBH, UNMIK, UNMOP, UNMOT, UNOMIG, UNTAET, UNU, UPU, WCL,
WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Khwaja Mohammad SHEHABUDDIN
chancery: 2201 Wisconsin Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20007
telephone:  (202) 342-8372
consulate(s) general: Los Angeles and New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador John C. HOLZMAN
embassy: Diplomatic Enclave, Madani Avenue, Baridhara, Dhaka 1212
mailing address: G. P. O. Box 323, Dhaka 1000
telephone:  (2) 884700 through 884722
FAX:  (2) 883744

Flag description: green with a large red disk slightly to the hoist
side of center; the red sun of freedom represents the blood shed to
achieve independence; the green field symbolizes the lush countryside,
and secondarily, the traditional color of Islam

@Bangladesh:Economy

Economy - overview: Despite sustained domestic and international
efforts to improve economic and demographic prospects, Bangladesh
remains one of the world's poorest, most densely populated, and least
developed nations. The economy is largely agricultural, with the
cultivation of rice the single most important activity in the economy.
Major impediments to growth include frequent cyclones and floods, the
inefficiency of state-owned enterprises, a rapidly growing labor force
that cannot be absorbed by agriculture, delays in exploiting energy
resources (natural gas), inadequate power supplies, and slow
implementation of economic reforms. Prime Minister Sheikh HASINA
Wajed's Awami League government has made some headway improving the
climate for foreign investors and liberalizing the capital markets;
for example, it has negotiated with foreign firms for oil and gas
exploration, better countrywide distribution of cooking gas, and the
construction of natural gas pipelines and power plants. Progress on
other economic reforms has been halting because of opposition from the
bureaucracy, public sector unions, and other vested interest groups.
The especially severe floods of 1998 increased the country's reliance
on large-scale international aid. So far the East Asian financial
crisis has not had major impact on the economy.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $187 billion (1999 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 5.2% (1999 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $1,470 (1999 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 30%
industry: 17%
services: 53% (1999 est.)

Population below poverty line: 35.6% (FY95/96 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 4.1%
highest 10%: 23.7% (1992)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 9% (FY98/99 est.)

Labor force: 56 million (1995-96)
note: extensive export of labor to Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, UAE, Oman,
Qatar, Malaysia, and Singapore

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 63%, services 26%, industry
11% (FY95/96)

Unemployment rate: 35.2% (1996)

Budget:
revenues: $4.3 billion
expenditures: $6.5 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1997)

Industries: cotton textiles, jute, garments, tea processing, paper
newsprint, cement, chemical fertilizer, light engineering, sugar

Industrial production growth rate: 2.5% (1997 est.)

Electricity - production: 12.5 billion kWh (1999 est.)

Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 98%
hydro: 2%
nuclear: 0%
other: 0% (1999)

Electricity - consumption: 11.039 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1999)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1999)

Agriculture - products: rice, jute, tea, wheat, sugarcane, potatoes;
beef, milk, poultry, tobacco, pulses, oilseeds, spices, fruit

Exports: $5.1 billion (1998)

Exports - commodities: garments, jute and jute goods, leather, frozen
fish and seafood

Exports - partners: US 33%, Germany 10%, UK 9%, France 6%, Italy 5%
(1997)

Imports: $8.01 billion (1998)

Imports - commodities: machinery and equipment, chemicals, iron and
steel, textiles, raw cotton, food, crude oil and petroleum products,
cement

Imports - partners: India 12%, China 9%, Japan 7%, Hong Kong 6%, South
Korea 6% (1997)

Debt - external: $16.5 billion (1998)

Economic aid - recipient: $1.475 billion (FY96/97)

Currency: 1 taka (Tk) = 100 poisha

Exchange rates: taka (Tk) per US$1 - 51.000 (January 2000), 49.085
(1999), 46.906 (1998), 43.892 (1997), 41.794 (1996), 40.278 (1995)

Fiscal year: 1 July - 30 June

@Bangladesh:Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 470,000 (1998)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 41,000 (1998)

Telephone system:
domestic: modernizing; introducing digital systems; trunk systems
include VHF and UHF microwave, and some fiber-optic cable in cities
international: satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Indian Ocean);
international radiotelephone communications and landline service to
neighboring countries

Radio broadcast stations: AM 12, FM 12, shortwave 2 (1999)

Radios: 6.15 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 15 (1999)

Televisions: 770,000 (1997)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 6 (1999)

@Bangladesh:Transportation

Railways:
total: 2,745 km
broad gauge: 923 km 1.676-m gauge
narrow gauge: 1,822 km 1.000-m gauge (1998 est.)

Highways:
total: 201,182 km
paved: 19,112 km
unpaved: 182,070 km (1997 est.)

Waterways: 5,150-8,046 km navigable waterways (includes 2,575-3,058 km
main cargo routes)

Pipelines: natural gas 1,220 km

Ports and harbors: Chittagong, Dhaka, Mongla Port

Merchant marine:
total: 36 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 284,489 GRT/405,845 DWT
ships by type: bulk 2, cargo 28, container 1, petroleum tanker 2,
refrigerated cargo 1, roll-on/roll-off 2 (1999 est.)

Airports: 16 (1999 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 16
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 5
914 to 1,523 m: 1
under 914 m: 6 (1999 est.)

@Bangladesh:Military

Military branches: Army, Navy, Coast Guard, Air Force, paramilitary
forces (includes Bangladesh Rifles, Bangladesh Ansars, Village Defense
Parties, National Cadet Corps), Armed Police battalions

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 34,683,414 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males age 15-49: 20,565,193 (2000 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $559 million (FY96/97)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 1.8% (FY96/97)

@Bangladesh:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: a portion of the boundary with India is
indefinite; dispute with India over South Talpatty/New Moore Island

Illicit drugs: transit country for illegal drugs produced in
neighboring countries

______________________________________________________________________



BARBADOS

@Barbados:Introduction

Background: The island was uninhabited when first settled by the
British in 1627. Its economy remained heavily dependent on sugar, rum,
and molasses production through most of the 20th century. In the
1990s, tourism and manufacturing surpassed the sugar industry in
economic importance.

@Barbados:Geography

Location: Caribbean, island between the Caribbean Sea and the North
Atlantic Ocean, northeast of Venezuela

Geographic coordinates: 13 10 N, 59 32 W

Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

Area:
total: 430 sq km
land: 430 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: 2.5 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 97 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; rainy season (June to October)

Terrain: relatively flat; rises gently to central highland region

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Mount Hillaby 336 m

Natural resources: petroleum, fish, natural gas

Land use:
arable land: 37%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 5%
forests and woodland: 12%
other: 46% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: infrequent hurricanes; periodic landslides

Environment - current issues: pollution of coastal waters from waste
disposal by ships; soil erosion; illegal solid waste disposal
threatens contamination of aquifers

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species,
Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer
Protection, Ship Pollution
signed, but not ratified: Biodiversity

Geography - note: easternmost Caribbean island

@Barbados:People

Population: 274,540 (July 2000 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 22% (male 30,687; female 30,172)
15-64 years: 69% (male 92,241; female 96,866)
65 years and over: 9% (male 9,506; female 15,068) (2000 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.55% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 14.45 births/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 8.68 deaths/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.32 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.63 male(s)/female
total population: 0.93 male(s)/female (2000 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 12.37 deaths/1,000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 73 years
male: 70.43 years
female: 75.6 years (2000 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.7 children born/woman (2000 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Barbadian(s) or Bajan (colloquial)
adjective: Barbadian or Bajan (colloquial)

Ethnic groups: black 80%, white 4%, other 16%

Religions: Protestant 67% (Anglican 40%, Pentecostal 8%, Methodist 7%,
other 12%), Roman Catholic 4%, none 17%, other 12%

Languages: English

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over has ever attended school
total population: 97.4%
male: 98%
female: 96.8% (1995 est.)

@Barbados:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Barbados

Data code: BB

Government type: parliamentary democracy; independent sovereign state
within the Commonwealth

Capital: Bridgetown

Administrative divisions: 11 parishes; Christ Church, Saint Andrew,
Saint George, Saint James, Saint John, Saint Joseph, Saint Lucy, Saint
Michael, Saint Peter, Saint Philip, Saint Thomas
note: the city of Bridgetown may be given parish status

Independence: 30 November 1966 (from UK)

National holiday: Independence Day, 30 November (1966)

Constitution: 30 November 1966

Legal system: English common law; no judicial review of legislative
acts

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952),
represented by Governor General Sir Clifford Straughn HUSBANDS (since
1 June 1996)
head of government: Prime Minister Owen Seymour ARTHUR (since 6
September 1994); Deputy Prime Minister Billie MILLER (since 6
September 1994)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the governor general on the advice of
the prime minister
elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; governor general appointed
by the monarch; prime minister appointed by the governor general

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament consists of the Senate
(21-member body appointed by the governor general) and the House of
Assembly (28 seats; members are elected by direct popular vote to
serve five-year terms)
elections: House of Assembly - last held 20 January 1999 (next to be
held by January 2004)
election results: House of Assembly - percent of vote by party - NA;
seats by party - BLP 26, DLP 2

Judicial branch: Supreme Court of Judicature (judges are appointed by
the Service Commissions for the Judicial and Legal Service)

Political parties and leaders: Barbados Labor Party or BLP [Owen
ARTHUR]; Democratic Labor Party or DLP ; National
Democratic Party or NDP 

Political pressure groups and leaders: Barbados Workers Union [Leroy
TROTMAN]; Clement Payne Labor Union ; People's
Progressive Movement ; Worker's Party of Barbados [Dr.
George BELLE]

International organization participation: ACP, C, Caricom, CDB, ECLAC,
FAO, G-77, IADB, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF,
IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ISO (correspondent), ITU, LAES, NAM,
OAS, OPANAL, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO,
WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Courtney N. BLACKMAN
chancery: 2144 Wyoming Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone:  (202) 939-9200
consulate(s) general: Miami and New York
consulate(s): Los Angeles

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d' Affairs Roland BULLEN
embassy: Canadian Imperial Bank of Commerce Building, Broad Street,
Bridgetown
mailing address: P. O. Box 302, Bridgetown; FPO AA 34055
telephone:  (246) 436-4950
FAX:  (246) 429-5246

Flag description: three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side),
gold, and blue with the head of a black trident centered on the gold
band; the trident head represents independence and a break with the
past (the colonial coat of arms contained a complete trident)

@Barbados:Economy

Economy - overview: Historically, the Barbadian economy had been
dependent on sugarcane cultivation and related activities, but
production in recent years has diversified into manufacturing and
tourism. The start of the Port Charles Marina project in Speightstown
helped the tourism industry continue to expand in 1996-99. Offshore
finance and informatics are important foreign exchange earners, and
there is also a light manufacturing sector. The government continues
its efforts to reduce the unacceptably high unemployment rate,
encourage direct foreign investment, and privatize remaining
state-owned enterprises.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $2.9 billion (1998 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 4.4% (1998 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $11,200 (1998 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 4.9%
industry: 15.6%
services: 79.5% (1997)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1.7% (1998)

Labor force: 136,000 (1998 est.)

Labor force - by occupation: services 75%, industry 15%, agriculture
10% (1996 est.)

Unemployment rate: 12% (1998 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $725.5 million
expenditures: $750.6 million, including capital expenditures of $126.3
million (FY97/98 est.)

Industries: tourism, sugar, light manufacturing, component assembly
for export

Industrial production growth rate: 0.8% (1996)

Electricity - production: 672 million kWh (1998)

Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 100%
hydro: 0%
nuclear: 0%
other: 0% (1998)

Electricity - consumption: 625 million kWh (1998)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1998)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1998)

Agriculture - products: sugarcane, vegetables, cotton

Exports: $211.2 million (1998)

Exports - commodities: sugar and molasses, rum, other foods and
beverages, chemicals, electrical components, clothing

Exports - partners: UK 14.8%, US 11.6%, Trinidad and Tobago 7.6%,
Venezuela 6.1%, Jamaica 5.8% (1998)

Imports: $1.01 billion (1998)

Imports - commodities: consumer goods, machinery, foodstuffs,
construction materials, chemicals, fuel, electrical components

Imports - partners: US 30.7%, Trinidad and Tobago 10.2%, Japan 8.3%,
UK 7.7%, Canada 2.2% (1998)

Debt - external: $550 million (1998 est.)

Economic aid - recipient: $9.1 million (1995)

Currency: 1 Barbadian dollar (Bds$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Barbadian dollars (Bds$) per US$1 - 2.0000 (fixed rate
pegged to the US dollar)

Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March

@Barbados:Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 90,000 (1995)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 4,614 (1995)

Telephone system:
domestic: island-wide automatic telephone system
international: satellite earth stations - 4 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean);
tropospheric scatter to Trinidad and Saint Lucia

Radio broadcast stations: AM 2, FM 3, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios: 237,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 1 (plus two cable channels) (1997)

Televisions: 76,000 (1997)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 3 (1999)

@Barbados:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways:
total: 1,600 km
paved: 1,578 km
unpaved: 22 km (1998 est.)

Ports and harbors: Bridgetown, Speightstown (Port Charles Marina)

Merchant marine:
total: 47 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 654,580 GRT/1,103,780 DWT
ships by type: bulk 10, cargo 29, combination bulk 1, container 1,
petroleum tanker 4, refrigerated cargo 2 (1999 est.)
note: a flag of convenience registry; includes ships of 2 countries:
Canada owns 2 ships, Hong Kong 1 (1998 est.)

Airports: 1 (1999 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 1
over 3,047 m: 1 (1999 est.)

@Barbados:Military

Military branches: Royal Barbados Defense Force (includes Ground
Forces and Coast Guard), Royal Barbados Police Force

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 77,789 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males age 15-49: 53,472 (2000 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $NA

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: NA%

@Barbados:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

Illicit drugs: one of many Caribbean transshipment points for
narcotics bound for the US and Europe

______________________________________________________________________



BASSAS DA INDIA

@Bassas da India:Geography

Location: Southern Africa, islands in the southern Mozambique Channel,
about one-half of the way from Madagascar to Mozambique

Geographic coordinates: 21 30 S, 39 50 E

Map references: Africa

Area:
total: 0.2 sq km
land: 0.2 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: about one-third the size of The Mall in
Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 35.2 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical

Terrain: volcanic rock

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point: unnamed location 2.4 m

Natural resources: none

Land use:
arable land: 0%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 0%
forests and woodland: 0%
other: 100% (all rock)

Irrigated land: 0 sq km (1993)

Natural hazards: maritime hazard since it is usually under water
during high tide and surrounded by reefs; subject to periodic cyclones

Environment - current issues: NA

@Bassas da India:People

Population: uninhabited (July 2000 est.)

@Bassas da India:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Bassas da India

Data code: BS

Dependency status: possession of France; administered by a high
commissioner of the Republic, resident in Reunion

Flag description: the flag of France is used

@Bassas da India:Economy

Economy - overview: no economic activity

@Bassas da India:Transportation

Ports and harbors: none; offshore anchorage only

@Bassas da India:Military

Military - note: defense is the responsibility of France

@Bassas da India:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: claimed by Madagascar

______________________________________________________________________



BELARUS

@Belarus:Introduction

Background: After seven decades as a constituent republic of the USSR,
Belarus attained its independence in 1991. It has retained closer
political and economic ties to Russia than any of the other former
Soviet republics. Belarus and Russia signed a treaty on a two-state
union on 8 December 1999 envisioning greater political and economic
integration but, to date, neither side has actively sought to
implement the accord.

@Belarus:Geography

Location: Eastern Europe, east of Poland

Geographic coordinates: 53 00 N, 28 00 E

Map references: Commonwealth of Independent States

Area:
total: 207,600 sq km
land: 207,600 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Kansas

Land boundaries:
total: 3,098 km
border countries: Latvia 141 km, Lithuania 502 km, Poland 605 km,
Russia 959 km, Ukraine 891 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: cold winters, cool and moist summers; transitional between
continental and maritime

Terrain: generally flat and contains much marshland

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Nyoman River 90 m
highest point: Dzyarzhynskaya Hara 346 m

Natural resources: forests, peat deposits, small quantities of oil and
natural gas

Land use:
arable land: 29%
permanent crops: 1%
permanent pastures: 15%
forests and woodland: 34%
other: 21% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 1,000 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: NA

Environment - current issues: soil pollution from pesticide use;
southern part of the country contaminated with fallout from 1986
nuclear reactor accident at Chornobyl' in northern Ukraine

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air
Pollution-Sulphur 85, Biodiversity, Endangered Species, Environmental
Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban,
Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Climate Change, Law of the Sea

Geography - note: landlocked

@Belarus:People

Population: 10,366,719 (July 2000 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 19% (male 982,959; female 942,062)
15-64 years: 68% (male 3,411,684; female 3,614,453)
65 years and over: 13% (male 466,929; female 948,632) (2000 est.)

Population growth rate: -0.17% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 9.27 births/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 13.96 deaths/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: 3.01 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.94 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.49 male(s)/female
total population: 0.88 male(s)/female (2000 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 14.63 deaths/1,000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 68 years
male: 61.83 years
female: 74.48 years (2000 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.25 children born/woman (2000 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Belarusian(s)
adjective: Belarusian

Ethnic groups: Byelorussian 77.9%, Russian 13.2%, Polish 4.1%,
Ukrainian 2.9%, other 1.9%

Religions: Eastern Orthodox 80%, other (including Roman Catholic,
Protestant, Jewish, and Muslim) 20% (1997 est.)

Languages: Byelorussian, Russian, other

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 98%
male: 99%
female: 97% (1989 est.)

@Belarus:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Belarus
conventional short form: Belarus
local long form: Respublika Byelarus'
local short form: none
former: Belorussian (Byelorussian) Soviet Socialist Republic

Data code: BO

Government type: republic

Capital: Minsk

Administrative divisions: 6 voblastsi (singular - voblasts') and one
municipality* (harady, singular - horad); Brestskaya (Brest),
Homyel'skaya (Homyel'), Horad Minsk*, Hrodzyenskaya (Hrodna),
Mahilyowskaya (Mahilyow), Minskaya, Vitsyebskaya (Vitsyebsk)
note: voblasti have the administrative center name following in
parentheses

Independence: 25 August 1991 (Belarusian Supreme Soviet declaration of
independence from the Soviet Union)

National holiday: Independence Day, 3 July (1944); note - represents
Minsk liberation from German occupation

Constitution: 30 March 1994; revised by national referendum of 24
November 1996 giving the presidency greatly expanded powers and became
effective 27 November 1996

Legal system: based on civil law system

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Aleksandr LUKASHENKO (since 20 July 1994)
head of government: Prime Minister Sergey LING (acting since 18
November 1996, confirmed 19 February 1997); First Deputy Prime
Minister Vasiliy DOLGOLEV (since 2 December 1998); Deputy Prime
Ministers Vladimir ZAMETALIN (since 15 July 1997), Ural LATYPOV (since
30 December 1997), Gennadiy NOVITSKIY (since 11 February 1997), Leonid
KOZIK (since 4 February 1997), Aleksandr POPKOV (since 10 November
1998)
cabinet: Council of Ministers
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term;
election last held 24 June and 10 July 1994 (next to be held NA;
according to the 1994 constitution, the next election should have been
held in 1999, however LUKASHENKO extended his term to 2001 via the
November 1996 referendum); prime minister and deputy prime ministers
appointed by the president
election results: Aleksandr LUKASHENKO elected president; percent of
vote - Aleksandr LUKASHENKO 85%, Vyacheslav KEBICH 15%
note: first presidential elections took place in June-July 1994

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament or Natsionalnoye Sobranie
consists of the Council of the Republic or Soviet Respubliki (64
seats; eight appointed by the president and 56 indirectly elected by
deputies of local councils for four-year terms) and the Chamber of
Representatives or Palata Pretsaviteley (110 seats; note - present
members came from the former Supreme Soviet which LUKASHENKO disbanded
in November 1996)
elections: last held May and November-December 1995 (two rounds, each
with a run-off; disbanded after the November 1996 referendum; next to
be held NA)
election results: after the November 1996 referendum, seats for the
Chamber of Representatives were filled by former Supreme Soviet
members as follows: PKB 24, Agrarian 14, Party of Peoples Concord 5,
LDPB 1, UPNAZ 1, Green World Party 1, Belarusian Social Sports Party
1, Ecological Party 1, Republican Party of Labor and Justice 1,
independents 61; 58 of the 64 seats in the Council of the Republic
have been appointed/elected

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, judges are appointed by the president;
Constitutional Court, half of the judges appointed by the president
and half appointed by the Chamber of Representatives

Political parties and leaders: Agrarian Party [Aleksandr PAVLOV,
acting chairman]; Belarusian Communist Party or KPB [Viktor CHIKIN,
chairman]; Belarusian Green Party or BPZ ;
Belarusian Labor Party or BPP ;
Belarusian Patriotic Movement (Belarusian Patriotic Party) or BPR
; Belarusian Popular Front or BNF
; Belarusian Social-Democrat or SDBP
; Belarusian Social-Democratic Party
Hramada ; Belarusian Social Sports
Party or BSSP ; Belarusian
Socialist Party ; Civic Accord Bloc (United
Civic Party) or CAB ; Ecological
Party or BEP ; Liberal-Democratic
Party or LDPB ; Party of All-Belarusian
Unity and Concord or UPNAZ ; Party of
Communists Belarusian or PKB ; Party of
Popular Accord or PPA ; Republican Party of Labor and
Justice or RPPS ; Women's Party Nadezhda
International organization participation: CCC, CEI, CIS, EAPC, EBRD,
ECE, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Inmarsat, Intelsat
(nonsignatory user), Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, NAM,
OPCW, OSCE, PCA, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO,
WMO, WTrO (applicant)

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Valery TSEPAKO
chancery: 1619 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20009
telephone:  (202) 986-1604
FAX:  (202) 986-1805
consulate(s) general: New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Daniel V. SPECKHARD
embassy: Starovilenskaya #46-220002, Minsk
mailing address: use embassy street address
telephone:  (17) 231-5000
FAX:  (17) 234-7853

Flag description: red horizontal band (top) and green horizontal band
one-half the width of the red band; a white vertical stripe on the
hoist side bears the Belarusian national ornament in red

@Belarus:Economy

Economy - overview: Belarus has seen little structural reform since
1995, when President LUKASHENKO launched the country on the path of
"market socialism." In keeping with this policy, LUKASHENKO re-imposed
administrative controls over prices and currency exchange rates and
expanded the state's right to intervene in the management of private
enterprise. In addition to the burdens imposed by high inflation,
businesses have been subject to pressure on the part of central and
local governments, e.g., arbitrary changes in regulations, numerous
rigorous inspections, and retroactive application of new business
regulations prohibiting practices that had been legal. Further
economic problems are two consecutive bad harvests, 1998-99, and
persistent trade deficits. Close relations with Russia, possibly
leading to reunion, color the pattern of economic developments. For
the time being, Belarus remains self-isolated from the West and its
open-market economies.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $55.2 billion (1999 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 1.5% (1999 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $5,300 (1999 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 23%
industry: 28%
services: 49% (1998 est.)

Population below poverty line: 22% (1995 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 4.9%
highest 10%: 19.4% (1993)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 295% (1999 est.)

Labor force: 4.3 million (1998)

Labor force - by occupation: industry and construction NA%,
agriculture and forestry NA%, services NA%

Unemployment rate: 2.3% officially registered unemployed (December
1998); large number of underemployed workers

Budget:
revenues: $4 billion
expenditures: $4.1 billion, including capital expenditures of $180
million (1997 est.)

Industries: metal-cutting machine tools, tractors, trucks, earth
movers, motorcycles, TV sets, chemical fibers, fertilizer, textiles,
radios, refrigerators

Industrial production growth rate: 8% (1999 est.)

Electricity - production: 21.893 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 99.89%
hydro: 0.11%
nuclear: 0%
other: 0% (1998)

Electricity - consumption: 28.66 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - exports: 2.3 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - imports: 10.6 billion kWh (1998)

Agriculture - products: grain, potatoes, vegetables, sugar beets,
flax; beef, milk

Exports: $6 billion (f.o.b., 1999)

Exports - commodities: machinery and equipment, chemicals, metals,
textiles, foodstuffs

Exports - partners: Russia 66%, Ukraine, Poland, Germany, Lithuania
(1998)

Imports: $6.4 billion (c.i.f., 1999)

Imports - commodities: mineral products, machinery and equipment,
metals, chemicals, foodstuffs

Imports - partners: Russia 54%, Ukraine, Germany, Poland, Lithuania
(1998)

Debt - external: $1.1 billion (1998 est.)

Economic aid - recipient: $194.3 million (1995)

Currency: Belarusian rubel (BR)

Exchange rates: Belarusian rubels per US$1 - 730,000 (15 December
1999), 139,000 (25 January 1999), 46,080 (2nd qtr 1998), 25,964
(1997), 15,500 (yearend 1996), 11,500 (yearend 1995)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Belarus:Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 2.537 million (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 8,000 (1999)

Telephone system: the Ministry of Telecommunications controls all
telecommunications through its carrier (a joint stock company)
Beltelcom which is a monopoly
domestic: local - Minsk has a digital metropolitan network and a
cellular NMT-450 network; waiting lists for telephones are long; local
service outside Minsk is neglected and poor; intercity - Belarus has a
partly developed fiber-optic backbone system presently serving at
least 13 major cities (1998); Belarus's fiber optics form synchronous
digital hierarchy rings through other countries' systems; an
inadequate analog system remains operational
international: Belarus is a member of the Trans-European Line (TEL),
Trans-Asia-Europe Fiber-Optic Line (TAE) and has access to the
Trans-Siberia Line (TSL); three fiber-optic segments provide
connectivity to Latvia, Poland, Russia, and Ukraine; worldwide service
is available to Belarus through this infrastructure; additional analog
lines to Russia; Intelsat, Eutelsat, and Intersputnik earth stations

Radio broadcast stations: AM 28, FM 37, shortwave 11 (1998)

Radios: 3.02 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 17 (1997)

Televisions: 2.52 million (1997)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 1 (1999)

@Belarus:Transportation

Railways:
total: 5,563 km
broad gauge: 5,563 km 1.520-m gauge (894 km electrified)

Highways:
total: 63,355 km
paved: 60,567 km
unpaved: 2,788 km (1998 est.)

Waterways: NA km; note - Belarus has extensive and widely used canal
and river systems

Pipelines: crude oil 1,470 km; refined products 1,100 km; natural gas
1,980 km (1992)

Ports and harbors: Mazyr

Airports: 118 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 36
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 18
1,524 to 2,437 m: 5
under 914 m: 11 (1996 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 82
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 6
1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
914 to 1,523 m: 9
under 914 m: 62 (1996 est.)

@Belarus:Military

Military branches: Army, Air Force, Air Defense Force, Interior
Ministry Troops, Border Guards

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 2,714,420 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males age 15-49: 2,126,655 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 82,720 (2000 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $156 million (FY98)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 1.2% (FY98)

@Belarus:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

Illicit drugs: limited cultivation of opium poppy and cannabis, mostly
for the domestic market; transshipment point for illicit drugs to and
via Russia, and to the Baltics and Western Europe

______________________________________________________________________



BELGIUM

@Belgium:Introduction

Background: Belgium became independent from the Netherlands in 1830
and was occupied by Germany during World Wars I and II. It has
prospered in the past half century as a modern, technologically
advanced European state and member of NATO and the EU. Tensions
between the Dutch-speaking Flemings of the north and the
French-speaking Walloons of the south have led in recent years to
constitutional amendments granting these regions formal recognition
and autonomy.

@Belgium:Geography

Location: Western Europe, bordering the North Sea, between France and
the Netherlands

Geographic coordinates: 50 50 N, 4 00 E

Map references: Europe

Area:
total: 30,510 sq km
land: 30,230 sq km
water: 280 sq km

Area - comparative: about the size of Maryland

Land boundaries:
total: 1,385 km
border countries: France 620 km, Germany 167 km, Luxembourg 148 km,
Netherlands 450 km

Coastline: 66 km

Maritime claims:
continental shelf: median line with neighbors
exclusive fishing zone: median line with neighbors (extends about 68
km from coast)
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: temperate; mild winters, cool summers; rainy, humid, cloudy

Terrain: flat coastal plains in northwest, central rolling hills,
rugged mountains of Ardennes Forest in southeast

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: North Sea 0 m
highest point: Signal de Botrange 694 m

Natural resources: coal, natural gas

Land use:
arable land: 24%
permanent crops: 1%
permanent pastures: 20%
forests and woodland: 21%
other: 34%

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: flooding is a threat in areas of reclaimed coastal
land, protected from the sea by concrete dikes

Environment - current issues: the environment is exposed to intense
pressures from human activities: urbanization, dense transportation
network, industry, intense animal breeding and crop cultivation; air
and water pollution also have repercussions for neighboring countries;
uncertainties regarding federal and regional responsibilities (now
resolved) have impeded progress in tackling environmental challenges

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85,
Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity,
Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental
Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine
Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship
Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air
Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air
Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol

Geography - note: crossroads of Western Europe; majority of West
European capitals within 1,000 km of Brussels which is the seat of
both the EU and NATO

@Belgium:People

Population: 10,241,506 (July 2000 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 18% (male 919,445; female 877,896)
15-64 years: 66% (male 3,386,193; female 3,334,081)
65 years and over: 16% (male 701,842; female 1,022,049) (2000 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.18% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 10.91 births/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 10.13 deaths/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: 0.98 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.69 male(s)/female
total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2000 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 4.76 deaths/1,000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 77.8 years
male: 74.47 years
female: 81.3 years (2000 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.61 children born/woman (2000 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Belgian(s)
adjective: Belgian

Ethnic groups: Fleming 58%, Walloon 31%, mixed or other 11%

Religions: Roman Catholic 75%, Protestant or other 25%

Languages: Dutch 58%, French 32%, German 10%, legally bilingual

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 98%
male: NA%
female: NA%

@Belgium:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Kingdom of Belgium
conventional short form: Belgium
local long form: Royaume de Belgique/Koninkrijk Belgie
local short form: Belgique/Belgie

Data code: BE

Government type: federal parliamentary democracy under a
constitutional monarch

Capital: Brussels

Administrative divisions: 10 provinces (French: provinces, singular -
province; Flemish: provincien, singular - provincie); Antwerpen,
Brabant Wallon, Hainaut, Liege, Limburg, Luxembourg, Namur,
Oost-Vlaanderen, Vlaams Brabant, West-Vlaanderen
note: the Brussels Capital Region is not included within the 10
provinces

Independence: 4 October 1830 (from the Netherlands)

National holiday: National Day, 21 July (ascension of King LEOPOLD I
to the throne in 1831)

Constitution: 7 February 1831, last revised 14 July 1993; parliament
approved a constitutional package creating a federal state

Legal system: civil law system influenced by English constitutional
theory; judicial review of legislative acts; accepts compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction, with reservations

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal and compulsory

Executive branch:
chief of state: King ALBERT II (since 9 August 1993); Heir Apparent
Prince PHILIPPE, son of the monarch
head of government: Prime Minister Guy VERHOFSTADT (since 13 July
1999)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the monarch and approved by
Parliament
elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; prime minister appointed
by the monarch and then approved by Parliament
note: government coalition - VLD, PRL, PS, SP, AGALEV, and ECOLO

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament consists of a Senate or
Senaat in Dutch, Senat in French (71 seats; 40 members are directly
elected by popular vote, 31 are indirectly elected; members serve
four-year terms) and a Chamber of Deputies or Kamer van
Volksvertegenwoordigers in Dutch, Chambre des Representants in French
(150 seats; members are directly elected by popular vote on the basis
of proportional representation to serve four-year terms)
elections: Senate and Chamber of Deputies - last held 13 June 1999
(next to be held in NA 2003)
election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - VLD 15.4%, CVP
14.7%, PRL 10.6%, PS 9.7%, VB 9.4%, SP 8.9%, ECOLO 7.4%, AGALEV 7.1%,
PSC 6.0%, VU 5.1%; seats by party - VLD 11, CVP 10, PS 10, PRL 9, VB
6, SP 6, ECOLO 6, AGALEV 5, PSC 5, VU 3; Chamber of Deputies - percent
of vote by party - VLD 14.3%, CVP 14.1%, PS 10.2%, PRL 10.1%, VB 9.9%,
SP 9.5%, ECOLO 7.4%, AGALEV 7.0%, PSC 5.9%, VU 5.6%; seats by party -
VLD 23, CVP 22, PS 19, PRL 18, VB 15, SP 14, ECOLO 11, PSC 10, AGALEV
9, VU 8, FN 1
note: as a result of the 1993 constitutional revision that furthered
devolution into a federal state, there are now three levels of
government (federal, regional, and linguistic community) with a
complex division of responsibilities; this reality leaves six
governments each with its own legislative assembly; for other acronyms
of the listed parties see Political parties and leaders

Judicial branch: Supreme Court of Justice or Hof van Cassatie in
Dutch, Cour de Cassation in French, judges are appointed for life by
the Belgian monarch

Political parties and leaders: AGALEV (Flemish Greens) [Wilfried
BERVOETS]; ECOLO (Francophone Greens) ; Flemish
Christian Democrats or CVP (Christian People's Party) [Stefaan DE
CLERCK, president]; Flemish Liberal Democrats or VLD [Karel DE GUCHT,
president]; Flemish Socialist Party or SP [Patrick JANSSENS,
president]; Francophone Christian Democrats or PSC (Social Christian
Party) ; Francophone Democratic Front or
FDF ; Francophone Liberal Reformation
Party or PRL ; Francophone Socialist Party
or PS ; National Front or FN ;
Vlaams Blok or VB ; Volksunie or VU [Geert BOURGEOIS,
president]; other minor parties

Political pressure groups and leaders: Christian and Socialist Trade
Unions; Federation of Belgian Industries; numerous other associations
representing bankers, manufacturers, middle-class artisans, and the
legal and medical professions; various organizations represent the
cultural interests of Flanders and Wallonia; various peace groups such
as the Flemish Action Committee Against Nuclear Weapons and Pax
Christi

International organization participation: ACCT, AfDB, AsDB, Australia
Group, Benelux, BIS, CCC, CE, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, EIB, EMU, ESA,
EU, FAO, G- 9, G-10, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA,
IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat,
Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD,
OPCW, OSCE, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMIK, UNMOGIP,
UNMOP, UNRWA, UNTSO, UPU, WADB (nonregional), WCL, WEU, WHO, WIPO,
WMO, WTrO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Alexis REYN
chancery: 3330 Garfield Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone:  (202) 333-6900
FAX:  (202) 333-3079
consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Chicago, Los Angeles, and New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Paul CEJAS
embassy: 27 Boulevard du Regent, B-1000 Brussels
mailing address: PSC 82, Box 002, APO AE 09710
telephone:  (2) 508-2111
FAX:  (2) 511-2725

Flag description: three equal vertical bands of black (hoist side),
yellow, and red; the design was based on the flag of France

@Belgium:Economy

Economy - overview: This modern private enterprise economy has
capitalized on its central geographic location, highly developed
transport network, and diversified industrial and commercial base.
Industry is concentrated mainly in the populous Flemish area in the
north, although the government is encouraging investment in the
southern region of Wallonia. With few natural resources, Belgium must
import substantial quantities of raw materials and export a large
volume of manufactures, making its economy unusually dependent on the
state of world markets. About three-quarters of its trade is with
other EU countries. Belgium's public debt fell from 127% of GDP in
1996 to 122% of GDP in 1998 and the government is trying to control
its expenditures to bring the figure more into line with other
industrialized countries. Belgium became a charter member of the
European Monetary Union (EMU) in January 1999. The dioxin crisis -
beginning in June 1999 with the discovery of a cancer-causing
substance in animal feed - constituted a serious blow to the
food-processing industry, both domestically and internationally. This
crisis slowed down GDP growth with recovery expected in the year 2000.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $243.4 billion (1999 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 1.8% (1999 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $23,900 (1999 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 1.4%
industry: 27%
services: 71.6% (1999 est.)

Population below poverty line: 4%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 3.7%
highest 10%: 20.2% (1992)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1% (1999 est.)

Labor force: 4.341 million (1999)

Labor force - by occupation: services 73%, industry 25%, agriculture
2% (1999 est.)

Unemployment rate: 9% (1999 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $116.5 billion
expenditures: $119 billion, including capital expenditures of $10.7
billion (1998 est.)

Industries: engineering and metal products, motor vehicle assembly,
processed food and beverages, chemicals, basic metals, textiles,
glass, petroleum, coal

Industrial production growth rate: -1% (1999 est.)

Electricity - production: 78.702 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 42.48%
hydro: 0.49%
nuclear: 55.72%
other: 1.31% (1998)

Electricity - consumption: 74.543 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - exports: 6.4 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - imports: 7.75 billion kWh (1998)

Agriculture - products: sugar beets, fresh vegetables, fruits, grain,
tobacco; beef, veal, pork, milk

Exports: $187.3 billion (f.o.b., 1999)

Exports - commodities: machinery and equipment, chemicals, diamonds,
metals and metal products

Exports - partners: EU 76% (Germany 19%, France 18%, Netherlands 12%,
UK 10%) (1998)

Imports: $172.8 billion (f.o.b., 1999)

Imports - commodities: machinery and equipment, chemicals, metals and
metal products

Imports - partners: EU 71% (Germany 18%, Netherlands 17%, France 14%,
UK 9%) (1998)

Debt - external: $28.3 billion (1999 est.)

Economic aid - donor: ODA, $764 million (1997)

Currency: 1 Belgian franc (BF) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: euros per US$1 - 0.9867 (January 2000), 0.9386 (1999);
Belgian francs (BF) per US$1 - 34.77 (January 1999), 36.229 (1998),
35.774 (1997), 30.962 (1996), 29.480 (1995)
note: on 1 January 1999, the EU introduced a common currency that is
now being used by financial institutions in some member countries at a
fixed rate of 40.3399 Belgian francs per euro; the euro will replace
the local currency in consenting countries for all transactions in
2002

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Belgium:Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 4.632 million (1995)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 664,000 (1999)

Telephone system: highly developed, technologically advanced, and
completely automated domestic and international telephone and
telegraph facilities
domestic: nationwide cellular telephone system; extensive cable
network; limited microwave radio relay network
international: 5 submarine cables; satellite earth stations - 2
Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) and 1 Eutelsat

Radio broadcast stations: FM 79, AM 7, shortwave 1 (1998)

Radios: 8.075 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 24 (1997)

Televisions: 4.72 million (1997)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 51 (1999)

@Belgium:Transportation

Railways:
total: 3,437 km (2,446 km electrified; 2,563 km double track)
standard gauge: 3,437 km 1.435-m gauge (1998)

Highways:
total: 145,850 km
paved: 117,701 km (including 1,682 km of expressways)
unpaved: 28,149 km (1998)

Waterways: 2,043 km (1,528 km in regular commercial use)

Pipelines: crude oil 161 km; petroleum products 1,167 km; natural gas
3,300 km

Ports and harbors: Antwerp (one of the world's busiest ports), Brugge,
Gent, Hasselt, Liege, Mons, Namur, Oostende, Zeebrugge

Merchant marine:
total: 22 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 35,075 GRT/57,347 DWT
ships by type: cargo 7, chemical tanker 8, petroleum tanker 7 (1999
est.)

Airports: 42 (1999 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 24
over 3,047 m: 6
2,438 to 3,047 m: 8
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 1
under 914 m: 6 (1999 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 18
914 to 1,523 m: 2
under 914 m: 16 (1999 est.)

Heliports: 1 (1999 est.)

@Belgium:Military

Military branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, National Gendarmerie

Military manpower - military age: 19 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 2,527,752 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males age 15-49: 2,090,800 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 64,165 (2000 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $2.8 billion (FY99)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 1.2% (FY99)

@Belgium:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

Illicit drugs: source of precursor chemicals for South American
cocaine processors; transshipment point for cocaine, heroin, hashish,
and marijuana entering Western Europe

______________________________________________________________________



BELIZE

@Belize:Introduction

Background: Territorial disputes between the UK and Guatemala delayed
the independence of Belize (formerly British Honduras) until 1981.
Guatemala refused to recognize the new nation until 1992. Tourism has
become the mainstay of the economy. The country remains plagued by
high unemployment, growing involvement in the South American drug
trade, and increased urban crime.

@Belize:Geography

Location: Middle America, bordering the Caribbean Sea, between
Guatemala and Mexico

Geographic coordinates: 17 15 N, 88 45 W

Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

Area:
total: 22,960 sq km
land: 22,800 sq km
water: 160 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Massachusetts

Land boundaries:
total: 516 km
border countries: Guatemala 266 km, Mexico 250 km

Coastline: 386 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm in the north, 3 nm in the south; note - from
the mouth of the Sarstoon River to Ranguana Cay, Belize's territorial
sea is 3 nm; according to Belize's Maritime Areas Act, 1992, the
purpose of this limitation is to provide a framework for the
negotiation of a definitive agreement on territorial differences with
Guatemala

Climate: tropical; very hot and humid; rainy season (May to February)

Terrain: flat, swampy coastal plain; low mountains in south

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m
highest point: Victoria Peak 1,160 m

Natural resources: arable land potential, timber, fish, hydropower

Land use:
arable land: 2%
permanent crops: 1%
permanent pastures: 2%
forests and woodland: 92%
other: 3% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 20 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: frequent, devastating hurricanes (September to
December) and coastal flooding (especially in south)

Environment - current issues: deforestation; water pollution from
sewage, industrial effluents, agricultural runoff; solid waste
disposal

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered
Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection,
Marine Dumping, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note: only country in Central America without a coastline
on the North Pacific Ocean

@Belize:People

Population: 249,183 (July 2000 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 43% (male 54,009; female 51,945)
15-64 years: 54% (male 68,052; female 66,366)
65 years and over: 3% (male 4,298; female 4,513) (2000 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.75% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 32.29 births/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 4.81 deaths/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.95 male(s)/female
total population: 1.03 male(s)/female (2000 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 25.97 deaths/1,000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 70.91 years
male: 68.66 years
female: 73.28 years (2000 est.)

Total fertility rate: 4.14 children born/woman (2000 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Belizean(s)
adjective: Belizean

Ethnic groups: mestizo 44.1%, Creole 31%, Maya 9.2%, Garifuna 6.2%,
other 9.5%

Religions: Roman Catholic 62%, Protestant 30% (Anglican 12%, Methodist
6%, Mennonite 4%, Seventh-Day Adventist 3%, Pentecostal 2%, Jehovah's
Witnesses 1%, other 2%), none 2%, other 6% (1980)

Languages: English (official), Spanish, Mayan, Garifuna (Carib),
Creole

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 70.3%
male: 70.3%
female: 70.3% (1991 est.)
note: other sources list the literacy rate as high as 75%

@Belize:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Belize
former: British Honduras

Data code: BH

Government type: parliamentary democracy

Capital: Belmopan

Administrative divisions: 6 districts; Belize, Cayo, Corozal, Orange
Walk, Stann Creek, Toledo

Independence: 21 September 1981 (from UK)

National holiday: Independence Day, 21 September (1981)

Constitution: 21 September 1981

Legal system: English law

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952),
represented by Governor General Sir Colville YOUNG (since 17 November
1993)
head of government: Prime Minister Said MUSA (since 27 August 1998);
Deputy Prime Minister John BRICENO (since 1 September 1998)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the governor general on the advice of
the prime minister
elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; governor general appointed
by the monarch; governor general appoints the member of the House of
Representatives who is leader of the majority party to be prime
minister

Legislative branch: bicameral National Assembly consists of the Senate
(eight members, five appointed on the advice of the prime minister,
two on the advice of the leader of the opposition, and one by the
governor general; members are appointed for five-year terms); and the
House of Representatives (29 seats; members are elected by direct
popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: House of Representatives - last held 27 August 1998 (next
to be held NA August 2003)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PUP
26, UDP 3

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, the chief justice is appointed by the
governor general on advice of the prime minister

Political parties and leaders: People's United Party or PUP [Said
MUSA]; United Democratic Party or UDP 

Political pressure groups and leaders: Society for the Promotion of
Education and Research or SPEAR ; United Worker's Front

International organization participation: ACP, C, Caricom, CDB, ECLAC,
FAO, G-77, IADB, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO,
IMF, IMO, Intelsat (nonsignatory user), Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer),
ITU, LAES, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO,
WMO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador James Schofield MURPHY
chancery: 2535 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone:  (202) 332-9636
FAX:  (202) 332-6888
consulate(s) general: Los Angeles

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Carolyn CURIEL
embassy: Gabourel Lane and Hutson Street, Belize City
mailing address: P. O. Box 286, Unit 7401, APO AA 34025
telephone:  (2) 77161 through 77163
FAX:  (2) 30802

Flag description: blue with a narrow red stripe along the top and the
bottom edges; centered is a large white disk bearing the coat of arms;
the coat of arms features a shield flanked by two workers in front of
a mahogany tree with the related motto SUB UMBRA FLOREO (I Flourish in
the Shade) on a scroll at the bottom, all encircled by a green garland

@Belize:Economy

Economy - overview: The small, essentially private enterprise economy
is based primarily on agriculture, agro-based industry, and
merchandising, with tourism and construction assuming greater
importance. Sugar, the chief crop, accounts for nearly half of
exports, while the banana industry is the country's largest employer.
The government's tough austerity program in 1997 resulted in an
economic slowdown that continued in 1998. The trade deficit has been
growing, mostly as a result of low export prices for sugar and
bananas. The new government faces important challenges to economic
stability. Rapid action to improve tax collection has been promised,
but a lack of progress in reining in spending could bring the exchange
rate under pressure. The tourist and construction sectors strengthened
in early 1999, leading to a preliminary estimate of revived growth at
4%.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $740 million (1999 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 4% (1999 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $3,100 (1999 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 22%
industry: 22%
services: 56% (1998)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): -0.9% (1999 est.)

Labor force: 71,000
note: shortage of skilled labor and all types of technical personnel
(1997 est.)

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 38%, industry 32%, services
30% (1994)

Unemployment rate: 14.3% (1998)

Budget:
revenues: $140 million
expenditures: $180 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1997)

Industries: garment production, food processing, tourism, construction

Industrial production growth rate: -4.4% (1998)

Electricity - production: 175 million kWh (1998)

Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 57.14%
hydro: 42.86%
nuclear: 0%
other: 0% (1998)

Electricity - consumption: 163 million kWh (1998)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1998)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1998)

Agriculture - products: bananas, coca, citrus, sugarcane; lumber;
fish, cultured shrimp

Exports: $150 million (f.o.b., 1998)

Exports - commodities: sugar, bananas, citrus fruits, clothing, fish
products, molasses, wood

Exports - partners: US 45.5%, UK 30%, EU 10%, Caricom 4.2%, Mexico
3.4%, Canada 3.3% (1997)

Imports: $320 million (c.i.f., 1998)

Imports - commodities: machinery and transportation equipment,
manufactured goods, food, fuels, chemicals, pharmaceuticals

Imports - partners: US 52%, Mexico 13%, UK 5% (1997)

Debt - external: $380 million (1997)

Economic aid - recipient: $23.4 million (1995)

Currency: 1 Belizean dollar (Bz$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Belizean dollars (Bz$) per US$1 - 2.0000 (fixed rate)

Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March

@Belize:Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 29,600 (1996)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 1,237 (1995)

Telephone system: above-average system
domestic: trunk network depends primarily on microwave radio relay
international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 12, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios: 133,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 2 (1997)

Televisions: 41,000 (1997)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): NA

@Belize:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways:
total: 2,872 km
paved: 488 km
unpaved: 2,384 km (1998 est.)

Waterways: 825 km river network used by shallow-draft craft;
seasonally navigable

Ports and harbors: Belize City, Big Creek, Corozol, Punta Gorda

Merchant marine:
total: 414 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,647,452 GRT/2,339,134
DWT
ships by type: bulk 36, cargo 275, chemical tanker 7, container 9,
liquified gas 1, passenger 1, passenger/cargo 2, petroleum tanker 51,
refrigerated cargo 14, roll-on/roll-off 9, short-sea passenger 3,
specialized tanker 4, vehicle carrier 2 (1999 est.)
note: a flag of convenience registry; includes ships of 7 countries:
Cuba 2, Cyprus 1, Greece 1, Singapore 2, UAE 12, UK 1, and US 1 (1998
est.)

Airports: 44 (1999 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 3
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
under 914 m: 2 (1999 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 41
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 10
under 914 m: 30 (1999 est.)

@Belize:Military

Military branches: Belize Defense Force (includes Ground Forces,
Maritime Wing, Air Wing, and Volunteer Guard), Belize National Police

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 60,482 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males age 15-49: 35,874 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 2,735 (2000 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $15 million (FY97/98)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 2% (FY97/98)

@Belize:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: territory in Belize claimed by Guatemala;
precise alignment of boundary in dispute

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for cocaine; small-scale illicit
producer of cannabis for the international drug trade; minor
money-laundering center

______________________________________________________________________



BENIN

@Benin:Introduction

Background: Dahomey gained its independence from France in 1960; the
name was changed to Benin in 1975. From 1974 to 1989 the country was a
socialist state; free elections were reestablished in 1991.

@Benin:Geography

Location: Western Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, between
Nigeria and Togo

Geographic coordinates: 9 30 N, 2 15 E

Map references: Africa

Area:
total: 112,620 sq km
land: 110,620 sq km
water: 2,000 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Pennsylvania

Land boundaries:
total: 1,989 km
border countries: Burkina Faso 306 km, Niger 266 km, Nigeria 773 km,
Togo 644 km

Coastline: 121 km

Maritime claims:
territorial sea: 200 nm

Climate: tropical; hot, humid in south; semiarid in north

Terrain: mostly flat to undulating plain; some hills and low mountains

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Mont Sokbaro 658 m

Natural resources: small offshore oil deposits, limestone, marble,
timber

Land use:
arable land: 13%
permanent crops: 4%
permanent pastures: 4%
forests and woodland: 31%
other: 48% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 100 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: hot, dry, dusty harmattan wind may affect north in
winter

Environment - current issues: recent droughts have severely affected
marginal agriculture in north; inadequate supplies of potable water;
poaching threatens wildlife populations; deforestation;
desertification

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered
Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea,
Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note: no natural harbors

@Benin:People

Population: 6,395,919
note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the
effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life
expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population
and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age
and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2000 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 47% (male 1,531,636; female 1,503,552)
15-64 years: 50% (male 1,551,867; female 1,660,845)
65 years and over: 3% (male 63,717; female 84,302) (2000 est.)

Population growth rate: 3.03% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 44.81 births/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 14.51 deaths/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.93 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.76 male(s)/female
total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2000 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 90.84 deaths/1,000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 50.18 years
male: 49.24 years
female: 51.16 years (2000 est.)

Total fertility rate: 6.32 children born/woman (2000 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Beninese (singular and plural)
adjective: Beninese

Ethnic groups: African 99% (42 ethnic groups, most important being
Fon, Adja, Yoruba, Bariba), Europeans 5,500

Religions: indigenous beliefs 70%, Muslim 15%, Christian 15%

Languages: French (official), Fon and Yoruba (most common vernaculars
in south), tribal languages (at least six major ones in north)

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 37%
male: 48.7%
female: 25.8% (1995 est.)

@Benin:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Benin
conventional short form: Benin
local long form: Republique du Benin
local short form: Benin
former: Dahomey

Data code: BN

Government type: republic under multiparty democratic rule; dropped
Marxism-Leninism December 1989; democratic reforms adopted February
1990; transition to multiparty system completed 4 April 1991

Capital: Porto-Novo is the official capital; Cotonou is the seat of
government

Administrative divisions: 6 provinces; Atakora, Atlantique, Borgou,
Mono, Oueme, Zou
note: six additional provinces have been reported but not confirmed;
they are Alibori, Collines, Couffo, Donga, Littoral, and Plateau;
moreover, the term "province" may have been changed to "department"

Independence: 1 August 1960 (from France)

National holiday: National Day, 1 August (1990)

Constitution: December 1990

Legal system: based on French civil law and customary law; has not
accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Mathieu KEREKOU (since 4 April 1996); note -
the president is both the chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Mathieu KEREKOU (since 4 April 1996);
note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term;
election last held 18 March 1996 (next to be held NA March 2001)
election results: Mathieu KEREKOU elected president; percent of vote -
Mathieu KEREKOU 52.49%, Nicephore SOGLO 47.51%

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly or Assemblee
Nationale (83 seats; members are elected by direct popular vote to
serve four-year terms)
elections: last held 28 March 1999 (next to be held NA March 2003)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PRB
27, PRD 11, FARD-ALAFIA 10, PSD 9, MADEPO 6, Alliance Etoile 4,
Alliance IPD 4, CAR-DUNYA 3, MERCI 2, other 7

Judicial branch: Constitutional Court or Cour Constitutionnelle,
Supreme Court or Cour Supreme, High Court of Justice

Political parties and leaders: African Movement for Democracy and
Progress or MADEP ; Alliance for Democracy and
Progress or ADP ; Alliance of the Social
Democratic Party or PSD and the National Union for Solidarity and
Progress or UNSP ; Benin Renaissance Party or PRB
; Cameleon Alliance or AC ; Car-DUNYA
; Communist Party of Benin or PCB [Pascal FANTONDJI, first
secretary]; Democratic Renewal Party or PRD ; Front
for Renewal and Development or FARD-ALAFIA; Impulse for Progress and
Democracy or IPD ; Liberal Democrats' Rally for National
Reconstruction-Vivoten or RDL-Vivoten ; Movement for
Citizens' Commitment and Awakening or MERCI ; New
Generation for the Republic or NG ; Our Common Cause or NCC
; Rally for Democracy and Pan-Africanism or
RDP ; The Star
Alliance (Alliance E'toile) ; Union for National Democracy
and Solidarity or UDS 

International organization participation: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, ECA,
ECOWAS, Entente, FAO, FZ, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA,
IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ISO
(subscriber), ITU, MIPONUH, MONUC, NAM, OAU, OIC, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD,
UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WADB, WADB (regional), WAEMU, WCL, WFTU, WHO,
WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Lucien Edgar TONOUKOUIN
chancery: 2737 Cathedral Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone:  (202) 232-6656
FAX:  (202) 265-1996

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Robert C. FELDER
embassy: Rue Caporal Bernard Anani, Cotonou
mailing address: B. P. 2012, Cotonou
telephone:  30-06-50, 30-05-13, 30-17-92
FAX:  30-14-39, 30-19-74

Flag description: two equal horizontal bands of yellow (top) and red
with a vertical green band on the hoist side

@Benin:Economy

Economy - overview: The economy of Benin remains underdeveloped and
dependent on subsistence agriculture, cotton production, and regional
trade. Growth in real output has averaged a sound 4% in 1990-95 and 5%
in 1996-99. Rapid population growth has offset much of this growth in
output. Inflation has subsided over the past three years. Commercial
and transport activities, which make up a large part of GDP, are
vulnerable to developments in Nigeria, particularly fuel shortages.
The Paris Club and bilateral creditors have eased the external debt
situation in recent years. The government, still burdened with
money-losing state enterprises and a bloated civil service, has been
gradually implementing a structural adjustment program since 1991.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $8.1 billion (1999 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 5% (1999 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $1,300 (1999 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 34%
industry: 14%
services: 52% (1997)

Population below poverty line: 33% (1995 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3% (1999 est.)

Labor force: NA

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
revenues: $299 million
expenditures: $445 million, including capital expenditures of $14
million (1995 est.)

Industries: textiles, cigarettes; beverages, food; construction
materials, petroleum

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - production: 6 million kWh (1998)

Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 100%
hydro: 0%
nuclear: 0%
other: 0% (1998)

Electricity - consumption: 276 million kWh (1998)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1998)

Electricity - imports: 270 million kWh (1998)

Agriculture - products: corn, sorghum, cassava (tapioca), yams, beans,
rice, cotton, palm oil, peanuts; poultry, livestock

Exports: $396 million (f.o.b., 1999)

Exports - commodities: cotton, crude oil, palm products, cocoa

Exports - partners: Brazil 32%, Libya, Indonesia, Spain (1998)

Imports: $566 million (f.o.b., 1999)

Imports - commodities: foodstuffs, tobacco, petroleum products,
capital goods

Imports - partners: France 22%, China 16%, UK, Netherlands (1998)

Debt - external: $1.6 billion (1997 est.)

Economic aid - recipient: $281.2 million (1995)

Currency: 1 Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (CFAF) = 100
centimes

Exchange rates: CFA francs (CFAF) per US$1 - 647.25 (January 2000),
615.70 (1999), 589.95 (1998), 583.67 (1997), 511.55 (1996), 499.15
(1995)
note: from 1 January 1999, the CFAF is pegged to the euro at a rate of
655.957 CFA francs per euro

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Benin:Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 28,000 (1995)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 1,050 (1995)

Telephone system:
domestic: fair system of open wire, microwave radio relay, and
cellular connections
international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean);
submarine cable

Radio broadcast stations: AM 2, FM 9, shortwave 4 (1998)

Radios: 620,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 2 (one privately-owned) (1997)

Televisions: 60,000 (1997)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): NA

@Benin:Transportation

Railways:
total: 578 km (single track)
narrow gauge: 578 km 1.000-m gauge (1995 est.)

Highways:
total: 6,787 km
paved: 1,357 km (including 10 km of expressways)
unpaved: 5,430 km (1997 est.)

Waterways: navigable along small sections, important only locally

Ports and harbors: Cotonou, Porto-Novo

Merchant marine: none (1999 est.)

Airports: 5 (1999 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (1999 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 3
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 2 (1999 est.)

@Benin:Military

Military branches: Armed Forces (includes Army, Navy, Air Force),
National Gendarmerie

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 1,402,566
females age 15-49: 1,445,082
note: both sexes are liable for military service (2000 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males age 15-49: 717,289
females age 15-49: 732,196 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 69,065
females: 67,961 (2000 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $27 million (FY96)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 1.2% (FY96)

@Benin:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for narcotics associated with
Nigerian trafficking organizations and most commonly destined for
Western Europe and the US

______________________________________________________________________



BERMUDA

@Bermuda:Introduction

Background: Bermuda was first settled in 1609 by shipwrecked English
colonists headed for Virginia. Tourism to the island to escape North
American winters first developed in Victorian times. Bermuda has
developed into highly successful offshore financial center. A
referendum on independence was soundly defeated in 1995.

@Bermuda:Geography

Location: North America, group of islands in the North Atlantic Ocean,
east of North Carolina (US)

Geographic coordinates: 32 20 N, 64 45 W

Map references: North America

Area:
total: 58.8 sq km
land: 58.8 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: about 0.3 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 103 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: subtropical; mild, humid; gales, strong winds common in
winter

Terrain: low hills separated by fertile depressions

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Town Hill 76 m

Natural resources: limestone, pleasant climate fostering tourism

Land use:
arable land: 6%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 0%
forests and woodland: 0%
other: 94% (55% developed, 39% rural/open space) (1997 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: hurricanes (June to November)

Environment - current issues: asbestos disposal; water pollution;
preservation of open space

Geography - note: consists of about 360 small coral islands with ample
rainfall, but no rivers or freshwater lakes; some land, reclaimed and
otherwise, was leased by US Government from 1941 to 1995

@Bermuda:People

Population: 62,997 (July 2000 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 20% (male 6,107; female 6,212)
15-64 years: 70% (male 21,620; female 22,171)
65 years and over: 10% (male 2,972; female 3,915) (2000 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.75% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 12.24 births/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 7.37 deaths/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: 2.67 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.76 male(s)/female
total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2000 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 9.82 deaths/1,000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 76.94 years
male: 74.89 years
female: 78.86 years (2000 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.68 children born/woman (2000 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Bermudian(s)
adjective: Bermudian

Ethnic groups: black 58%, white 36%, other 6%

Religions: non-Anglican Protestant 39%, Anglican 27%, Roman Catholic
15%, other 19%

Languages: English (official), Portuguese

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 98%
male: 98%
female: 99% (1970 est.)

@Bermuda:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Bermuda

Data code: BD

Dependency status: overseas territory of the UK

Government type: parliamentary British overseas territory with
internal self-government

Capital: Hamilton

Administrative divisions: 9 parishes and 2 municipalities*;
Devonshire, Hamilton, Hamilton*, Paget, Pembroke, Saint George*, Saint
Georges, Sandys, Smiths, Southampton, Warwick

Independence: none (overseas territory of the UK)

National holiday: Bermuda Day, 24 May

Constitution: 8 June 1968, amended 1989

Legal system: English law

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952),
represented by Governor Thorold MASEFIELD (since NA June 1997)
head of government: Premier Jennifer SMITH (since 10 November 1998)
cabinet: Cabinet nominated by the premier, appointed by the governor
elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; governor appointed by the
monarch; governor invites leader of largest party in Parliament to
form a government as premier

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament consists of the Senate (an
11-member body appointed by the governor) and the House of Assembly
(40 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year
terms)
elections: last held 9 November 1998 (next to be held NA November
2003)
election results: percent of vote by party - PLP 54%, UBP 44%, NLP 1%,
independents 1%; seats by party - PLP 26, UBP 14

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders: National Liberal Party or NLP [Charles
JEFFERS]; Progressive Labor Party or PLP ; United
Bermuda Party or UBP 

Political pressure groups and leaders: Bermuda Industrial Union or BIU
; Bermuda Public Services Association or BPSA [Betty
CHRISTOPHER]

International organization participation: Caricom (observer), CCC,
ICFTU, Interpol (subbureau), IOC

Diplomatic representation in the US: none (overseas territory of the
UK)

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Consul General Lawrence OWEN
consulate(s) general: Crown Hill, 16 Middle Road, Devonshire, Hamilton
mailing address: P. O. Box HM325, Hamilton HMBX; American Consulate
General Hamilton, Department of State, Washington, DC 20520-5300
telephone:  (441) 295-1342
FAX:  (441) 295-1592

Flag description: red, with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side
quadrant and the Bermudian coat of arms (white and blue shield with a
red lion holding a scrolled shield showing the sinking of the ship Sea
Venture off Bermuda in 1609) centered on the outer half of the flag

@Bermuda:Economy

Economy - overview: Bermuda enjoys one of the highest per capita
incomes in the world, having successfully exploited its location by
providing financial services for international firms and luxury
tourist facilities for 360,000 visitors annually. The tourist
industry, which accounts for an estimated 28% of GDP, attracts 84% of
its business from North America. The industrial sector is small, and
agriculture is severely limited by a lack of suitable land. About 80%
of food needs are imported. International business contributes over
60% of Bermuda's economic output; a failed independence vote in late
1995 can be partially attributed to Bermudian fears of scaring away
foreign firms. Government economic priorities are the further
strengthening of the tourist and international financial sectors.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $2 billion (1999 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 2.5% (1999 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $31,500 (1999 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 1%
industry: 10%
services: 89% (1995 est.)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2% (1998 est.)

Labor force: 35,296 (1997)

Labor force - by occupation: clerical 23%, services 22%, laborers 17%,
professional and technical 17%, administrative and managerial 12%,
sales 7%, agriculture and fishing 2% (1996)

Unemployment rate: NEGL% (1995)

Budget:
revenues: $504.6 million
expenditures: $537 million, including capital expenditures of $75
million (FY97/98)

Industries: tourism, finance, insurance, structural concrete products,
paints, perfumes, pharmaceuticals, ship repairing

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - production: 420 million kWh (1998)

Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 100%
hydro: 0%
nuclear: 0%
other: 0% (1998)

Electricity - consumption: 391 million kWh (1998)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1998)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1998)

Agriculture - products: bananas, vegetables, citrus, flowers; dairy
products

Exports: $32 million (1998 est.)

Exports - commodities: reexports of pharmaceuticals

Exports - partners: UK 29.5%, US 9.8% (1997)

Imports: $624 million (1998 est.)

Imports - commodities: machinery and transport equipment, construction
materials, chemicals, food and live animals

Imports - partners: US 34%, UK 9%, Mexico 8% (1997)

Debt - external: $NA

Economic aid - recipient: $27.9 million (1995)

Currency: 1 Bermudian dollar (Bd$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Bermudian dollar (Bd$) per US$1 - 1.0000 (fixed rate)

Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March

@Bermuda:Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 48,000 (1995)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 6,324 (1995)

Telephone system:
domestic: modern, fully automatic telephone system
international: 3 submarine cables; satellite earth stations - 3
Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 5, FM 3, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios: 82,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 3 (1997)

Televisions: 66,000 (1997)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 3 (1999)

@Bermuda:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways:
total: 225 km
paved: 225 km
unpaved: 0 km (1997 est.)
note: in addition, there are 232 km of paved and unpaved roads that
are privately owned

Ports and harbors: Hamilton, Saint George

Merchant marine:
total: 115 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 6,536,975 GRT/11,337,483
DWT
ships by type: bulk 27, cargo 4, chemical tanker 2, container 17,
liquified gas 7, petroleum tanker 33, refrigerated cargo 14,
roll-on/roll-off 8, short-sea passenger 3 (1999 est.)
note: a flag of convenience registry; includes ships from 11 countries
among which are UK 24, Canada 12, Hong Kong 11, US 11, Nigeria 4,
Sweden 4, Norway 3, and Switzerland 2 (1998 est.)

Airports: 1 (1999 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 (1999 est.)

@Bermuda:Military

Military branches: Bermuda Regiment, Bermuda Police Force, Bermuda
Reserve Constabulary

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $NA

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: NA%

Military - note: defense is the responsibility of the UK

@Bermuda:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

______________________________________________________________________



BHUTAN

@Bhutan:Introduction

Background: Under British influence a monarchy was set up in 1907;
three years later a treaty was signed whereby the country became a
British protectorate. Independence was attained in 1949, with India
subsequently guiding foreign relations and supplying aid.

@Bhutan:Geography

Location: Southern Asia, between China and India

Geographic coordinates: 27 30 N, 90 30 E

Map references: Asia

Area:
total: 47,000 sq km
land: 47,000 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: about half the size of Indiana

Land boundaries:
total: 1,075 km
border countries: China 470 km, India 605 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: varies; tropical in southern plains; cool winters and hot
summers in central valleys; severe winters and cool summers in
Himalayas

Terrain: mostly mountainous with some fertile valleys and savanna

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Drangme Chhu 97 m
highest point: Kula Kangri 7,553 m

Natural resources: timber, hydropower, gypsum, calcium carbide

Land use:
arable land: 2%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 6%
forests and woodland: 66%
other: 26% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 340 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: violent storms coming down from the Himalayas are the
source of the country's name which translates as Land of the Thunder
Dragon; frequent landslides during the rainy season

Environment - current issues: soil erosion; limited access to potable
water

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Nuclear Test Ban
signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea

Geography - note: landlocked; strategic location between China and
India; controls several key Himalayan mountain passes

@Bhutan:People

Population: 2,005,222
note: other estimates range as low as 800,000 (July 2000 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 40% (male 417,627; female 387,927)
15-64 years: 56% (male 576,533; female 544,076)
65 years and over: 4% (male 40,081; female 38,978) (2000 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.19% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 36.22 births/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 14.32 deaths/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.08 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 1.03 male(s)/female
total population: 1.07 male(s)/female (2000 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 110.99 deaths/1,000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 52.4 years
male: 52.79 years
female: 51.99 years (2000 est.)

Total fertility rate: 5.13 children born/woman (2000 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Bhutanese (singular and plural)
adjective: Bhutanese

Ethnic groups: Bhote 50%, ethnic Nepalese 35%, indigenous or migrant
tribes 15%

Religions: Lamaistic Buddhist 75%, Indian- and Nepalese-influenced
Hinduism 25%

Languages: Dzongkha (official), Bhotes speak various Tibetan dialects,
Nepalese speak various Nepalese dialects

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 42.2%
male: 56.2%
female: 28.1% (1995 est.)

People - note: refugee issue over the presence in Nepal of
approximately 96,500 Bhutanese refugees, 90% of whom are in seven
United Nations Office of the High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR)
camps

@Bhutan:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Kingdom of Bhutan
conventional short form: Bhutan

Data code: BT

Government type: monarchy; special treaty relationship with India

Capital: Thimphu

Administrative divisions: 18 districts (dzongkhag, singular and
plural); Bumthang, Chhukha, Chirang, Daga, Geylegphug, Ha, Lhuntshi,
Mongar, Paro, Pemagatsel, Punakha, Samchi, Samdrup Jongkhar, Shemgang,
Tashigang, Thimphu, Tongsa, Wangdi Phodrang

Independence: 8 August 1949 (from India)

National holiday: National Day, 17 December (1907) (Ugyen WANGCHUCK
became first hereditary king)

Constitution: no written constitution or bill of rights
note: Bhutan uses 1953 Royal decree for the Constitution of the
National Assembly; on 7 July 1998, a Royal edict was ratified giving
the National Assembly additional powers

Legal system: based on Indian law and English common law; has not
accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: each family has one vote in village-level elections

Executive branch:
chief of state: King Jigme Singye WANGCHUCK (since 24 July 1972)
head of government: Foreign Minister Jigme Yoeser THINLEY (since NA
June 1998)
cabinet: Council of Ministers (Lhengye Shungtsog) nominated by the
monarch, approved by the National Assembly; members serve fixed,
five-year terms
note: there is also a Royal Advisory Council (Lodoi Tsokde), members
nominated by the monarch
elections: none; the monarch is hereditary, but democratic reforms in
July 1998 give the National Assembly authority to remove the monarch
with two-thirds vote

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly or Tshogdu (150
seats; 105 elected from village constituencies, 10 represent religious
bodies, and 35 are designated by the monarch to represent government
and other secular interests; members serve three-year terms)
elections: last held NA (next to be held NA)
election results: NA

Judicial branch: the Supreme Court of Appeal is the monarch; High
Court, judges appointed by the monarch

Political parties and leaders: no legal parties

Political pressure groups and leaders: Buddhist clergy; ethnic
Nepalese organizations leading militant antigovernment campaign;
Indian merchant community; United Front for Democracy (exiled)

International organization participation: AsDB, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-77,
IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IMF, Intelsat, IOC, ITU, NAM, OPCW, SAARC, UN,
UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO

Diplomatic representation in the US: none; note - Bhutan has a
Permanent Mission to the UN; address: 2 United Nations Plaza, 27th
Floor, New York, NY 10017; telephone  (212) 826-1919; the Bhutanese
mission to the UN has consular jurisdiction in the US
consulate(s) general: New York

Diplomatic representation from the US: the US and Bhutan have no
formal diplomatic relations, although informal contact is maintained
between the Bhutanese and US Embassy in New Delhi (India)

Flag description: divided diagonally from the lower hoist side corner;
the upper triangle is yellow and the lower triangle is orange;
centered along the dividing line is a large black and white dragon
facing away from the hoist side

@Bhutan:Economy

Economy - overview: The economy, one of the world's smallest and least
developed, is based on agriculture and forestry, which provide the
main livelihood for 90% of the population and account for about 40% of
GDP. Agriculture consists largely of subsistence farming and animal
husbandry. Rugged mountains dominate the terrain and make the building
of roads and other infrastructure difficult and expensive. The economy
is closely aligned with India's through strong trade and monetary
links. The industrial sector is technologically backward, with most
production of the cottage industry type. Most development projects,
such as road construction, rely on Indian migrant labor. Bhutan's
hydropower potential and its attraction for tourists are key
resources. The Bhutanese Government has made some progress in
expanding the nation's productive base and improving social welfare.
Model education, social, and environment programs in Bhutan are
underway with support from multilateral development organizations.
Each economic program takes into account the government's desire to
protect the country's environment and cultural traditions. Detailed
controls and uncertain policies in areas like industrial licensing,
trade, labor, and finance continue to hamper foreign investment.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $2.1 billion (1999 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 7% (1999 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $1,060 (1999 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 38%
industry: 37%
services: 25% (1998)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 9% (1998)

Labor force: NA
note: massive lack of skilled labor

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 93%, services 5%, industry
and commerce 2%

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
revenues: $146 million
expenditures: $152 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
(FY95/96 est.)
note: the government of India finances nearly three-fifths of Bhutan's
budget expenditures

Industries: cement, wood products, processed fruits, alcoholic
beverages, calcium carbide

Industrial production growth rate: 9.3% (1996 est.)

Electricity - production: 1.788 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 0.39%
hydro: 99.61%
nuclear: 0%
other: 0% (1998)

Electricity - consumption: 345 million kWh (1998)

Electricity - exports: 1.339 billion kWh
note: exports electricity to India (1998)

Electricity - imports: 21 million kWh (1998)

Agriculture - products: rice, corn, root crops, citrus, foodgrains;
dairy products, eggs

Exports: $111 million (f.o.b., 1998)

Exports - commodities: cardamom, gypsum, timber, handicrafts, cement,
fruit, electricity (to India), precious stones, spices

Exports - partners: India 94%, Bangladesh

Imports: $136 million (c.i.f., 1998)

Imports - commodities: fuel and lubricants, grain, machinery and
parts, vehicles, fabrics, rice

Imports - partners: India 77%, Japan, UK, Germany, US

Debt - external: $120 million (1998)

Economic aid - recipient: $73.8 million (1995)

Currency: 1 ngultrum (Nu) = 100 chetrum; note - Indian currency is
also legal tender

Exchange rates: ngultrum (Nu) per US$1 - 43.552 (January 2000), 43.055
(1999), 41.259 (1998), 36.313 (1997), 35.433 (1996), 32.427 (1995);
note - the Bhutanese ngultrum is at par with the Indian rupee

Fiscal year: 1 July - 30 June

@Bhutan:Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 5,000 (1995)

Telephones - mobile cellular: NA

Telephone system:
domestic: domestic telephone service is very poor with few telephones
in use
international: international telephone and telegraph service is by
landline through India; a satellite earth station was planned (1990)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 0, FM 1, shortwave 1 (1998)

Radios: 37,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 0 (1997)

Televisions: 11,000 (1997)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): NA

@Bhutan:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways:
total: 3,285 km
paved: 1,994 km
unpaved: 1,291 km (1996 est.)

Ports and harbors: none

Airports: 2 (1999 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (1999 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (1999 est.)

@Bhutan:Military

Military branches: Royal Bhutan Army, Palace Guard, Militia, Royal
Police Force

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 491,427 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males age 15-49: 262,316 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 20,374 (2000 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $NA

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: NA%

@Bhutan:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: over approximately 96,500 Bhutanese refugees
in Nepal

______________________________________________________________________



BOLIVIA

@Bolivia:Introduction

Background: Bolivia, named after independence fighter Simon BOLIVAR,
broke away from Spanish rule in 1825; much of its subsequent history
has consisted of a series of nearly 200 coups and counter-coups.
Comparatively democratic civilian rule was established in the 1980s,
but leaders have faced difficult problems of deep-seated poverty,
social unrest, and drug production. Current goals include attracting
foreign investment, strengthening the educational system, continuing
the privatization program, and waging an anti-corruption campaign.

@Bolivia:Geography

Location: Central South America, southwest of Brazil

Geographic coordinates: 17 00 S, 65 00 W

Map references: South America

Area:
total: 1,098,580 sq km
land: 1,084,390 sq km
water: 14,190 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly less than three times the size of Montana

Land boundaries:
total: 6,743 km
border countries: Argentina 832 km, Brazil 3,400 km, Chile 861 km,
Paraguay 750 km, Peru 900 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: varies with altitude; humid and tropical to cold and semiarid

Terrain: rugged Andes Mountains with a highland plateau (Altiplano),
hills, lowland plains of the Amazon Basin

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Rio Paraguay 90 m
highest point: Nevado Sajama 6,542 m

Natural resources: tin, natural gas, petroleum, zinc, tungsten,
antimony, silver, iron, lead, gold, timber, hydropower

Land use:
arable land: 2%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 24%
forests and woodland: 53%
other: 21% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 1,750 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: cold, thin air of high plateau is obstacle to
efficient fuel combustion, as well as to physical activity by those
unaccustomed to it from birth; flooding in the northeast (March-April)

Environment - current issues: the clearing of land for agricultural
purposes and the international demand for tropical timber are
contributing to deforestation; soil erosion from overgrazing and poor
cultivation methods (including slash-and-burn agriculture);
desertification; loss of biodiversity; industrial pollution of water
supplies used for drinking and irrigation

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol,
Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea,
Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83,
Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification, Marine Dumping,
Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection

Geography - note: landlocked; shares control of Lago Titicaca, world's
highest navigable lake (elevation 3,805 m), with Peru

@Bolivia:People

Population: 8,152,620 (July 2000 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 39.11% (male 1,624,404; female 1,564,057)
15-64 years: 56.42% (male 2,247,013; female 2,352,824)
65 years and over: 4.47% (male 164,473; female 199,849) (2000 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.83% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 28.15 births/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 8.36 deaths/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: -1.47 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.82 male(s)/female
total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2000 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 60.44 deaths/1,000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 63.7 years
male: 61.19 years
female: 66.34 years (2000 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.66 children born/woman (2000 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Bolivian(s)
adjective: Bolivian

Ethnic groups: Quechua 30%, Aymara 25%, mestizo (mixed white and
Amerindian ancestry) 30%, white 15%

Religions: Roman Catholic 95%, Protestant (Evangelical Methodist)

Languages: Spanish (official), Quechua (official), Aymara (official)

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 83.1%
male: 90.5%
female: 76% (1995 est.)

@Bolivia:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Bolivia
conventional short form: Bolivia
local long form: Republica de Bolivia
local short form: Bolivia

Data code: BL

Government type: republic

Capital: La Paz (seat of government); Sucre (legal capital and seat of
judiciary)

Administrative divisions: 9 departments (departamentos, singular -
departamento); Chuquisaca, Cochabamba, Beni, La Paz, Oruro, Pando,
Potosi, Santa Cruz, Tarija

Independence: 6 August 1825 (from Spain)

National holiday: Independence Day, 6 August (1825)

Constitution: 2 February 1967; revised in August 1994

Legal system: based on Spanish law and Napoleonic Code; has not
accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age, universal and compulsory (married); 21
years of age, universal and compulsory (single)

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Hugo BANZER Suarez (since 6 August 1997);
Vice President Jorge Fernando QUIROGA Ramirez (since 6 August 1997);
note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Hugo BANZER Suarez (since 6 August
1997); Vice President Jorge Fernando QUIROGA Ramirez (since 6 August
1997); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of
government
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
elections: president and vice president elected on the same ticket by
popular vote for five-year terms; election last held 1 June 1997 (next
to be held June 2002)
election results: Hugo BANZER Suarez elected president; percent of
vote - Hugo BANZER Suarez (ADN) 22%; Jaime PAZ Zamora (MIR) 17%, Juan
Carlos DURAN (MNR) 18%, Ivo KULJIS (UCS) 16%, Remedios LOZA (CONDEPA)
17%; no candidate received a majority of the popular vote; Hugo BANZER
Suarez won a congressional runoff election on 5 August 1997 after
forming a "megacoalition" with MIR, UCS, CONDEPA, NFR and PDC

Legislative branch: bicameral National Congress or Congreso Nacional
consists of Chamber of Senators or Camara de Senadores (27 seats;
members are directly elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
and Chamber of Deputies or Camara de Diputados (130 seats; members are
directly elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: Chamber of Senators and Chamber of Deputies - last held 1
June 1997 (next to be held June 2002)
election results: Chamber of Senators - percent of vote by party - NA;
seats by party - ADN 11, MIR 7, MNR 4, CONDEPA 3, UCS 2; Chamber of
Deputies - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - ADN 32, MNR
26, MIR 23, UCS 21, CONDEPA 19, MBL 5, IU 4

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Corte Suprema), judges appointed for
10-year terms by National Congress

Political parties and leaders: Alternative of Democratic Socialism or
ASD ; April 9 Revolutionary Vanguard or VR-9
; Bolivian Communist Party or PCB ;
Bolivian Renovating Alliance or ARBOL [Marcelo FERNANDEZ, Hugo
VILLEGAS]; Bolivian Socialist Falange or FSB ; Christian
Democrat or PDC ; Civic Solidarity Union or UCS
; Conscience of the Fatherland or CONDEPA [Remedios
LOZA Alvarado]; Free Bolivia Movement or MBL ; Front
of Katarista Unity or FULKA ; Front of National
Salvation or FSN ; Katarismo National Unity or
KND ; Movement of the Revolutionary Left or MIR
; Movement Towards Socialism-Popular Instrument for
Solidarity with the People or MAS-IPSP ;
Nationalist Democratic Action or ADN ; Nationalist
Katarista Movement or MKN ; Nationalist Revolutionary
Movement or MNR ; New Republican Force or
NFR ; New Youth Force ;
Patriotic Axis of Convergence or EJE-P ; Popular
Patriotic Movement or MPP ; Revolutionary Front of the
Left or FRI ; Socialist Party One or PS-1 ;
Solidarity and Democracy or SYD ; Tupac Katari
Revolutionary Liberation Movement or MRTK-L [Victor Hugo CARDENAS
Conde]; United Left or IU ; Unity and Progress Movement
or MUP 
note: political blocs include: left - MBL, EJE-P, VR-9, ASD, FRI, PCB,
IU, FSN, PS-1, FSB, and MAS; center left - MIR, PDC, and New Youth
Force; center - MNR; center right - ADN and NFR; populist - UCS,
CONDEPA, SYD, MUP, and MPP; evangelical - ARBOL; indigenous - MRTK-L,
MKN, and KND

Political pressure groups and leaders: Cocalero Group

International organization participation: CAN, ECLAC, FAO, G-11, G-77,
IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO,
Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ITU, LAES, LAIA, Mercosur (associate),
MONUC, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, PCA, RG, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO,
UNMIK, UNTAET, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Marlene FERNANDEZ del Granado
chancery: 3014 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone:  (202) 483-4410
FAX:  (202) 328-3712
consulate(s) general: Los Angeles, Miami, New York, and San Francisco

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Donna Jean HRINAK
embassy: Avenida Arce 2780, San Jorge, La Paz
mailing address: P. O. Box 425, La Paz; APO AA 34032
telephone:  (2) 430251
FAX:  (2) 433900

Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of red (top), yellow,
and green with the coat of arms centered on the yellow band; similar
to the flag of Ghana, which has a large black five-pointed star
centered in the yellow band

@Bolivia:Economy

Economy - overview: Bolivia, long one of the poorest and least
developed Latin American countries, has made considerable progress
toward the development of a market-oriented economy. Successes under
President SANCHEZ DE LOZADA (1993-1997) included the signing of a free
trade agreement with Mexico and the Southern Cone Common Market
(Mercosur) as well as the privatization of the state airline,
telephone company, railroad, electric power company, and oil company.
His successor, Hugo BANZER Suarez has tried to further improve the
country's investment climate with an anticorruption campaign. Growth
slowed in 1999, in part due to tight government budget policies, which
limited needed appropriations for anti-poverty programs, and the
fallout from the Asian financial crisis. Growth should rebound to
perhaps 4% in 2000 given reasonably favorable world commodity prices.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $24.2 billion (1999 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 2% (1999 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $3,000 (1999 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 16.6%
industry: 35.5%
services: 47.9% (1998 est.)

Population below poverty line: 70% (1999 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 2.3%
highest 10%: 31.7% (1990)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.1% (1999 est.)

Labor force: 2.5 million

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture NA%, industry NA%, services
NA%

Unemployment rate: 11.4% (1997) with widespread underemployment

Budget:
revenues: $2.7 billion
expenditures: $2.7 billion including capital expenditures of $NA
(1998)

Industries: mining, smelting, petroleum, food and beverages, tobacco,
handicrafts, clothing

Industrial production growth rate: 4% (1995 est.)

Electricity - production: 2.576 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 42.43%
hydro: 55.75%
nuclear: 0%
other: 1.82% (1998)

Electricity - consumption: 2.412 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - exports: 4 million kWh (1998)

Electricity - imports: 20 million kWh (1998)

Agriculture - products: soybeans, coffee, coca, cotton, corn,
sugarcane, rice, potatoes; timber

Exports: $1.1 billion (f.o.b., 1999 est.)

Exports - commodities: soybeans, natural gas, zinc, gold, wood

Exports - partners: UK 16%, US 12%, Peru 11%, Argentina 10%, Colombia
7% (1998)

Imports: $1.6 billion (c.i.f., 1999 est.)

Imports - commodities: capital goods, raw materials and
semi-manufactures, chemicals, petroleum, food

Imports - partners: US 32%, Japan 24%, Brazil 12%, Argentina 12%,
Chile 7%, Peru 4%, Germany 3% (1998)

Debt - external: $5.7 billion (1999)

Economic aid - recipient: $588 million (1997)

Currency: 1 boliviano ($B) = 100 centavos

Exchange rates: bolivianos ($B) per US$1 - 6.0065 (January 2000),
5.8124 (1999), 5.5101 (1998), 5.2543 (1997), 5.0746 (1996), 4.8003
(1995)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Bolivia:Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 368,874 (1996)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 7,229 (1995)

Telephone system: new subscribers face bureaucratic difficulties; most
telephones are concentrated in La Paz and other cities
domestic: primary trunk system, which is being expanded, employs
digital microwave radio relay; some areas are served by fiber-optic
cable; mobile cellular systems are being expanded
international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 171, FM 73, shortwave 77 (1999)

Radios: 5.25 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 48 (1997)

Televisions: 900,000 (1997)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 5 (1999)

@Bolivia:Transportation

Railways:
total: 3,691 km (single track)
narrow gauge: 3,652 km 1.000-m gauge; 39 km 0.760-m gauge (13 km
electrified) (1995)

Highways:
total: 52,216 km
paved: 2,872 km (including 27 km of expressways)
unpaved: 49,344 km (1995 est.)

Waterways: 10,000 km of commercially navigable waterways

Pipelines: crude oil 1,800 km; petroleum products 580 km; natural gas
1,495 km

Ports and harbors: none; however, Bolivia has free port privileges in
the maritime ports of Argentina, Brazil, Chile, and Paraguay

Merchant marine:
total: 32 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 116,373 GRT/182,283 DWT
ships by type: bulk 3, cargo 17, chemical tanker 3, container 1,
petroleum tanker 6, roll-on/roll-off 2 (1999 est.)

Airports: 1,109 (1999 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 13
over 3,047 m: 4
2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
914 to 1,523 m: 2 (1999 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 1,096
2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
1,524 to 2,437 m: 67
914 to 1,523 m: 219
under 914 m: 807 (1999 est.)

@Bolivia:Military

Military branches: Army (Ejercito Boliviano), Navy (Fuerza Naval
Boliviana, includes Marines), Air Force (Fuerza Aerea Boliviana),
National Police Force (Policia Nacional de Bolivia)

Military manpower - military age: 19 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 1,949,267 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males age 15-49: 1,269,228 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 86,863 (2000 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $147 million (FY99)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 1.8% (FY99)

@Bolivia:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: has wanted a sovereign corridor to the South
Pacific Ocean since the Atacama area was lost to Chile in 1884;
dispute with Chile over Rio Lauca water rights

Illicit drugs: world's third-largest cultivator of coca (after Peru
and Colombia) with an estimated 21,800 hectares under cultivation in
1999, a 45% decrease in overall cultivation of coca from 1998 levels;
intermediate coca products and cocaine exported to or through
Colombia, Brazil, Argentina, and Chile to the US and other
international drug markets; alternative crop program aims to reduce
illicit coca cultivation

______________________________________________________________________



BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA

@Bosnia and Herzegovina:Introduction

Background: Bosnia and Herzegovina's declaration of sovereignty in
October of 1991, was followed by a referendum for independence from
the former Yugoslavia in February of 1992. The Bosnian Serbs -
supported by neighboring Serbia - responded with armed resistance
aimed at partitioning the republic along ethnic lines and joining
Serb-held areas to form a "greater Serbia." In March 1994, Bosnia's
Bosniaks and Croats reduced the number of warring factions from three
to two by signing an agreement creating a joint Bosniak/Croat
Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina. On 21 November 1995, in Dayton,
Ohio, the warring parties signed a peace agreement that brought to a
halt the three years of interethnic civil strife (the final agreement
was signed in Paris on 14 December 1995). The Dayton Agreement divides
Bosnia and Herzegovina roughly equally between the Federation of
Bosnia and Herzegovina and the Bosnian Serb Republika Srpska. In
1995-96, a NATO-led international peacekeeping force (IFOR) of 60,000
troops served in Bosnia to implement and monitor the military aspects
of the agreement. IFOR was succeeded by a smaller, NATO-led
Stabilization Force (SFOR) whose mission is to deter renewed
hostilities. SFOR remains in place, with troop levels to be reduced to
about 19,000 by spring 2000.

@Bosnia and Herzegovina:Geography

Location: Southeastern Europe, bordering the Adriatic Sea and Croatia

Geographic coordinates: 44 00 N, 18 00 E

Map references: Bosnia and Herzegovina, Europe

Area:
total: 51,129 sq km
land: 51,129 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than West Virginia

Land boundaries:
total: 1,459 km
border countries: Croatia 932 km, Serbia and Montenegro 527 km (312 km
with Serbia, 215 km with Montenegro)

Coastline: 20 km

Maritime claims: NA

Climate: hot summers and cold winters; areas of high elevation have
short, cool summers and long, severe winters; mild, rainy winters
along coast

Terrain: mountains and valleys

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Adriatic Sea 0 m
highest point: Maglic 2,386 m

Natural resources: coal, iron, bauxite, manganese, forests, copper,
chromium, lead, zinc, hydropower

Land use:
arable land: 14%
permanent crops: 5%
permanent pastures: 20%
forests and woodland: 39%
other: 22% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 20 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: destructive earthquakes

Environment - current issues: air pollution from metallurgical plants;
sites for disposing of urban waste are limited; widespread casualties,
water shortages, and destruction of infrastructure because of the
1992-95 civil strife

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Air Pollution, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life
Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note: within Bosnia and Herzegovina's recognized borders,
the country is divided into a joint Bosniak/Croat Federation (about
51% of the territory) and the Bosnian Serb-led Republika Srpska 
(about 49% of the territory); the region called Herzegovina is
contiguous to Croatia and traditionally has been settled by an ethnic
Croat majority

@Bosnia and Herzegovina:People

Population: 3,835,777
note: all data dealing with population are subject to considerable
error because of the dislocations caused by military action and ethnic
cleansing (July 2000 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 20% (male 401,554; female 379,303)
15-64 years: 71% (male 1,403,618; female 1,323,307)
65 years and over: 9% (male 138,173; female 189,822) (2000 est.)

Population growth rate: 3.1% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 12.92 births/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 7.87 deaths/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: 25.92 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.73 male(s)/female
total population: 1.03 male(s)/female (2000 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 25.17 deaths/1,000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 71.49 years
male: 68.78 years
female: 74.38 years (2000 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.71 children born/woman (2000 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Bosnian(s), Herzegovinian(s)
adjective: Bosnian, Herzegovinian

Ethnic groups: Serb 31%, Bosniak 44%, Croat 17%, Yugoslav 5.5%, other
2.5% (1991)
note: Bosniak has replaced muslim as an ethnic term in part to avoid
confusion with the religious term Muslim - an adherent of Islam

Religions: Muslim 40%, Orthodox 31%, Roman Catholic 15%, Protestant
4%, other 10%

Languages: Croatian, Serbian, Bosnian

Literacy:
definition: NA
total population: NA%
male: NA%
female: NA%

@Bosnia and Herzegovina:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Bosnia and Herzegovina
local long form: none
local short form: Bosna i Hercegovina

Data code: BK

Government type: emerging democracy

Capital: Sarajevo

Administrative divisions: there are two first-order administrative
divisions - the Bosniak/Croat Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina
(Federacija Bosna i Hercegovina) and the Bosnian Serb-led Republika
Srpska; note - Brcko in northeastern Bosnia is a self-governing
administrative unit under the sovereignty of Bosnia and Herzegovina;
it is not part of either the Federation or Republika Srpska

Independence: NA April 1992 (from Yugoslavia)

National holiday: Bosnia and Herzegovina - BiH National Day, 25
November

Constitution: the Dayton Agreement, signed 14 December 1995, included
a new constitution now in force

Legal system: based on civil law system

Suffrage: 16 years of age, if employed; 18 years of age, universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: Chairman of the Presidency Alija IZETBEGOVIC (chairman
since 14 February 2000, presidency member since 14 March 1996 -
Bosniak); other members of the three-member rotating (every 8 months)
presidency: Zivko RADISIC (since 13 October 1998 - Serb) and Ante
JELAVIC (since NA September 1998 - Croat)
head of government: vacant; note - in February 2000, the Supreme Court
ruled that the structure of the Council of Ministers was
unconstitutional; a new structure is being negotiated
cabinet: Council of Ministers nominated by the council chairmen
note: President of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina: Ejup
GANIC (since 28 December 1999; Vice President Ivo ANDRIC-LUZANIC
(since 28 December 1999); note - president and vice president rotate
every year; President of the Republika Srpska: vacant since Nikola
POPLASEN was removed by the Office of the High Representative on 5
March 1999 (see Government note)
elections: the three members of the presidency (one Bosniak, one
Croat, one Serb) are elected by popular vote for a four-year term; the
member with the most votes becomes the chairman unless he or she was
the incumbent chairman at the time of the election; election last held
12-13 September 1998 (next to be held NA September 2002); the
cochairmen of the Council of Ministers are appointed by the presidency
election results: percent of vote - Zivko RADISIC with 52% of the Serb
vote was elected chairman of the collective presidency for the first 8
months; Ante JELAVIC with 52% of the Croat vote followed RADISIC in
the rotation; Alija IZETBEGOVIC with 87% of the Bosniak vote won the
highest number of votes in the election but was ineligible to serve a
second term until RADISIC and JELAVIC had each served a first term as
Chairman of the Presidency

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliamentary Assembly or Skupstina
consists of the National House of Representatives or Vijece Opcina (42
seats - 14 Serb, 14 Croat, and 14 Bosniak; members elected by popular
vote to serve two-year terms) and the House of Peoples or Vijece
Gradanstvo (15 seats - 5 Bosniak, 5 Croat, 5 Serb; members elected by
the Bosniak/Croat Federation's House of Representatives and the
Republika Srpska's National Assembly to serve two-year terms)
elections: National House of Representatives - elections last held
12-13 September 1998 (next to be held in fall 2000); House of Peoples
- last constituted 4 December 1998 (next to be constituted in fall
2000)
election results: National House of Representatives - percent of vote
by party/coalition - NA; seats by party/coalition - KCD 17, HDZ-BiH 6,
SDP-BiH 6, Sloga 4, SDS 4, SRS-RS 2, DNZ 1, NHI 1, RSRS 1; House of
Peoples - percent of vote by party/coalition - NA; seats by
party/coalition - NA
note: the Bosniak/Croat Federation has a bicameral legislature that
consists of a House of Representatives (140 seats; members elected by
popular vote to serve 4-year terms); elections last held fall 1998
(next to be held fall 2000); percent of vote by party - NA; seats by
party/coalition - KCD 68, HDZ-BiH 28, SDP-BiH 25, NHI 4, DNZ 3, DSP 2,
BPS 2, HSP 2, SPRS 2, BSP 1, KC 1, BOSS 1, HSS 1; and a House of
Peoples (72 seats - 30 Bosniak, 30 Croat, and 12 others); last
constituted November 1998; the Republika Srpska has a National
Assembly (83 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve 4-year
terms); elections last held fall 1998 (next to be held fall 2000);
percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party/coalition - SDS 19, KCD
15, SNS 12, SRS-RS 11, SPRS 10, SNSD 6, RSRS 3, SKRS 2, SDP 2, KKO 1,
HDZ-BiH 1, NHI 1; as of January 1999, Bosnia and Herzegovina does not
have a permanent election law; a draft law specifies four-year terms
for the state and first-order administrative division entity
legislatures

Judicial branch: Constitutional Court, consists of nine members: four
members are selected by the Bosniak/Croat Federation's House of
Representatives, two members by the Republika Srpska's National
Assembly, and three non-Bosnian members by the president of the
European Court of Human Rights

Political parties and leaders: Bosnian Party of Rights or BSP [leader
NA]; Bosnian Party or BOSS ; Bosnian Patriotic Party
or BPS ; Center Coalition or KC (includes LBO, RS)
; Civic Democratic Party or GDS ; Coalition
for King and Fatherland or KKO (Dubravko Prstojevic]; Coalition for a
United and Democratic BIH or KCD [Alija IZETBEGOVIC; includes SDA and
SBH]; Croatian Democratic Union of BiH or HDZ-BiH ;
Croatian Party of Rights or HSP ; Croatian Peasants
Party of BiH or HSS-BiH ; Democratic Party for Banja Luka
and Krajina ; Democratic Party of Pensioners or DSP
; Democratic Peoples Union or DNZ ;
Liberal Bosniak Organization or LBO ; Liberal Party
or LS ; Muslim-Bosnia Organization or MBO
; New Croatian Initiative or NHI ;
Party for Bosnia and Herzegovina or SBH ; Party for
Democratic Action or SDA ; Party of Democratic
Progress of the Republika Srpska ; Party of Independent
Social Democrats or SNSD ; Radical Party Republika
Srpska of RSRS ; Republican Party or RS [Stjepan
KLJUIC]; Serb Coalition for Republika Srpska or SKRS [Predrag
LAZAREVIC]; Serb Democratic Party or Serb Lands or SDS [Dragan
KALINIC]; Serb National Alliance or SNS ; Serb
Radical Party-Republika Srpska or SRS-RS  (banned by
the Office of the High Representative - see Government note - from
participation in the April elections); Sloga or Unity 
(includes SNS, SPRS, SNSD); Social Democratic Party BIH or SDP-BiH
; Socialist Party of Republika Srpska or SPRS
Political pressure groups and leaders: NA

International organization participation: CE (guest), CEI, EBRD, ECE,
FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat,
Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, NAM (guest), OAS
(observer), OIC (observer), OPCW, OSCE, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO,
UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Sven ALKALAJ; note - Igor DAVIDOVIC
should become ambassador in early 2000
chancery: 2109 E Street NW, Washington, DC 20037
telephone:  (202) 337-1500
FAX:  (202) 337-1502
consulate(s) general: New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Thomas J. MILLER
embassy: Alipasina 43, 71000 Sarajevo
mailing address: use street address
telephone:  (71) 445-700
FAX:  (71) 659-722

Flag description: a wide medium blue vertical band on the fly side
with a yellow isosceles triangle abutting the band and the top of the
flag; the remainder of the flag is medium blue with seven full
five-pointed white stars and two half stars top and bottom along the
hypotenuse of the triangle

Government - note: The Dayton Agreement, signed in Paris on 14
December 1995, retained Bosnia's exterior border and created a joint
multi-ethnic and democratic government. This national government -
based on proportional representation similar to that which existed in
the former socialist regime - is charged with conducting foreign,
economic, and fiscal policy. The Dayton Agreement also recognized a
second tier of government, comprised of two entities - a joint
Bosniak/Croat Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and the Bosnian
Serb Republika Srpska (RS) - each presiding over roughly one-half the
territory. The Federation and RS governments are charged with
overseeing internal functions. The Dayton Agreement established the
Office of the High Representative (OHR) to oversee the implementation
of the civilian aspects of the agreement. About 250 international and
450 local staff members are employed by the OHR.

@Bosnia and Herzegovina:Economy

Economy - overview: Bosnia and Herzegovina ranked next to The Former
Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia as the poorest republic in the old
Yugoslav federation. Although agriculture has been almost all in
private hands, farms have been small and inefficient, and the republic
traditionally has been a net importer of food. Industry has been
greatly overstaffed, one reflection of the socialist economic
structure of Yugoslavia. TITO had pushed the development of military
industries in the republic with the result that Bosnia hosted a large
share of Yugoslavia's defense plants. The bitter interethnic warfare
in Bosnia caused production to plummet by 80% from 1990 to 1995,
unemployment to soar, and human misery to multiply. With an uneasy
peace in place, output recovered in 1996-98 at high percentage rates
on a low base; but output growth slowed appreciably in 1999, and GDP
remains far below the 1990 level. Economic data are of limited use
because, although both entities issue figures, national-level
statistics are not available. Moreover, official data do not capture
the large share of activity that occurs on the black market. In 1999,
the convertible mark - the national currency introduced in 1998 -
gained wider acceptance, and the Central Bank of Bosnia and
Herzegovina dramatically increased its reserve holdings.
Implementation of privatization, however, faltered in both areas.
Banking reform is also lagging. The country receives substantial
amounts of reconstruction assistance and humanitarian aid from the
international community but will have to prepare for an era of
declining assistance.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $6.2 billion (1999 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 5% (1999 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $1,770 (1999 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 19%
industry: 23%
services: 58% (1996 est.)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 5% (1997 est.)

Labor force: 1.026 million

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture NA%, industry NA%, services
NA%

Unemployment rate: 35%-40% (1999 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $NA
expenditures: $1.6 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
(2000 est.)

Industries: steel, coal, iron ore, lead, zinc, manganese, bauxite,
vehicle assembly, textiles, tobacco products, wooden furniture, tank
and aircraft assembly, domestic appliances, oil refining (much of
capacity damaged or shut down) (1995)

Industrial production growth rate: 5%-10% (1999 est.)

Electricity - production: 2.22 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 32.43%
hydro: 67.57%
nuclear: 0%
other: 0% (1998)

Electricity - consumption: 2.065 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1998)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1998)

Agriculture - products: wheat, corn, fruits, vegetables; livestock

Exports: $450 million (1997 est.)

Exports - commodities: NA

Exports - partners: NA

Imports: $2.95 billion (1997 est.)

Imports - commodities: NA

Imports - partners: NA

Debt - external: $4.1 billion (1997 est.)

Economic aid - recipient: $1.2 billion (1997 pledged)

Currency: 1 convertible marka (KM) = 100 convertible pfenniga

Exchange rates: convertible marks per US$1 - 1.9 (1999)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Bosnia and Herzegovina:Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 238,000 (1995)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 4,000 (1999)

Telephone system: telephone and telegraph network is in need of
modernization and expansion; many urban areas are below average when
compared with services in other former Yugoslav republics
domestic: NA
international: no satellite earth stations

Radio broadcast stations: AM 8, FM 16, shortwave 1 (1998)

Radios: 940,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 33 (plus 292 repeaters) (September
1995)

Televisions: NA

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 2 (1999)

@Bosnia and Herzegovina:Transportation

Railways:
total: 1,021 km (electrified 795 km; operating as diesel or steam
until grids are repaired)
standard gauge: 1,021 km 1.435-m gauge (1995); note - some segments
still need repair and/or reconstruction

Highways:
total: 21,846 km
paved: 11,425 km
unpaved: 10,421 km (1996 est.)
note: roads need maintenance and repair

Waterways: NA km; large sections of the Sava blocked by downed
bridges, silt, and debris

Pipelines: crude oil 174 km; natural gas 90 km (1992); note -
pipelines now disrupted

Ports and harbors: Bosanska Gradiska, Bosanski Brod, Bosanski Samac,
and Brcko (all inland waterway ports on the Sava none of which are
fully operational), Orasje

Merchant marine: none (1999 est.)

Airports: 27 (1999 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 9
2,438 to 3,047 m: 4
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
under 914 m: 3 (1999 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 18
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 7
under 914 m: 10 (1999 est.)

Heliports: 4 (1999 est.)

@Bosnia and Herzegovina:Military

Military branches: Federation Army or VF (composed of both Croatian
and Bosniak elements), Army of the Serb Republic (composed of Bosnian
Serb elements); note - within both of these forces air and air defense
are subordinate commands

Military manpower - military age: 19 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 1,114,180 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males age 15-49: 886,464 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 29,325 (2000 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $NA

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: NA%

@Bosnia and Herzegovina:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: disputes with Serbia over Serbian populated
areas of Bosnia and Herzegovina

Illicit drugs: minor transit point for marijuana and opiate
trafficking routes to Western Europe

______________________________________________________________________



BOTSWANA

@Botswana:Introduction

Background: Formerly the British protectorate of Bechuanaland,
Botswana adopted its new name upon independence in 1966. The economy,
closely tied to South Africa's, is dominated by cattle raising and
mining.

@Botswana:Geography

Location: Southern Africa, north of South Africa

Geographic coordinates: 22 00 S, 24 00 E

Map references: Africa

Area:
total: 600,370 sq km
land: 585,370 sq km
water: 15,000 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Texas

Land boundaries:
total: 4,013 km
border countries: Namibia 1,360 km, South Africa 1,840 km, Zimbabwe
813 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: semiarid; warm winters and hot summers

Terrain: predominantly flat to gently rolling tableland; Kalahari
Desert in southwest

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: junction of the Limpopo and Shashe Rivers 513 m
highest point: Tsodilo Hills 1,489 m

Natural resources: diamonds, copper, nickel, salt, soda ash, potash,
coal, iron ore, silver

Land use:
arable land: 1%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 46%
forests and woodland: 47%
other: 6% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 20 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: periodic droughts; seasonal August winds blow from
the west, carrying sand and dust across the country, which can obscure
visibility

Environment - current issues: overgrazing; desertification; limited
fresh water resources

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered
Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone
Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note: landlocked; population concentrated in eastern part
of the country

@Botswana:People

Population: 1,576,470
note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the
effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life
expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population
and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age
and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2000 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 41% (male 321,766; female 318,304)
15-64 years: 55% (male 417,734; female 453,947)
65 years and over: 4% (male 26,436; female 38,283) (2000 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.76% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 29.63 births/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 22.08 deaths/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.92 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.69 male(s)/female
total population: 0.94 male(s)/female (2000 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 61.68 deaths/1,000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 39.27 years
male: 38.63 years
female: 39.93 years (2000 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.8 children born/woman (2000 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Motswana (singular), Batswana (plural)
adjective: Motswana (singular), Batswana (plural)

Ethnic groups: Batswana 95%, Kalanga, Basarwa, and Kgalagadi 4%, white
1%

Religions: indigenous beliefs 50%, Christian 50%

Languages: English (official), Setswana

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 69.8%
male: 80.5%
female: 59.9% (1995 est.)

@Botswana:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Botswana
conventional short form: Botswana
former: Bechuanaland

Data code: BC

Government type: parliamentary republic

Capital: Gaborone

Administrative divisions: 10 districts and four town councils*;
Central, Chobe, Francistown*, Gaborone*, Ghanzi, Kgalagadi, Kgatleng,
Kweneng, Lobatse*, Ngamiland, North-East, Selebi-Pikwe*, South-East,
Southern

Independence: 30 September 1966 (from UK)

National holiday: Independence Day, 30 September (1966)

Constitution: March 1965, effective 30 September 1966

Legal system: based on Roman-Dutch law and local customary law;
judicial review limited to matters of interpretation; has not accepted
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Festus MOGAE (since 1 April 1998) and Vice
President Seretse Ian KHAMA (since NA April 1998); note - the
president is both the chief of state and head of government; vice
president KHAMA is on a one-year leave of absence, effective 1 January
2000, but retains the title of vice president
head of government: President Festus MOGAE (since 1 April 1998) and
Vice President Seretse Ian KHAMA (since NA April 1998); note - the
president is both the chief of state and head of government; vice
president KHAMA is on a one-year leave of absence, effective 1 January
2000, but retains the title of vice president
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
elections: president elected by the National Assembly for a five-year
term; election last held 16 October 1999 (next to be held NA October
2004); vice president appointed by the president
election results: Festus MOGAE elected president; percent of National
Assembly vote - 61.3%

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament consists of the House of
Chiefs (a largely advisory 15-member body consisting of the chiefs of
the eight principal tribes, four elected subchiefs, and three members
selected by the other 12) and the National Assembly (44 seats, 40
members are directly elected by popular vote and 4 appointed by the
majority party; members serve five-year terms)
elections: National Assembly - elections last held 16 October 1999
(next to be held NA October 2004)
election results: percent of vote by party - BDP 61.3%, other 38.7%;
seats by party - BDP 33, other 7

Judicial branch: High Court; Court of Appeal

Political parties and leaders: Botswana Democratic Party or BDP
; Botswana National Front or BNF ;
Botswana Congress Party or BCP ; Botswana People's
Party or BPP 
note: main parties are: BDP, BNF, BCP; other minor parties joined
forces in 1999 to form the Botswana Alliance Movement or BAM [Kenneth
KOMA, chairman] but did not capture any parliamentary seats; the BAM
parties are: the United Action Party , the
Social Democratic Union, the Independence Freedom Party [Motsamai
MPHO], and the Botswana Progressive Union 

International organization participation: ACP, AfDB, C, CCC, ECA, FAO,
G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF,
Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ISO, ITU, NAM, OAU, OPCW, SACU, SADC, UN,
UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Kgosi SEEPAPITSO IV
chancery: 1531-1533 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
telephone:  (202) 244-4990
FAX:  (202) 244-4164

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador John E. LANGE
embassy: address NA, Gaborone
mailing address: P. O. Box 90, Gaborone
telephone:  353982
FAX:  356947

Flag description: light blue with a horizontal white-edged black
stripe in the center

@Botswana:Economy

Economy - overview: Agriculture still provides a livelihood for more
than 80% of the population but supplies only about 50% of food needs
and accounts for only 3% of GDP. Subsistence farming and cattle
raising predominate. The sector is plagued by erratic rainfall and
poor soils. Diamond mining and tourism also are important to the
economy. Substantial mineral deposits were found in the 1970s and the
mining sector grew from 25% of GDP in 1980 to 38% in 1998.
Unemployment officially is 21% but unofficial estimates place it
closer to 40%. The Orapa 2000 project, which will double the capacity
of the country's main diamond mine, will be finished in early 2000.
This will be the main force behind continued economic expansion.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $5.7 billion (1999 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 6.5% (1999 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $3,900 (1999 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 4%
industry: 46% (including 36% mining)
services: 50% (1998 est.)

Population below poverty line: 47% (1999 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 7.7% (1999 est.)

Labor force: 235,000 formal sector employees (1995)

Labor force - by occupation: 100,000 public sector; 135,000 private
sector, including 14,300 who are employed in various mines in South
Africa; most others engaged in cattle raising and subsistence
agriculture (1995 est.)

Unemployment rate: 20%-40% (1999 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $1.6 billion
expenditures: $1.8 billion, including capital expenditures of $560
million (FY96/97)

Industries: diamonds, copper, nickel, coal, salt, soda ash, potash;
livestock processing

Industrial production growth rate: 4.6% (FY92/93)

Electricity - production: 1 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 100%
hydro: 0%
nuclear: 0%
other: 0% (1998)

Electricity - consumption: 1.619 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1998)

Electricity - imports: 689 million kWh (1998)

Agriculture - products: sorghum, corn, millet, pulses, groundnuts
(peanuts), beans, cowpeas, sunflower seed; livestock

Exports: $2.36 billion (f.o.b., 1999 est.)

Exports - commodities: diamonds 72%, vehicles, copper, nickel, meat
(1998)

Exports - partners: EU 74%, Southern African Customs Union (SACU) 21%,
Zimbabwe 3% (1996)

Imports: $2.05 billion (f.o.b., 1999 est.)

Imports - commodities: foodstuffs, machinery and transport equipment,
textiles, petroleum products

Imports - partners: Southern African Customs Union (SACU) 78%, Europe
8%, Zimbabwe 6% (1996)

Debt - external: $651 million (1998)

Economic aid - recipient: $73 million (1995)

Currency: 1 pula (P) = 100 thebe

Exchange rates: pulas (P) per US$1 - 4.6168 (January 2000), 4.6244
(1999), 4.2259 (1998), 3.6508 (1997), 3.3242 (1996), 2.7722 (1995)

Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March

@Botswana:Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 78,000 (1998)

Telephones - mobile cellular: NA

Telephone system: sparse system
domestic: small system of open-wire lines, microwave radio relay
links, and a few radiotelephone communication stations
international: two international exchanges; digital microwave radio
relay links to Zambia, Zimbabwe, and South Africa; satellite earth
station - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 7, FM 15, shortwave 5 (1998)

Radios: 237,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 0 (1997)

Televisions: 31,000 (1997)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 2 (1999)

@Botswana:Transportation

Railways:
total: 971 km
narrow gauge: 971 km 1.067-m gauge (1995)

Highways:
total: 18,482 km
paved: 4,343 km
unpaved: 14,139 km (1996 est.)

Ports and harbors: none

Airports: 92 (1999 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 10
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 7
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (1999 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 82
1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
914 to 1,523 m: 57
under 914 m: 21 (1999 est.)

@Botswana:Military

Military branches: Botswana Defense Force (includes Army and Air
Wing), Botswana National Police

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 373,990 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males age 15-49: 196,572 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 19,132 (2000 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $61 million (FY99/00)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 1.2% (FY99/00)

@Botswana:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: dispute with Namibia over uninhabited
Kasikili (Sidudu) Island in Linyanti (Chobe) River resolved by the ICJ
in favor of Botswana (13 December 1999); at least one other island in
Linyanti River is contested

______________________________________________________________________



BOUVET ISLAND

@Bouvet Island:Geography

Location: Southern Africa, island in the South Atlantic Ocean,
south-southwest of the Cape of Good Hope (South Africa)

Geographic coordinates: 54 26 S, 3 24 E

Map references: Antarctic Region

Area:
total: 58.5 sq km
land: 58.5 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: about 0.3 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 29.6 km

Maritime claims:
territorial sea: 4 nm

Climate: antarctic

Terrain: volcanic; maximum elevation about 800 m; coast is mostly
inaccessible

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Southern Ocean 0 m
highest point: unnamed location 780 m

Natural resources: none

Land use:
arable land: 0%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 0%
forests and woodland: 0%
other: 100% (93% ice)

Irrigated land: 0 sq km (1993)

Natural hazards: NA

Environment - current issues: NA

Geography - note: covered by glacial ice; declared a nature reserve

@Bouvet Island:People

Population: uninhabited (July 2000 est.)

@Bouvet Island:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Bouvet Island

Data code: BV

Dependency status: territory of Norway; administered by the Polar
Department of the Ministry of Justice and Police from Oslo

Flag description: the flag of Norway is used

@Bouvet Island:Economy

Economy - overview: no economic activity; declared a nature reserve

@Bouvet Island:Communications

Communications - note: automatic meteorological station

@Bouvet Island:Transportation

Ports and harbors: none; offshore anchorage only

@Bouvet Island:Military

Military - note: defense is the responsibility of Norway

@Bouvet Island:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

______________________________________________________________________



BRAZIL

@Brazil:Introduction

Background: Following three centuries under the rule of Portugal,
Brazil became an independent nation in 1822. By far the largest and
most populous country in South America, Brazil has overcome more than
half a century of military intervention in the governance of the
country to pursue industrial and agricultural growth and development
of the interior. Exploiting vast natural resources and a large labor
pool, Brazil became Latin America's leading economic power by the
1970s. Highly unequal income distribution remains a pressing problem.

@Brazil:Geography

Location: Eastern South America, bordering the Atlantic Ocean

Geographic coordinates: 10 00 S, 55 00 W

Map references: South America

Area:
total: 8,511,965 sq km
land: 8,456,510 sq km
water: 55,455 sq km
note: includes Arquipelago de Fernando de Noronha, Atol das Rocas,
Ilha da Trindade, Ilhas Martin Vaz, and Penedos de Sao Pedro e Sao
Paulo

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than the US

Land boundaries:
total: 14,691 km
border countries: Argentina 1,224 km, Bolivia 3,400 km, Colombia 1,643
km, French Guiana 673 km, Guyana 1,119 km, Paraguay 1,290 km, Peru
1,560 km, Suriname 597 km, Uruguay 985 km, Venezuela 2,200 km

Coastline: 7,491 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 24 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: mostly tropical, but temperate in south

Terrain: mostly flat to rolling lowlands in north; some plains, hills,
mountains, and narrow coastal belt

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Pico da Neblina 3,014 m

Natural resources: bauxite, gold, iron ore, manganese, nickel,
phosphates, platinum, tin, uranium, petroleum, hydropower, timber

Land use:
arable land: 5%
permanent crops: 1%
permanent pastures: 22%
forests and woodland: 58%
other: 14% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 28,000 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: recurring droughts in northeast; floods and
occasional frost in south

Environment - current issues: deforestation in Amazon Basin destroys
the habitat and endangers the existence of a multitude of plant and
animal species indigenous to the area; air and water pollution in Rio
de Janeiro, Sao Paulo, and several other large cities; land
degradation and water pollution caused by improper mining activities
note: President CARDOSO in September 1999 signed into force an
environmental crime bill which for the first time defines pollution
and deforestation as crimes punishable by stiff fines and jail
sentences

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty,
Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species,
Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine
Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution,
Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol

Geography - note: largest country in South America; shares common
boundaries with every South American country except Chile and Ecuador

@Brazil:People

Population: 172,860,370
note: Brazil took an intercensal count in August 1996 which reported a
population of 157,079,573; that figure was about 5% lower than
projections by the US Census Bureau, which is close to the implied
underenumeration of 4.6% for the 1991 census; estimates for this
country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality
due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant
mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and
changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would
otherwise be expected (July 2000 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 29% (male 25,607,074; female 24,670,960)
15-64 years: 66% (male 55,793,005; female 57,598,489)
65 years and over: 5% (male 3,727,912; female 5,462,930) (2000 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.94% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 18.84 births/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 9.37 deaths/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.03 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.68 male(s)/female
total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2000 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 38.04 deaths/1,000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 62.94 years
male: 58.54 years
female: 67.56 years (2000 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.13 children born/woman (2000 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Brazilian(s)
adjective: Brazilian

Ethnic groups: white (includes Portuguese, German, Italian, Spanish,
Polish) 55%, mixed white and black 38%, black 6%, other (includes
Japanese, Arab, Amerindian) 1%

Religions: Roman Catholic (nominal) 80%

Languages: Portuguese (official), Spanish, English, French

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 83.3%
male: 83.3%
female: 83.2% (1995 est.)

@Brazil:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Federative Republic of Brazil
conventional short form: Brazil
local long form: Republica Federativa do Brasil
local short form: Brasil

Data code: BR

Government type: federative republic

Capital: Brasilia

Administrative divisions: 26 states (estados, singular - estado) and 1
federal district* (distrito federal); Acre, Alagoas, Amapa, Amazonas,
Bahia, Ceara, Distrito Federal*, Espirito Santo, Goias, Maranhao, Mato
Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, Minas Gerais, Para, Paraiba, Parana,
Pernambuco, Piaui, Rio de Janeiro, Rio Grande do Norte, Rio Grande do
Sul, Rondonia, Roraima, Santa Catarina, Sao Paulo, Sergipe, Tocantins

Independence: 7 September 1822 (from Portugal)

National holiday: Independence Day, 7 September (1822)

Constitution: 5 October 1988

Legal system: based on Roman codes; has not accepted compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction

Suffrage: voluntary between 16 and 18 years of age and over 70;
compulsory over 18 and under 70 years of age

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Fernando Henrique CARDOSO (since 1 January
1995); Vice President Marco MACIEL (since 1 January 1995); note - the
president is both the chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Fernando Henrique CARDOSO (since 1
January 1995); Vice President Marco MACIEL (since 1 January 1995);
note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
elections: president and vice president elected on the same ticket by
popular vote for four-year terms; election last held 4 October 1998
(next to be held NA October 2002)
election results: Fernando Henrique CARDOSO reelected president;
percent of vote - 53%

Legislative branch: bicameral National Congress or Congresso Nacional
consists of the Federal Senate or Senado Federal (81 seats; three
members from each state or federal district elected according to the
principle of majority to serve eight-year terms; one-third elected
after a four year period, two-thirds elected after the next four-year
period) and the Chamber of Deputies or Camara dos Deputados (513
seats; members are elected by proportional representation to serve
four-year terms)
elections: Federal Senate - last held 4 October 1998 for one-third of
Senate (next to be held NA October 2002 for two-thirds of the Senate);
Chamber of Deputies - last held 4 October 1998 (next to be held NA
October 2002)
election results: Federal Senate - percent of vote by party - NA%;
seats by party - PMDB 27, PFL 20, PSDB 16, PT 7, PPB 5, PSB 3, PDT 2,
PPS 1; Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by
party - PFL 106, PSDB 99, PMDB 82, PPB 60, PT 58, PTB 31, PDT 25, PSB
19, PL 12, PCdoB 7, other 14

Judicial branch: Supreme Federal Tribunal, 11 judges are appointed for
life by the president and confirmed by the Senate

Political parties and leaders: Brazilian Democratic Movement Party or
PMDB ; Brazilian Labor Party or PTB [Jose
Carlos MARTINEZ, president]; Brazilian Social Democracy Party or PSDB
; Brazilian Socialist Party or PSB
; Brazilian Progressive Party or PPB [Paulo
MALUF, president]; Communist Party of Brazil or PCdoB [Joao AMAZONAS,
chairman]; Democratic Labor Party or PDT ;
Liberal Front Party or PFL ; Liberal
Party or PL ; Popular Socialist Party
or PPS ; Worker's Party or PT [Jose DIRCEU,
president]

Political pressure groups and leaders: left wing of the Catholic
Church, Landless Worker's Movement, and labor unions allied to leftist
Worker's Party are critical of government's social and economic
policies

International organization participation: AfDB, BIS, CCC, ECLAC, FAO,
G-11, G-15, G-19, G-24, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU,
ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat,
Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, LAES, LAIA, Mercosur, NAM
(observer), NSG, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, PCA, RG, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO,
UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMOP, UNTAET, UNU, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO,
WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Rubens Antonio BARBOSA
chancery: 3006 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone:  (202) 238-2700
FAX:  (202) 238-2827
consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles,
Miami, New York, San Juan (Puerto Rico), and San Francisco

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Anthony S. HARRINGTON
embassy: Avenida das Nacoes, Quadra 801, Lote 3, Brasilia, Distrito
Federal Cep 70403-900 Brazil
mailing address: Unit 3500, APO AA 34030
telephone:  (61) 321-7272
FAX:  (61) 225-9136
consulate(s) general: Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo
consulate(s): Recife

Flag description: green with a large yellow diamond in the center
bearing a blue celestial globe with 27 white five-pointed stars (one
for each state and the Federal District) arranged in the same pattern
as the night sky over Brazil; the globe has a white equatorial band
with the motto ORDEM E PROGRESSO (Order and Progress)

@Brazil:Economy

Economy - overview: Possessing large and well-developed agricultural,
mining, manufacturing, and service sectors, Brazil's economy outweighs
that of all other South American countries and is expanding its
presence in world markets. In the late eighties and early nineties,
high inflation hindered economic activity and investment. The Real
Plan, instituted in the spring of 1994, sought to break inflationary
expectations by pegging the real to the US dollar. Inflation was
brought down to single digit annual figures, but not fast enough to
avoid substantial real exchange rate appreciation during the
transition phase of the Real Plan. This appreciation meant that
Brazilian goods were now more expensive relative to goods from other
countries, which contributed to large current account deficits.
However, no shortage of foreign currency ensued because of the
financial community's renewed interest in Brazilian markets as
inflation rates stabilized and the debt crisis of the eighties faded
from memory. The maintenance of large current account deficits via
capital account surpluses became problematic as investors became more
risk averse to emerging market exposure as a consequence of the Asian
financial crisis in 1997 and the Russian bond default in August 1998.
After crafting a fiscal adjustment program and pledging progress on
structural reform, Brazil received a $41.5 billion IMF-led
international support program in November 1998. In January 1999, the
Brazilian Central Bank announced that the real would no longer be
pegged to the US dollar. This devaluation helped moderate the downturn
in economic growth in 1999 that investors had expressed concerns about
over the summer of 1998. Brazil's debt to GDP ratio of 48% for 1999
beat the IMF target and helped reassure investors that Brazil will
maintain tight fiscal and monetary policy even with a floating
currency. The economy is expected to push growth up to 3% in 2000.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $1.057 trillion (1999 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 0.8% (1999 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $6,150 (1999 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 14%
industry: 36%
services: 50% (1997)

Population below poverty line: 17.4% (1990 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 0.8%
highest 10%: 47.9% (1995)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 5% (1999)

Labor force: 74 million (1997 est.)

Labor force - by occupation: services 42%, agriculture 31%, industry
27%

Unemployment rate: 7.5% (1999 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $151 billion
expenditures: $149 billion, including capital expenditures of $36
billion (1998)

Industries: textiles, shoes, chemicals, cement, lumber, iron ore, tin,
steel, aircraft, motor vehicles and parts, other machinery and
equipment

Industrial production growth rate: -2.6% (1999 est.)

Electricity - production: 316.927 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 4.92%
hydro: 91.02%
nuclear: 0.99%
other: 3.07% (1998)

Electricity - consumption: 336.242 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1998)

Electricity - imports: 41.5 billion kWh
note: imports electricity from Paraguay (1998)

Agriculture - products: coffee, soybeans, wheat, rice, corn,
sugarcane, cocoa, citrus; beef

Exports: $46.9 billion (f.o.b., 1999)

Exports - commodities: manufactures, iron ore, soybeans, footwear,
coffee

Exports - partners: US 18%, Argentina 13%, Germany 5%, Netherlands 5%,
Japan 4% (1999)

Imports: $48.7 billion (f.o.b., 1999)

Imports - commodities: machinery and equipment, chemical products,
oil, electricity

Imports - partners: US 23%, Argentina 12%, Germany 10%, Japan 5%,
Italy 5% (1999)

Debt - external: $200 billion (1999)

Economic aid - recipient: $1.012 billion (1995)

Currency: 1 real (R$) = 100 centavos

Exchange rates: reals (R$) per US$1 - 1.804 (January 2000), 1.815
(1999), 1.161 (1998), 1.078 (1997), 1.005 (1996), 0.918 (1995)
note: from October 1994 through 14 January 1999, the official rate was
determined by a managed float; since 15 January 1999, the official
rate floats independently with respect to the US$

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Brazil:Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 19 million (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 4 million (1997)

Telephone system: good working system
domestic: extensive microwave radio relay system and a domestic
satellite system with 64 earth stations
international: 3 coaxial submarine cables; satellite earth stations -
3 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean), 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic Ocean region east),
connected by microwave relay system to MERCOSUR Brazilsat B3 satellite
earth station

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1,365, FM 296, shortwave 161 (of which 91
are collocated with AM stations) (1999)

Radios: 71 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 138 (1997)

Televisions: 36.5 million (1997)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 197 (1999)

@Brazil:Transportation

Railways:
total: 27,882 km (1,122 km electrified); note - excludes urban rail
broad gauge: 4,057 km 1.600-m gauge
narrow gauge: 23,489 km 1.000-m gauge
dual gauge: 336 km 1.000-m and 1.600-m gauges (three rails) (1999
est.)

Highways:
total: 1.98 million km
paved: 184,140 km
unpaved: 1,795,860 km (1996 est.)

Waterways: 50,000 km navigable

Pipelines: crude oil 2,980 km; petroleum products 4,762 km; natural
gas 4,246 km (1998)

Ports and harbors: Belem, Fortaleza, Ilheus, Imbituba, Manaus,
Paranagua, Porto Alegre, Recife, Rio de Janeiro, Rio Grande, Salvador,
Santos, Vitoria

Merchant marine:
total: 174 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 3,964,808 GRT/6,403,284
DWT
ships by type: bulk 34, cargo 28, chemical tanker 5, combination
ore/oil 9, container 10, liquified gas 10, multi-functional large load
carrier 1, passenger/cargo 5, petroleum tanker 59, refrigerated cargo
1, roll-on/roll-off 11, short-sea passenger 1 (1999 est.)

Airports: 3,277 (1999 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 541
over 3,047 m: 5
2,438 to 3,047 m: 20
1,524 to 2,437 m: 138
914 to 1,523 m: 346
under 914 m: 32 (1999 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 2,736
1,524 to 2,437 m: 73
914 to 1,523 m: 1,306
under 914 m: 1,357 (1999 est.)

@Brazil:Military

Military branches: Brazilian Army, Brazilian Navy (includes naval air
and marines), Brazilian Air Force, Federal Police (paramilitary)

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 47,732,285 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males age 15-49: 32,029,873 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 1,830,195 (2000 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $13.408 billion (FY99)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 1.9% (FY99)

@Brazil:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: two short sections of boundary with Uruguay
are in dispute - Arroio Invernada (Arroyo de la Invernada) area of the
Rio Quarai (Rio Cuareim) and the islands at the confluence of the Rio
Quarai and the Uruguay River

Illicit drugs: limited illicit producer of cannabis, minor coca
cultivation in the Amazon region, mostly used for domestic
consumption; government has a large-scale eradication program to
control cannabis; important transshipment country for Bolivian,
Colombian, and Peruvian cocaine headed for the US and Europe;
increasingly used by traffickers as a way station for narcotics air
transshipments between Peru and Colombia; upsurge in drug-related
violence and weapons smuggling

______________________________________________________________________



BRITISH INDIAN OCEAN TERRITORY

@British Indian Ocean Territory:Geography

Location: Southern Asia, archipelago in the Indian Ocean, about
one-half the way from Africa to Indonesia

Geographic coordinates: 6 00 S, 71 30 E

Map references: World

Area:
total: 60 sq km
land: 60 sq km
water: 0 sq km
note: includes the entire Chagos Archipelago

Area - comparative: about 0.3 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 698 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 3 nm

Climate: tropical marine; hot, humid, moderated by trade winds

Terrain: flat and low (most areas do not exceed four meters in
elevation)

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point: unnamed location on Diego Garcia 15 m

Natural resources: coconuts, fish

Land use:
arable land: 0%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 0%
forests and woodland: NA%
other: NA%

Irrigated land: 0 sq km (1993)

Natural hazards: NA

Environment - current issues: NA

Geography - note: archipelago of 2,300 islands; Diego Garcia, largest
and southernmost island, occupies strategic location in central Indian
Ocean; island is site of joint US-UK military facility

@British Indian Ocean Territory:People

Population: no indigenous inhabitants
note: approximately 3,000 native inhabitants, known as the Chagosians
or Ilois, were evacuated to Mauritius before construction of UK-US
military facilities; in 1995, there were approximately 1,700 UK and US
military personnel and 1,500 civilian contractors living on the island
(July 2000 est.)

@British Indian Ocean Territory:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: British Indian Ocean Territory
conventional short form: none
abbreviation: BIOT

Data code: IO

Dependency status: overseas territory of the UK; administered by a
commissioner, resident in the Foreign and Commonwealth Office in
London

Legal system: NA

Executive branch:
chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952)
head of government: Commissioner David Ross MACLENNAN (since NA 1994);
Administrator Don CAIRNS (since NA); note - both reside in the UK
cabinet: NA
elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; commissioner and
administrator appointed by the monarch

Diplomatic representation in the US: none (overseas territory of the
UK)

Diplomatic representation from the US: none (overseas territory of the
UK)

Flag description: white with six blue wavy horizontal stripes; the
flag of the UK is in the upper hoist-side quadrant; the striped
section bears a palm tree and yellow crown centered on the outer half
of the flag

@British Indian Ocean Territory:Economy

Economy - overview: All economic activity is concentrated on the
largest island of Diego Garcia, where joint UK-US defense facilities
are located. Construction projects and various services needed to
support the military installations are done by military and contract
employees from the UK, Mauritius, the Philippines, and the US. There
are no industrial or agricultural activities on the islands.

Electricity - production: NA kWh
note: electricity supplied by the US military

Electricity - consumption: NA kWh

@British Indian Ocean Territory:Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: NA

Telephone system: separate facilities for military and public needs
are available
domestic: all commercial telephone services are available, including
connection to the Internet
international: international telephone service is carried by satellite
(2000)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 2, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 1 (1997)

Televisions: NA

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): NA

@British Indian Ocean Territory:Transportation

Highways:
total: NA km
paved: short stretch of paved road of NA km between port and airfield
on Diego Garcia
unpaved: NA km

Ports and harbors: Diego Garcia

Airports: 1 (1999 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 1
over 3,047 m: 1 (1999 est.)

@British Indian Ocean Territory:Military

Military - note: defense is the responsibility of the UK; the US lease
on Diego Garcia expires in 2016

@British Indian Ocean Territory:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: the Chagos Archipelago is claimed by
Mauritius and Seychelles

______________________________________________________________________



BRITISH VIRGIN ISLANDS

@British Virgin Islands:Introduction

Background: First settled by the Dutch in 1648, the islands were soon
after (1672) annexed by the English. The economy is closely tied to
the larger and more populous US Virgin Islands to the west; the US
dollar is the legal currency.

@British Virgin Islands:Geography

Location: Caribbean, between the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic
Ocean, east of Puerto Rico

Geographic coordinates: 18 30 N, 64 30 W

Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

Area:
total: 150 sq km
land: 150 sq km
water: 0 sq km
note: includes the island of Anegada

Area - comparative: about 0.9 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 80 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 3 nm

Climate: subtropical; humid; temperatures moderated by trade winds

Terrain: coral islands relatively flat; volcanic islands steep, hilly

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m
highest point: Mount Sage 521 m

Natural resources: NEGL

Land use:
arable land: 20%
permanent crops: 7%
permanent pastures: 33%
forests and woodland: 7%
other: 33% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: hurricanes and tropical storms (July to October)

Environment - current issues: limited natural fresh water resources
(except for a few seasonal streams and springs on Tortola, most of the
islands' water supply comes from wells and rainwater catchment)

Geography - note: strong ties to nearby US Virgin Islands and Puerto
Rico

@British Virgin Islands:People

Population: 19,615 (July 2000 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 20% (male 2,022; female 1,975)
15-64 years: 75% (male 7,517; female 7,102)
65 years and over: 5% (male 545; female 454) (2000 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.34% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 15.86 births/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 4.59 deaths/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: 12.08 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 1.2 male(s)/female
total population: 1.06 male(s)/female (2000 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 21.05 deaths/1,000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 75.44 years
male: 74.57 years
female: 76.35 years (2000 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.72 children born/woman (2000 est.)

Nationality:
noun: British Virgin Islander(s)
adjective: British Virgin Islander

Ethnic groups: black 90%, white, Asian

Religions: Protestant 86% (Methodist 45%, Anglican 21%, Church of God
7%, Seventh-Day Adventist 5%, Baptist 4%, Jehovah's Witnesses 2%,
other 2%), Roman Catholic 6%, none 2%, other 6% (1981)

Languages: English (official)

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 97.8% (1991 est.)
male: NA%
female: NA%

@British Virgin Islands:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: British Virgin Islands
abbreviation: BVI

Data code: VI

Dependency status: overseas territory of the UK

Government type: NA

Capital: Road Town

Administrative divisions: none (overseas territory of the UK)

Independence: none (overseas territory of the UK)

National holiday: Territory Day, 1 July

Constitution: 1 June 1977

Legal system: English law

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952),
represented by Governor Francis J. SAVAGE (since NA)
head of government: Chief Minister Ralph T. O'NEAL (since 15 May 1995;
appointed after the death of former Chief Minister H. Lavity STOUTT)
cabinet: Executive Council appointed by the governor from members of
the Legislative Council
elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; governor appointed by the
monarch; chief minister appointed by the governor from among the
members of the Legislative Council

Legislative branch: unicameral Legislative Council (13 seats; members
are elected by direct popular vote, one member from each of 9
electoral districts, four at-large members; members serve five-year
terms)
elections: last held 20 February 1995 (next to be held NA February
2000)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - VIP
6, CCM 2, UP 2, independents 3

Judicial branch: Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court, consisting of the
High Court of Justice and the Court of Appeal; (one judge of the
Supreme Court is a resident of the islands and presides over the High
Court); Magistrate's Court; Juvenile Court; Court of Summary
Jurisdiction

Political parties and leaders: Concerned Citizens Movement or CCM [E.
Walwyn BREWLEY]; Independent People's Movement or IPM [Omar HODGE and
Allen O'NEAL]; United Party or UP ; Virgin Islands
Party or VIP 

International organization participation: Caricom (associate), CDB,
ECLAC (associate), Interpol (subbureau), IOC, OECS (associate), UNESCO
(associate)

Diplomatic representation in the US: none (overseas territory of the
UK)

Diplomatic representation from the US: none (overseas territory of the
UK)

Flag description: blue, with the flag of the UK in the upper
hoist-side quadrant and the Virgin Islander coat of arms centered in
the outer half of the flag; the coat of arms depicts a woman flanked
on either side by a vertical column of six oil lamps above a scroll
bearing the Latin word VIGILATE (Be Watchful)

@British Virgin Islands:Economy

Economy - overview: The economy, one of the most prosperous in the
Caribbean, is highly dependent on tourism, which generates an
estimated 45% of the national income. An estimated 350,000 tourists,
mainly from the US, visited the islands in 1997. In the mid-1980s, the
government began offering offshore registration to companies wishing
to incorporate in the islands, and incorporation fees now generate
substantial revenues. An estimated 250,000 companies were on the
offshore registry by yearend 1997. The adoption of a comprehensive
insurance law in late 1994, which provides a blanket of
confidentiality with regulated statutory gateways for investigation of
criminal offenses, is expected to make the British Virgin Islands even
more attractive to international business. Livestock raising is the
most important agricultural activity; poor soils limit the islands'
ability to meet domestic food requirements. Because of traditionally
close links with the US Virgin Islands, the British Virgin Islands has
used the dollar as its currency since 1959.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $287 million (1999 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 6.8% (1999 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $15,000 (1999 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 1.8%
industry: 6.2%
services: 92% (1996 est.)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 5.3% (1998)

Labor force: 4,911 (1980)

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture NA%, industry NA%, services
NA%

Unemployment rate: 3% (1995)

Budget:
revenues: $121.5 million
expenditures: $115.5 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1997)

Industries: tourism, light industry, construction, rum, concrete
block, offshore financial center

Industrial production growth rate: 4% (1985)

Electricity - production: 42 million kWh (1998)

Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 100%
hydro: 0%
nuclear: 0%
other: 0% (1998)

Electricity - consumption: 39 million kWh (1998)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1998)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1998)

Agriculture - products: fruits, vegetables; livestock, poultry; fish

Exports: $6 million (1998)

Exports - commodities: rum, fresh fish, fruits, animals; gravel, sand

Exports - partners: Virgin Islands (US), Puerto Rico, US

Imports: $175 million (1998)

Imports - commodities: building materials, automobiles, foodstuffs,
machinery

Imports - partners: Virgin Islands (US), Puerto Rico, US

Debt - external: $36.1 million (1997)

Economic aid - recipient: $2.6 million (1995)

Currency: 1 United States dollar (US$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: US currency is used

Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March

@British Virgin Islands:Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 9,000 (1994)

Telephones - mobile cellular: NA

Telephone system: worldwide telephone service
domestic: NA
international: submarine cable to Bermuda

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 4, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios: 9,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 1 (plus one cable company) (1997)

Televisions: 4,000 (1997)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 1 (1999)

@British Virgin Islands:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways:
total: 113 km (1995 est.)
paved: NA km
unpaved: NA km

Ports and harbors: Road Town

Merchant marine: none (1999 est.)

Airports: 3 (1999 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 1
under 914 m: 1 (1999 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (1999 est.)

@British Virgin Islands:Military

Military - note: defense is the responsibility of the UK

@British Virgin Islands:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

______________________________________________________________________



BRUNEI

@Brunei:Introduction

Background: Although greatly reduced in size since its heyday of the
16th century, the Sultanate of Brunei sits atop extensive petroleum
and natural gas fields, the source of one of the highest per capita
GDPs in the less developed countries.

@Brunei:Geography

Location: Southeastern Asia, bordering the South China Sea and
Malaysia

Geographic coordinates: 4 30 N, 114 40 E

Map references: Southeast Asia

Area:
total: 5,770 sq km
land: 5,270 sq km
water: 500 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Delaware

Land boundaries:
total: 381 km
border countries: Malaysia 381 km

Coastline: 161 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm or to median line
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; hot, humid, rainy

Terrain: flat coastal plain rises to mountains in east; hilly lowland
in west

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: South China Sea 0 m
highest point: Bukit Pagon 1,850 m

Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, timber

Land use:
arable land: 1%
permanent crops: 1%
permanent pastures: 1%
forests and woodland: 85%
other: 12% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 10 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: typhoons, earthquakes, and severe flooding are very
rare

Environment - current issues: seasonal smoke/haze resulting from
forest fires in Indonesia

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection,
Ship Pollution
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note: close to vital sea lanes through South China Sea
linking Indian and Pacific Oceans; two parts physically separated by
Malaysia; almost an enclave of Malaysia

@Brunei:People

Population: 336,376 (July 2000 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 31% (male 53,812; female 51,628)
15-64 years: 66% (male 118,207; female 103,819)
65 years and over: 3% (male 4,317; female 4,593) (2000 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.17% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 20.81 births/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 3.39 deaths/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: 4.25 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.14 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.94 male(s)/female
total population: 1.1 male(s)/female (2000 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 14.84 deaths/1,000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 73.58 years
male: 71.23 years
female: 76.06 years (2000 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.47 children born/woman (2000 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Bruneian(s)
adjective: Bruneian

Ethnic groups: Malay 62%, Chinese 15%, indigenous 6%, other 17%

Religions: Muslim (official) 67%, Buddhist 13%, Christian 10%,
indigenous beliefs and other 10%

Languages: Malay (official), English, Chinese

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 88.2%
male: 92.6%
female: 83.4% (1995 est.)

@Brunei:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Negara Brunei Darussalam
conventional short form: Brunei

Data code: BX

Government type: constitutional sultanate

Capital: Bandar Seri Begawan

Administrative divisions: 4 districts (daerah-daerah, singular -
daerah); Belait, Brunei and Muara, Temburong, Tutong

Independence: 1 January 1984 (from UK)

National holiday: National Day, 23 February (1984)

Constitution: 29 September 1959 (some provisions suspended under a
State of Emergency since December 1962, others since independence on 1
January 1984)

Legal system: based on English common law; for Muslims, Islamic
Shari'a law supersedes civil law in a number of areas

Suffrage: none

Executive branch:
chief of state: Sultan and Prime Minister His Majesty Paduka Seri
Baginda Sultan Haji HASSANAL Bolkiah Mu'izzaddin Waddaulah (since 5
October 1967); note - the monarch is both the chief of state and head
of government
head of government: Sultan and Prime Minister His Majesty Paduka Seri
Baginda Sultan Haji HASSANAL Bolkiah Mu'izzaddin Waddaulah (since 5
October 1967); note - the monarch is both the chief of state and head
of government
cabinet: Council of Cabinet Ministers appointed and presided over by
the monarch; deals with executive matters
note: there is also a Religious Council (members appointed by the
monarch) that advises on religious matters, a Privy Council (members
appointed by the monarch) that deals with constitutional matters, and
the Council of Succession (members appointed by the monarch) that
determines the succession to the throne if the need arises
elections: none; the monarch is hereditary

Legislative branch: unicameral Legislative Council or Majlis Masyuarat
Megeri (a privy council that serves only in a consultative capacity;
NA seats; members appointed by the monarch)
elections: last held in March 1962
note: in 1970 the Council was changed to an appointive body by decree
of the monarch; an elected Legislative Council is being considered as
part of constitutional reform, but elections are unlikely for several
years

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, chief justice and judges are sworn in
by the monarch for three-year terms

Political parties and leaders: Brunei Solidarity National Party or
PPKB in Malay ; the
PPKB is the only legal political party in Brunei; it was registered in
1985, but became largely inactive after 1988, it was revived in 1995
and again in 1998; it has less than 200 registered party members;
other parties include Brunei People's Party or PRB (banned in 1962)
and Brunei National Democratic Party (registered in May 1965,
deregistered by the Brunei Government in 1988)

International organization participation: APEC, ASEAN, C, CCC, ESCAP,
G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDB, IFRCS, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat,
Interpol, IOC, ISO (correspondent), ITU, NAM, OIC, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD,
UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Pengiran Anak Dato Haji PUTEH Ibni
Mohammad Alam
chancery: 3520 International Court NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone:  (202) 342-0159
FAX:  (202) 342-0158

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Sylvia Gaye STANFIELD
embassy: Third Floor, Teck Guan Plaza, Jalan Sultan, Bandar Seri
Begawan
mailing address: PSC 470 (BSB), FPO AP 96507
telephone:  (2) 229670
FAX:  (2) 225293

Flag description: yellow with two diagonal bands of white (top, almost
double width) and black starting from the upper hoist side; the
national emblem in red is superimposed at the center; the emblem
includes a swallow-tailed flag on top of a winged column within an
upturned crescent above a scroll and flanked by two upraised hands

@Brunei:Economy

Economy - overview: This small, wealthy economy is a mixture of
foreign and domestic entrepreneurship, government regulation and
welfare measures, and village tradition. It is almost totally
supported by exports of crude oil and natural gas, with revenues from
the petroleum sector accounting for over half of GDP. Per capita GDP
is far above most other Third World countries, and substantial income
from overseas investment supplements income from domestic production.
The government provides for all medical services and subsidizes food
and housing. The government has shown progress in its basic policy of
diversifying the economy away from oil and gas. Brunei's leaders are
concerned that steadily increased integration in the world economy
will undermine internal social cohesion although it has taken steps to
become a more prominent player by serving as chairman for the 2000
APEC (Asian Pacific Economic Cooperation) forum. Growth in 1999 is
estimated at 2.5% due to higher oil prices in the second half.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $5.6 billion (1999 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 2.5% (1999 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $17,400 (1999 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 5%
industry: 46%
services: 49% (1996 est.)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1% (1999 est.)

Labor force: 144,000 (1995 est.); note - includes foreign workers and
military personnel
note: temporary residents make up 41% of labor force (1991)

Labor force - by occupation: government 48%, production of oil,
natural gas, services, and construction 42%, agriculture, forestry,
and fishing 10% (1999 est.)

Unemployment rate: 4.9% (1995 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $2.5 billion
expenditures: $2.6 billion, including capital expenditures of $768
million (1995 est.)

Industries: petroleum, petroleum refining, liquefied natural gas,
construction

Industrial production growth rate: 4% (1997 est.)

Electricity - production: 2.56 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 100%
hydro: 0%
nuclear: 0%
other: 0% (1998)

Electricity - consumption: 2.381 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1998)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1998)

Agriculture - products: rice, cassava (tapioca), bananas; water
buffalo

Exports: $2.04 billion (f.o.b., 1998 est.)

Exports - commodities: crude oil, liquefied natural gas, petroleum
products

Exports - partners: Japan 51%, UK 14%, US 10%, Singapore 8%, Thailand
3% (1998)

Imports: $1.38 billion (c.i.f., 1998 est.)

Imports - commodities: machinery and transport equipment, manufactured
goods, food, chemicals

Imports - partners: Singapore 32%, UK 17%, Malaysia 12%, France 12%,
US 5% (1998)

Debt - external: $0

Economic aid - recipient: $4.3 million (1995)

Currency: 1 Bruneian dollar (B$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Bruneian dollars (B$) per US$1 - 1.6733 (January
2000), 1.6950 (1999), 1.6736 (1998), 1.4848 (1997), 1.4100 (1996),
1.4174 (1995); note - the Bruneian dollar is at par with the Singapore
dollar

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Brunei:Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 68,000 (1995)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 57,000 (1998)

Telephone system: service throughout country is excellent;
international service good to Europe, US, and East Asia
domestic: NA
international: satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean
and 1 Pacific Ocean); digital submarine cable links to Malaysia,
Singapore, and Philippines

Radio broadcast stations: AM 3, FM 10, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios: 319,408 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 2 (1997)

Televisions: 196,009 (1997)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 1 (1999)

@Brunei:Transportation

Railways:
total: 13 km (private line)
narrow gauge: 13 km 0.610-m gauge

Highways:
total: 1,150 km
paved: 399 km
unpaved: 751 km (1996 est.)

Waterways: 209 km; navigable by craft drawing less than 1.2 m

Pipelines: crude oil 135 km; petroleum products 418 km; natural gas
920 km

Ports and harbors: Bandar Seri Begawan, Kuala Belait, Muara, Seria,
Tutong

Merchant marine:
total: 7 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 348,476 GRT/340,635 DWT
ships by type: liquified gas 7 (1999 est.)

Airports: 2 (1999 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 1
over 3,047 m: 1 (1999 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (1999 est.)

Heliports: 3 (1999 est.)

@Brunei:Military

Military branches: Land Forces, Navy, Air Force, Royal Brunei Police

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 104,447 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males age 15-49: 60,395 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 2,957 (2000 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $343 million (FY98)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 5.1% (FY98)

@Brunei:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: possibly involved in a complex dispute over
the Spratly Islands with China, Malaysia, Philippines, Taiwan, and
Vietnam; in 1984, Brunei established an exclusive fishing zone that
encompasses Louisa Reef in the southern Spratly Islands, but has not
publicly claimed the island

______________________________________________________________________



BULGARIA

@Bulgaria:Introduction

Background: Having fought on the losing side in both World Wars,
Bulgaria fell within the Soviet sphere of influence and became a
People's Republic in 1946. Communist domination ended in 1991 with the
dissolution of the USSR, and Bulgaria began the contentious process of
moving toward political democracy and a market economy while combating
inflation, unemployment, corruption, and crime. Today, reforms and
democratization keep Bulgaria on a path toward eventual integration
into the EU and NATO.

@Bulgaria:Geography

Location: Southeastern Europe, bordering the Black Sea, between
Romania and Turkey

Geographic coordinates: 43 00 N, 25 00 E

Map references: Europe

Area:
total: 110,910 sq km
land: 110,550 sq km
water: 360 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly larger than Tennessee

Land boundaries:
total: 1,808 km
border countries: Greece 494 km, The Former Yugoslav Republic of
Macedonia 148 km, Romania 608 km, Serbia and Montenegro 318 km (all
with Serbia), Turkey 240 km

Coastline: 354 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: temperate; cold, damp winters; hot, dry summers

Terrain: mostly mountains with lowlands in north and southeast

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Black Sea 0 m
highest point: Musala 2,925 m

Natural resources: bauxite, copper, lead, zinc, coal, timber, arable
land

Land use:
arable land: 43%
permanent crops: 2%
permanent pastures: 14%
forests and woodland: 38%
other: 3% (1999 est.)

Irrigated land: 12,370 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: earthquakes, landslides

Environment - current issues: air pollution from industrial emissions;
rivers polluted from raw sewage, heavy metals, detergents;
deforestation; forest damage from air pollution and resulting acid
rain; soil contamination from heavy metals from metallurgical plants
and industrial wastes

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air
Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds,
Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity,
Climate Change, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification,
Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer
Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants,
Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol

Geography - note: strategic location near Turkish Straits; controls
key land routes from Europe to Middle East and Asia

@Bulgaria:People

Population: 7,796,694 (July 2000 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 16% (male 623,285; female 591,655)
15-64 years: 68% (male 2,610,573; female 2,685,190)
65 years and over: 16% (male 546,029; female 739,962) (2000 est.)

Population growth rate: -1.16% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 8.06 births/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 14.63 deaths/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: -5.06 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.74 male(s)/female
total population: 0.94 male(s)/female (2000 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 15.13 deaths/1,000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 70.91 years
male: 67.45 years
female: 74.56 years (2000 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.13 children born/woman (2000 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Bulgarian(s)
adjective: Bulgarian

Ethnic groups: Bulgarian 83%, Turk 8.5%, Roma 2.6%, Macedonia,
Armenian, Tatar, Gagauz, Circassian, others (1998)

Religions: Bulgarian Orthodox 83.5%, Muslim 13%, Roman Catholic 1.5%,
Jewish 0.8%, Uniate Catholic 0.2%, Protestant, Gregorian-Armenian, and
other 1% (1998)

Languages: Bulgarian, secondary languages closely correspond to ethnic
breakdown

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 98%
male: 99%
female: 98% (1999)

@Bulgaria:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Bulgaria
conventional short form: Bulgaria

Data code: BU

Government type: parliamentary democracy

Capital: Sofia

Administrative divisions: 9 provinces (oblasti, singular - oblast);
Burgas, Grad Sofiya, Khaskovo, Lovech, Montana, Plovdiv, Ruse, Sofiya,
Varna

Independence: 22 September 1908 (from Ottoman Empire)

National holiday: Independence Day, 3 March (1878)

Constitution: adopted 12 July 1991

Legal system: civil law and criminal law based on Roman law; accepts
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Petar STOYANOV (since 22 January 1997); Vice
President Todor KAVALDZHIEV (since 22 January 1997)
head of government: Chairman of the Council of Ministers (Prime
Minister) Ivan KOSTOV (since 19 May 1997); Deputy Prime Minister Petur
ZHOTEV (since 21 December 1999)
cabinet: Council of Ministers elected by the National Assembly
elections: president and vice president elected on the same ticket by
popular vote for five-year terms; election last held 27 October and 3
November 1996 (next to be held NA 2001); chairman of the Council of
Ministers (prime minister) nominated by the president; deputy prime
ministers nominated by the prime minister
election results: Petar STOYANOV elected president; percent of vote -
Petar STOYANOV 59.73%

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly or Narodno Sobranie
(240 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)
elections: last held 19 April 1997 (next to be held NA 2001)
election results: percent of vote by party - UtdDF 52%, BSP 22%, ANS
7%, Euro-left 5.5%, BBB 4.95%; seats by party - UtdDF 137, BSP 58, ANS
19, Euro-left 14, BBB 12; note - seating as of May 1997: UtdDF 126, DL
58, ANS 19, Euro-left 17, PU 11, independents 9

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, chairman appointed for a seven-year
term by the president; Constitutional Court, 12 justices appointed or
elected for nine-year terms

Political parties and leaders: Alliance for National Salvation or ANS
(coalition led mainly by Movement for Rights and Freedoms or DPS)
; Bulgarian Business Bloc or BBB ;
Bulgarian Socialist Party or BSP ;
Democratic Left of DL ; Euro-left ;
Movement for Rights and Freedoms or DPS (member of LDU) ;
People's Union or PU ; Union of Democratic Forces or
UtdDF (an alliance of pro-democratic parties) 

Political pressure groups and leaders: agrarian movement; Bulgarian
Agrarian National Union - United or BZNS; Bulgarian Democratic Center;
Confederation of Independent Trade Unions of Bulgaria or CITUB;
Democratic Alliance for the Republic or DAR; Gergiov Den; Internal
Macedonian Revolutionary Organization or IMRO; New Union for Democracy
or NUD; "Nikola Petkov" Bulgarian Agrarian National Union; Podkrepa
Labor Confederation; numerous regional, ethnic, and national interest
groups with various agendas

International organization participation: ACCT, BIS, BSEC, CCC, CE,
CEI, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, EU (applicant), FAO, G- 9, IAEA, IBRD,
ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IFC, IFRCS, IHO (pending member), ILO, IMF, IMO,
Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, NAM (guest), NSG,
OAS (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO,
UNMIBH, UNMIK, UNMOP, UPU, WEU (associate partner), WFTU, WHO, WIPO,
WMO, WToO, WTrO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Philip DIMITROV
chancery: 1621 22nd Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone:  (202) 387-0174, 387-0365, 483-1386
FAX:  (202) 234-7973
consulate(s): New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Richard MILES
embassy: 1 Saborna Street, Sofia
mailing address: American Embassy Sofia, Department of State,
Washington, DC 20521-5740
telephone:  (2) 980-52-41 through 48
FAX:  (2) 981-89-77

Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of white (top), green,
and red; the national emblem formerly on the hoist side of the white
stripe has been removed - it contained a rampant lion within a wreath
of wheat ears below a red five-pointed star and above a ribbon bearing
the dates 681 (first Bulgarian state established) and 1944 (liberation
from Nazi control)

@Bulgaria:Economy

Economy - overview: In April 1997, the current ruling Union of
Democratic Forces (UDF) government won pre-term parliamentary
elections and introduced an IMF currency board system which succeeded
in stabilizing the economy. The triple digit inflation of 1996 and
1997 has given way to an official consumer price increase of 6.2% in
1999. Following declines in GDP in both 1996 and 1997, the economy
grew an officially estimated 3.5% in 1998 and 2.5% in 1999. In
September 1998, the IMF approved a three-year Extended Fund Facility,
which provides credits worth approximately $900 million, designed to
support Bulgaria's reform efforts. In 1999, an unfavorable
international environment - primarily caused by the Kosovo conflict -
and structural reforms slowed economic growth, but forecasters are
predicting accelerated growth over the next several years. The
government's structural reform program includes: (a) privatization
and, where appropriate, liquidation of state-owned enterprises (SOEs);
(b) liberalization of agricultural policies, including creating
conditions for the development of a land market; (c) reform of the
country's social insurance programs; and (d) reforms to strengthen
contract enforcement and fight crime and corruption.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $34.9 billion (1999 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 2.5% (1999 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $4,300 (1999 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 21%
industry: 29%
services: 50% (1999 est.)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 3.3%
highest 10%: 24.7% (1992)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 6.2% (1999 est.)

Labor force: 3.82 million (1998 est.)

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 26%, industry 31%, services
43% (1998 est.)

Unemployment rate: 15% (1999 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $4.69 billion
expenditures: $5.06 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1999 est.)

Industries: machine building and metal working, food processing,
chemicals, construction materials, ferrous and nonferrous metals,
nuclear fuel

Industrial production growth rate: -3% (1999 est.)

Electricity - production: 38.423 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 52.34%
hydro: 7.35%
nuclear: 40.31%
other: 0% (1998)

Electricity - consumption: 35.493 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - exports: 2 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - imports: 1.76 billion kWh (1998)

Agriculture - products: vegetables, fruits, tobacco, livestock, wine,
wheat, barley, sunflowers, sugar beets

Exports: $3.8 billion (f.o.b., 1999 est.)

Exports - commodities: machinery and equipment; metals, minerals, and
fuels; chemicals and plastics; food, tobacco, clothing (1998)

Exports - partners: Italy 13%, Germany 10%, Greece 9%, Turkey 8%,
Russia (1998)

Imports: $5.3 billion (f.o.b., 1999 est.)

Imports - commodities: fuels, minerals, and raw materials; machinery
and equipment; metals and ores; chemicals and plastics; food, textiles
(1998)

Imports - partners: Russia 20%, Germany 14%, Italy 8%, Greece 6%, US
4% (1998)

Debt - external: $10 billion (1999 est.)

Economic aid - recipient: $NA

Currency: 1 lev (Lv) = 100 stotinki

Exchange rates: leva (Lv) per US$1 - 1.9295 (January 2000), 1.8364
(1999), 1,760.36 (1998), 1,681.88 (1997), 177.89 (1996), 67.17 (1995)
note: on 5 July 1999 the lev was re-denominated; the post-5 July 1999
lev is equal to 1,000 of the pre-5 July 1999 leva

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Bulgaria:Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 3.186 million (1999)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 300,000 (1999)

Telephone system: more than two-thirds of the lines are residential
domestic: extensive but antiquated transmission system of coaxial
cable and microwave radio relay; telephone service is available in
most villages; a more modern digital cable trunk line now connects
switching centers in most of the regions, the others being connected
by digital microwave
international: direct dialing to 58 countries; satellite earth
stations - 1 Intersputnik (Atlantic Ocean region); 2 Intelsat
(Atlantic and Indian Ocean regions)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 24, FM 93, shortwave 2 (1998)

Radios: 4.51 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 33 (1999)

Televisions: 3.31 million (1997)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 20 (1999)

@Bulgaria:Transportation

Railways:
total: 4,294 km
standard gauge: 4,049 km 1.435-m gauge (2,710 km electrified; 917 km
double track)
narrow gauge: 245 km 0.760-m gauge (1998)

Highways:
total: 36,759 km
paved: 33,818 km (including 319 km of expressways)
unpaved: 2,941 km (1998 est.)

Waterways: 470 km (1987)

Pipelines: petroleum products 525 km; natural gas 1,500 km (1999)

Ports and harbors: Burgas, Lom, Nesebur, Ruse, Varna, Vidin

Merchant marine:
total: 85 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 947,711 GRT/1,449,416 DWT
ships by type: bulk 43, cargo 18, chemical tanker 4, container 2,
passenger/cargo 1, petroleum tanker 7, rail car carrier 2,
refrigerated cargo 1, roll-on/roll-off 5, short-sea passenger 1,
specialized tanker 1 (1999 est.)

Airports: 216 (1999 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 129
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 19
1,524 to 2,437 m: 15
914 to 1,523 m: 1
under 914 m: 93 (1999 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 87
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 10
under 914 m: 75 (1999 est.)

@Bulgaria:Military

Military branches: Army, Navy, Air and Air Defense Forces, Border
Troops, Internal Troops, Railway and Construction Troops

Military manpower - military age: 19 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 1,913,857 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males age 15-49: 1,599,379 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 57,461 (2000 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $379 million (FY99)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 2.7% (FY99)

Military - note: the Bulgarian Ministry of Defense has begun a new
downsizing, modernization, and reform program (PLAN 2004) that will
result in the adoption of a smaller force structure of around 50,000
personnel, based upon a Rapid Reaction Force and two additional corps
headquarters, all with subordinate brigades

@Bulgaria:Transnational Issues

Illicit drugs: major European transshipment point for Southwest Asian
heroin and, to a lesser degree, South American cocaine for the
European market; limited producer of precursor chemicals

______________________________________________________________________



BURKINA FASO

@Burkina Faso:Introduction

Background: Independence from France came to Burkina Faso (formerly
Upper Volta) in 1960. Governmental instability during the 1970s and
1980s was followed by multiparty elections in the early 1990s. Several
hundred thousand farm workers migrate south every year to Cote
d'Ivoire and Ghana.

@Burkina Faso:Geography

Location: Western Africa, north of Ghana

Geographic coordinates: 13 00 N, 2 00 W

Map references: Africa

Area:
total: 274,200 sq km
land: 273,800 sq km
water: 400 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly larger than Colorado

Land boundaries:
total: 3,192 km
border countries: Benin 306 km, Cote d'Ivoire 584 km, Ghana 548 km,
Mali 1,000 km, Niger 628 km, Togo 126 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: tropical; warm, dry winters; hot, wet summers

Terrain: mostly flat to dissected, undulating plains; hills in west
and southeast

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Mouhoun (Black Volta) River 200 m
highest point: Tena Kourou 749 m

Natural resources: manganese, limestone, marble; small deposits of
gold, antimony, copper, nickel, bauxite, lead, phosphates, zinc,
silver

Land use:
arable land: 13%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 22%
forests and woodland: 50%
other: 15% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 200 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: recurring droughts

Environment - current issues: recent droughts and desertification
severely affecting agricultural activities, population distribution,
and the economy; overgrazing; soil degradation; deforestation

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered
Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer
Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban

Geography - note: landlocked

@Burkina Faso:People

Population: 11,946,065
note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the
effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life
expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population
and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age
and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2000 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 48% (male 2,866,361; female 2,822,990)
15-64 years: 49% (male 2,808,797; female 3,097,048)
65 years and over: 3% (male 149,474; female 201,395) (2000 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.71% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 45.26 births/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 17.04 deaths/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: -1.1 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.91 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.74 male(s)/female
total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2000 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 108.53 deaths/1,000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 46.73 years
male: 46.29 years
female: 47.18 years (2000 est.)

Total fertility rate: 6.44 children born/woman (2000 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Burkinabe (singular and plural)
adjective: Burkinabe

Ethnic groups: Mossi over 40%, Gurunsi, Senufo, Lobi, Bobo, Mande,
Fulani

Religions: indigenous beliefs 40%, Muslim 50%, Christian (mainly Roman
Catholic) 10%

Languages: French (official), native African languages belonging to
Sudanic family spoken by 90% of the population

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 19.2%
male: 29.5%
female: 9.2% (1995 est.)

@Burkina Faso:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Burkina Faso
former: Upper Volta

Data code: UV

Government type: parliamentary

Capital: Ouagadougou

Administrative divisions: 30 provinces; Bam, Bazega, Bougouriba,
Boulgou, Boulkiemde, Ganzourgou, Gnagna, Gourma, Houe, Kadiogo,
Kenedougou, Komoe, Kossi, Kouritenga, Mouhoun, Namentenga, Naouri,
Oubritenga, Oudalan, Passore, Poni, Sanguie, Sanmatenga, Seno,
Sissili, Soum, Sourou, Tapoa, Yatenga, Zoundweogo
note: a new electoral code was approved by the National Assembly in
January 1997; the number of administrative provinces was increased
from 30 to 45 (Bale, Bam, Banwa, Bazega, Bougouriba, Boulgou,
Boulkiemde, Comoe, Ganzourgou, Gnagna, Gourma, Houet, Ioba, Kadiogo,
Kenedougou, Komandjari, Kompienga, Kossi, Koupelogo, Kouritenga,
Kourweogo, Leraba, Loroum, Mouhoun, Nahouri, Namentenga, Nayala,
Naumbiel, Oubritenga, Oudalan, Passore, Poni, Samentenga, Sanguie,
Seno, Sissili, Soum, Sourou, Tapoa, Tuy, Yagha, Yatenga, Ziro,
Zondomo, Zoundweogo), however, this change has not yet been approved
by the US Board on Geographic Names

Independence: 5 August 1960 (from France)

National holiday: Anniversary of the Revolution, 4 August (1983)

Constitution: 2 June 1991 approved by referendum; 11 June 1991
formally adopted

Legal system: based on French civil law system and customary law

Suffrage: universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Captain Blaise COMPAORE (since 15 October
1987)
head of government: Prime Minister Kadre Desire OUEDRAOGO (since 6
February 1996)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the
recommendation of the prime minister
elections: president elected by popular vote for a seven-year term;
the president may serve unlimited terms; election last held 15
November 1998 (next to be held NA 2005); prime minister appointed by
the president with the consent of the legislature
election results: Blaise COMPAORE reelected president with 88% percent
of the vote, with 56% of voter turnout
note: despite his reelection, President COMPAORE faces a growing
political crisis due to his mishandling of an investigation into the
assassination of a newspaper editor and pressure for political reform

Legislative branch: bicameral; consists of a National Assembly or
Assemblee des Deputes Populaires (ADP) (111 seats; members are elected
by popular vote to serve five-year terms) and the purely consultative
Chamber of Representations or Chambre des Representants (178 seats;
members are appointed to serve three-year terms)
elections: National Assembly election last held 11 May 1997 (next to
be held NA 2002)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - CDP
101, PDP 6, RDA 2, ADF 2

Judicial branch: Supreme Court; Appeals Court

Political parties and leaders: African Democratic Rally or RDA [Gerard
Kango OUEDRAOGO, Clement SANOU]; Alliance for Democracy and Federation
or ADF ; Congress for Democracy and Progress or CDP
; Group for Progressive Democrats or GDP [Issa
TIENDREBEOGO]; Movement for Tolerance and Progress or MTP
; Party for African Independence or PAI
; Party for Democracy and Progress or PDP [Joseph
KI-ZERBO]; Party for Progress and Social Development or PPDS [leader
NA]; Union of Greens for the Development of Burkina Faso or UVDB [Ram
OVEDRAGO]

Political pressure groups and leaders: Burkinabe General Confederation
of Labor or CGTB; Burkinabe Movement for Human Rights or HBDHP; Group
of 14 February; National Confederation of Burkinabe Workers or CNTB;
National Organization of Free Unions or ONSL; watchdog/political
action groups throughout the country in both organizations and
communities

International organization participation: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, CCC, ECA,
ECOWAS, Entente, FAO, FZ, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM,
IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ITU,
NAM, OAU, OIC, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WADB, WADB
(regional), WAEMU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Bruno ZIDOUEMBA
chancery: 2340 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone:  (202) 332-5577
FAX:  (202) 667-1882

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Jimmy J. KOLKER
embassy: Avenue Raoul Follerau, Ouagadougou
mailing address: 01 B. P. 35, Ouagadougou
telephone:  306723 through 306725
FAX:  303890

Flag description: two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and green
with a yellow five-pointed star in the center; uses the popular
pan-African colors of Ethiopia

@Burkina Faso:Economy

Economy - overview: One of the poorest countries in the world,
landlocked Burkina Faso has a high population density, few natural
resources, and a fragile soil. About 90% of the population is engaged
in (mainly subsistence) agriculture which is highly vulnerable to
variations in rainfall. Industry remains dominated by unprofitable
government-controlled corporations. Following the African franc
currency devaluation in January 1994 the government updated its
development program in conjunction with international agencies, and
exports and economic growth have increased. Maintenance of its
macroeconomic progress in 2000-2001 depends on continued low
inflation, reduction in the trade deficit, and reforms designed to
encourage private investment.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $12.4 billion (1999 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 5.5% (1999 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $1,100 (1999 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 36%
industry: 20%
services: 44% (1997)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.5% (1999 est.)

Labor force: 4.679 million (persons 10 years old and over, according
to a sample survey taken in 1991)
note: a large part of the male labor force migrates annually to
neighboring countries for seasonal employment

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture NA%, industry NA%, services
NA%

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
revenues: $277 million
expenditures: $492 million, including capital expenditures of $233
million (1995 est.)

Industries: cotton lint, beverages, agricultural processing, soap,
cigarettes, textiles, gold

Industrial production growth rate: 4.2% (1995)

Electricity - production: 225 million kWh (1998)

Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 64.44%
hydro: 35.56%
nuclear: 0%
other: 0% (1998)

Electricity - consumption: 209 million kWh (1998)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1998)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1998)

Agriculture - products: peanuts, shea nuts, sesame, cotton, sorghum,
millet, corn, rice; livestock

Exports: $311 million (f.o.b., 1998 est.)

Exports - commodities: cotton, animal products, gold

Exports - partners: Cote d'Ivoire, Taiwan, France, Colombia, Italy,
Mali

Imports: $572 million (f.o.b., 1998 est.)

Imports - commodities: machinery, food products, petroleum

Imports - partners: Cote d'Ivoire, France, Senegal, Togo, Nigeria, US

Debt - external: $1.3 billion (1997)

Economic aid - recipient: $484.1 million (1995)

Currency: 1 Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (CFAF) = 100
centimes

Exchange rates: Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (CFAF) per US$1
- 647.25 (January 2000), 615.70 (1999), 589.95 (1998), 583.67 (1997),
511.55 (1996), 499.15 (1995)
note: since 1 January 1999, the CFAF franc is pegged to the euro at a
rate of 655.957 CFA francs per euro

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Burkina Faso:Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 30,000 (1995)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 0 (1995)

Telephone system: all services only fair
domestic: microwave radio relay, open wire, and radiotelephone
communication stations
international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 2, FM 17, shortwave 1 (1998)

Radios: 370,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 1 (1997)

Televisions: 100,000 (1997)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 1 (1999)

@Burkina Faso:Transportation

Railways:
total: 622 km (517 km from Ouagadougou to the Cote d'Ivoire border and
105 km from Ouagadougou to Kaya)
narrow gauge: 622 km 1.000-m gauge (1995 est.)

Highways:
total: 12,506 km
paved: 2,001 km
unpaved: 10,505 km (1996 est.)

Ports and harbors: none

Airports: 33 (1999 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 2
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 (1999 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 31
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 13
under 914 m: 16 (1999 est.)

@Burkina Faso:Military

Military branches: Army, Air Force, National Gendarmerie, National
Police, People's Militia

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 2,500,962 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males age 15-49: 1,282,483 (2000 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $66 million (FY96)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 2% (FY96)

@Burkina Faso:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

______________________________________________________________________



BURMA

@Burma:Introduction

Background: Despite multiparty elections in 1990 that resulted in the
main opposition party winning a decisive victory, the military junta
ruling the country refused to hand over power. Key opposition leader
and Nobel Peace Prize recipient AUNG San Suu Kyi, under house arrest
from 1989 to 1995, continues to have her activities restricted; her
supporters are routinely harassed or jailed.

@Burma:Geography

Location: Southeastern Asia, bordering the Andaman Sea and the Bay of
Bengal, between Bangladesh and Thailand

Geographic coordinates: 22 00 N, 98 00 E

Map references: Southeast Asia

Area:
total: 678,500 sq km
land: 657,740 sq km
water: 20,760 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Texas

Land boundaries:
total: 5,876 km
border countries: Bangladesh 193 km, China 2,185 km, India 1,463 km,
Laos 235 km, Thailand 1,800 km

Coastline: 1,930 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 24 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical monsoon; cloudy, rainy, hot, humid summers
(southwest monsoon, June to September); less cloudy, scant rainfall,
mild temperatures, lower humidity during winter (northeast monsoon,
December to April)

Terrain: central lowlands ringed by steep, rugged highlands

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Andaman Sea 0 m
highest point: Hkakabo Razi 5,881 m

Natural resources: petroleum, timber, tin, antimony, zinc, copper,
tungsten, lead, coal, some marble, limestone, precious stones, natural
gas, hydropower

Land use:
arable land: 15%
permanent crops: 1%
permanent pastures: 1%
forests and woodland: 49%
other: 34% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 10,680 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: destructive earthquakes and cyclones; flooding and
landslides common during rainy season (June to September); periodic
droughts

Environment - current issues: deforestation; industrial pollution of
air, soil, and water; inadequate sanitation and water treatment
contribute to disease

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered
Species, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection,
Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note: strategic location near major Indian Ocean shipping
lanes

@Burma:People

Population: 41,734,853
note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the
effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life
expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population
and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age
and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2000 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 30% (male 6,341,546; female 6,086,650)
15-64 years: 65% (male 13,565,379; female 13,764,242)
65 years and over: 5% (male 885,583; female 1,091,453) (2000 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.64% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 20.61 births/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 12.35 deaths/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: -1.85 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.81 male(s)/female
total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2000 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 75.3 deaths/1,000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 54.91 years
male: 53.6 years
female: 56.29 years (2000 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.37 children born/woman (2000 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Burmese (singular and plural)
adjective: Burmese

Ethnic groups: Burman 68%, Shan 9%, Karen 7%, Rakhine 4%, Chinese 3%,
Mon 2%, Indian 2%, other 5%

Religions: Buddhist 89%, Christian 4% (Baptist 3%, Roman Catholic 1%),
Muslim 4%, animist 1%, other 2%

Languages: Burmese, minority ethnic groups have their own languages

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 83.1%
male: 88.7%
female: 77.7% (1995 est.)
note: these are official statistics; estimates of functional literacy
are likely closer to 30% (1999 est.)

@Burma:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Union of Burma
conventional short form: Burma
local long form: Pyidaungzu Myanma Naingngandaw (translated by the US
Government as Union of Myanma and by the Burmese as Union of Myanmar)
local short form: Myanma Naingngandaw
former: Socialist Republic of the Union of Burma

Data code: BM

Government type: military regime

Capital: Rangoon (regime refers to the capital as Yangon)

Administrative divisions: 7 divisions* (yin-mya, singular - yin) and 7
states (pyine-mya, singular - pyine); Chin State, Ayeyarwady*, Bago*,
Kachin State, Kayin State, Kayah State, Magway*, Mandalay*, Mon State,
Rakhine State, Sagaing*, Shan State, Tanintharyi*, Yangon*

Independence: 4 January 1948 (from UK)

National holiday: Independence Day, 4 January (1948)

Constitution: 3 January 1974 (suspended since 18 September 1988);
national convention started on 9 January 1993 to draft a new
constitution; chapter headings and three of 15 sections have been
approved

Legal system: does not accept compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: Prime Minister and Chairman of the State Peace and
Development Council Gen. THAN SHWE (since 23 April 1992); note - the
prime minister is both the chief of state and head of government
head of government: Prime Minister and Chairman of the State Peace and
Development Council Gen. THAN SHWE (since 23 April 1992); note - the
prime minister is both the chief of state and head of government
cabinet: State Peace and Development Council (SPDC); military junta,
so named 15 November 1997, which initially assumed power 18 September
1988 under the name State Law and Order Restoration Council; the SPDC
oversees the cabinet
elections: none; the prime minister assumed power upon resignation of
the former prime minister

Legislative branch: unicameral People's Assembly or Pyithu Hluttaw
(485 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)
elections: last held 27 May 1990, but Assembly never convened
election results: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - NLD
396, NUP 10, other 79

Judicial branch: limited; remnants of the British-era legal system in
place, but there is no guarantee of a fair public trial; the judiciary
is not independent of the executive

Political parties and leaders: National League for Democracy or NLD
; National
Unity Party or NUP (proregime) ; Union Solidarity and
Development Association or USDA (proregime, a social and political
organization) ; and eight minor legal
parties

Political pressure groups and leaders: All Burma Student Democratic
Front or ABSDF; Kachin Independence Army or KIA; Karen National Union
or KNU; National Coalition Government of the Union of Burma or NCGUB
consists of individuals legitimately elected to the
People's Assembly but not recognized by the military regime; the group
fled to a border area and joined with insurgents in December 1990 to
form a parallel government; several Shan factions; United Wa State
Army or UWSA

International organization participation: AsDB, ASEAN, CCC, CP, ESCAP,
FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IMF, IMO,
Intelsat (nonsignatory user), Interpol, IOC, ITU, NAM, OPCW, UN,
UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador TIN WINN
chancery: 2300 S Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone:  (202) 332-9044
FAX:  (202) 332-9046
consulate(s) general: New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Permanent Charge d'Affaires Priscilla A. CLAPP
embassy: 581 Merchant Street, Rangoon (GPO 521)
mailing address: Box B, APO AP 96546
telephone:  (1) 282055, 282182
FAX:  (1) 280409

Flag description: red with a blue rectangle in the upper hoist-side
corner bearing, all in white, 14 five-pointed stars encircling a
cogwheel containing a stalk of rice; the 14 stars represent the 14
administrative divisions

@Burma:Economy

Economy - overview: Burma has a mixed economy with private activity
dominant in agriculture, light industry, and transport, and with
substantial state-controlled activity, mainly in energy, heavy
industry, and the rice trade. Government policy in the last 11 years,
1989-99, has aimed at revitalizing the economy after three decades of
tight central planning. Thus, private activity has markedly increased;
foreign investment has been encouraged, so far with moderate success.
State enterprises remain highly inefficient and privatization efforts
have stalled. Published estimates of Burma's foreign trade are greatly
understated because of the volume of black-market trade. A major
ongoing problem is the failure to achieve monetary and fiscal
stability. Burma remains a poor Asian country and living standards for
the majority have not improved over the past decade. The short-term
outlook is for continued sluggish growth because of poor government
planning, internal unrest, minimal foreign investment, and the large
trade deficit.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $59.4 billion (1999 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 4.6% (1999 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $1,200 (1999 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 59%
industry: 11%
services: 30% (1997 est.)

Population below poverty line: 23% (1997 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 38% (1999 est.)

Labor force: 19.7 million (FY98/99 est.)

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 65%, industry 10%, services
25% (1999 est.)

Unemployment rate: 7.1% (official FY97/98 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $7.9 billion
expenditures: $12.2 billion, including capital expenditures of $5.7
billion (FY96/97)

Industries: agricultural processing; textiles and footwear; wood and
wood products; copper, tin, tungsten, iron; construction materials;
pharmaceuticals; fertilizer

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - production: 4.31 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 61.72%
hydro: 38.28%
nuclear: 0%
other: 0% (1998)

Electricity - consumption: 4.008 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1998)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1998)

Agriculture - products: paddy rice, corn, oilseed, sugarcane, pulses;
hardwood

Exports: $1.2 billion (1998)

Exports - commodities: pulses and beans, prawns, fish, rice; teak,
opiates

Exports - partners: India 13%, China 11%, Singapore 10%, Thailand 8%
(1998)

Imports: $2.5 billion (1998)

Imports - commodities: machinery, transport equipment, construction
materials, food products

Imports - partners: Singapore 31%, Japan 12%, Thailand 12%, China 9%,
Malaysia 8% (1998)

Debt - external: $5.9 billion (FY98/99 est.)

Economic aid - recipient: $99 million (FY98/99)

Currency: 1 kyat (K) = 100 pyas

Exchange rates: kyats (K) per US$1 - official rate - 6.2665 (January
2000), 6.2858 (1999), 6.3432 (1998), 6.2418 (1997), 5.9176 (1996),
5.6670 (1995); kyats (K) per US$1 - market exchange rate - 330
(yearend 1999)

Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March

@Burma:Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 158,000 (1995)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 2,007 (1995)

Telephone system: meets minimum requirements for local and intercity
service for business and government; international service is good
domestic: NA
international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 2, FM 3, shortwave 3 (1998)

Radios: 4.2 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 2 (1998)

Televisions: 260,000 (1997)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 0 (1999)

@Burma:Transportation

Railways:
total: 3,991 km
narrow gauge: 3,991 km 1.000-m gauge

Highways:
total: 28,200 km
paved: 3,440 km
unpaved: 24,760 km (1996 est.)

Waterways: 12,800 km; 3,200 km navigable by large commercial vessels

Pipelines: crude oil 1,343 km; natural gas 330 km

Ports and harbors: Bassein, Bhamo, Chauk, Mandalay, Moulmein,
Myitkyina, Rangoon, Akyab (Sittwe), Tavoy

Merchant marine:
total: 40 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 472,284 GRT/716,533 DWT
ships by type: bulk 13, cargo 20, container 2, passenger/cargo 3,
petroleum tanker 2 (1999 est.)
note: a flag of convenience registry; includes ships of 2 countries:
Japan owns 2 ships, US 3 (1998 est.)

Airports: 80 (1999 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 10
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 5
914 to 1,523 m: 2 (1999 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 70
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 13
914 to 1,523 m: 22
under 914 m: 32 (1999 est.)

Heliports: 1 (1999 est.)

@Burma:Military

Military branches: Army, Navy, Air Force

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 11,865,696
females age 15-49: 11,894,661
note: both sexes liable for military service (2000 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males age 15-49: 6,334,750
females age 15-49: 6,334,937 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 483,964
females: 468,221 (2000 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $39 million (FY97/98)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 2.1% (FY97/98)

@Burma:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: sporadic conflict with Thailand over
alignment of border

Illicit drugs: world's second largest producer of illicit opium, after
Afghanistan (potential production in 1999 - 1,090 metric tons, down
38% due to drought; cultivation in 1999 - 89,500 hectares, a 31%
decline from 1998); surrender of drug warlord KHUN SA's Mong Tai Army
in January 1996 was hailed by Rangoon as a major counternarcotics
success, but lack of government will and ability to take on major
narcotrafficking groups and lack of serious commitment against money
laundering continues to hinder the overall antidrug effort; becoming a
major source of methamphetamines for regional consumption

______________________________________________________________________



BURUNDI

@Burundi:Introduction

Background: Between 1993 and 1999, ethnic violence between Hutu and
Tutsi factions in Burundi created hundreds of thousands of refugees
and left at least 250,000 dead. Although many refugees have returned
from neighboring countries, continued ethnic strife has forced others
to flee. Burundian troops, seeking to secure their borders, have
intervened in the conflict in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

@Burundi:Geography

Location: Central Africa, east of Democratic Republic of the Congo

Geographic coordinates: 3 30 S, 30 00 E

Map references: Africa

Area:
total: 27,830 sq km
land: 25,650 sq km
water: 2,180 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Maryland

Land boundaries:
total: 974 km
border countries: Democratic Republic of the Congo 233 km, Rwanda 290
km, Tanzania 451 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: equatorial; high plateau with considerable altitude variation
(772 m to 2,670 m); average annual temperature varies with altitude
from 23 to 17 degrees centigrade but is generally moderate as the
average altitude is about 1,700 m; average annual rainfall is about
150 cm; wet seasons from February to May and September to November,
and dry seasons from June to August and December to January

Terrain: hilly and mountainous, dropping to a plateau in east, some
plains

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Lake Tanganyika 772 m
highest point: Mount Heha 2,670 m

Natural resources: nickel, uranium, rare earth oxides, peat, cobalt,
copper, platinum (not yet exploited), vanadium, arable land,
hydropower

Land use:
arable land: 44%
permanent crops: 9%
permanent pastures: 36%
forests and woodland: 3%
other: 8% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 140 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: flooding, landslides

Environment - current issues: soil erosion as a result of overgrazing
and the expansion of agriculture into marginal lands; deforestation
(little forested land remains because of uncontrolled cutting of trees
for fuel); habitat loss threatens wildlife populations

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered
Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection
signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban

Geography - note: landlocked; straddles crest of the Nile-Congo
watershed

@Burundi:People

Population: 6,054,714
note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the
effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life
expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population
and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age
and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2000 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 47% (male 1,442,585; female 1,411,908)
15-64 years: 50% (male 1,485,177; female 1,541,754)
65 years and over: 3% (male 71,998; female 101,292) (2000 est.)

Population growth rate: 3.15% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 40.46 births/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 16.44 deaths/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: 7.43 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.71 male(s)/female
total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2000 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 71.5 deaths/1,000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 46.18 years
male: 45.23 years
female: 47.16 years (2000 est.)

Total fertility rate: 6.25 children born/woman (2000 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Burundian(s)
adjective: Burundi

Ethnic groups: Hutu (Bantu) 85%, Tutsi (Hamitic) 14%, Twa (Pygmy) 1%,
Europeans 3,000, South Asians 2,000

Religions: Christian 67% (Roman Catholic 62%, Protestant 5%),
indigenous beliefs 23%, Muslim 10%

Languages: Kirundi (official), French (official), Swahili (along Lake
Tanganyika and in the Bujumbura area)

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 35.3%
male: 49.3%
female: 22.5% (1995 est.)

@Burundi:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Burundi
conventional short form: Burundi
local long form: Republika y'u Burundi
local short form: Burundi

Data code: BY

Government type: republic

Capital: Bujumbura

Administrative divisions: 15 provinces; Bubanza, Bujumbura, Bururi,
Cankuzo, Cibitoke, Gitega, Karuzi, Kayanza, Kirundo, Makamba,
Muramvya, Muyinga, Ngozi, Rutana, Ruyigi
note: there may be a new province named Mwaro

Independence: 1 July 1962 (from UN trusteeship under Belgian
administration)

National holiday: Independence Day, 1 July (1962)

Constitution: 13 March 1992; provided for establishment of a plural
political system; supplanted on 6 June 1998 by a Transitional
Constitution which enlarged the National Assembly and created two vice
presidents

Legal system: based on German and Belgian civil codes and customary
law; does not accept compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: NA years of age; universal adult

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Pierre BUYOYA (interim president since 27
September 1996, officially sworn in 11 June 1998), First Vice
President Frederic BAMVUGINYUMVIRA (since NA May 1998), Second Vice
President Mathias SINAMENYA (since NA May 1998); note - the president
is both chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Pierre BUYOYA (interim president since
27 September 1996, officially sworn in 11 June 1998), First Vice
President Frederic BAMVUGINYUMVIRA (since NA May 1998), Second Vice
President Mathias SINAMENYA (since NA May 1998); note - the president
is both chief of state and head of government
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by president
elections: NA; current president assumed power following a coup on 25
July 1996 in which former President NTIBANTUNGANYA was overthrown

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly or Assemblee
Nationale (121 seats; note - new Transitional Constitution expanded
the number of seats from 81 to 121 in 1998; members are elected by
popular vote on a proportional basis to serve five-year terms)
elections: last held 29 June 1993 (next was scheduled to be held in
1998, but suspended by presidential decree in 1996)
election results: percent of vote by party - FRODEBU 71.04%, UPRONA
21.4%, other 7.56%; seats by party - FRODEBU 65, UPRONA 16, various
other parties 40

Judicial branch: Supreme Court or Cour Supreme

Political parties and leaders: Unity for National Progress or UPRONA
; Burundi Democratic Front or FRODEBU [Jean
MINANI, president]
note: opposition parties, legalized in March 1992, include Burundi
African Alliance for the Salvation or ABASA ; Rally for
Democracy and Economic and Social Development or RADDES [Cyrille
SIGEJEJE, chairman]; Party for National Redress or PARENA
; Socialist Party of Burundi or PSB ;
People's Reconciliation Party or PRP 

Political pressure groups and leaders: Loosely organized Tutsi
militias

International organization participation: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, CCC, CEEAC,
CEPGL, ECA, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO,
IMF, Intelsat (nonsignatory user), Interpol, IOC, ITU, NAM, OAU, OPCW,
UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Thomas NDIKUMANA
chancery: Suite 212, 2233 Wisconsin Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20007
telephone:  (202) 342-2574
FAX:  (202) 342-2578

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Mary Catlin YATES
embassy: Avenue des Etats-Unis, Bujumbura
mailing address: B. P. 1720, Bujumbura
telephone:  (2) 223454
FAX:  (2) 222926

Flag description: divided by a white diagonal cross into red panels
(top and bottom) and green panels (hoist side and outer side) with a
white disk superimposed at the center bearing three red six-pointed
stars outlined in green arranged in a triangular design (one star
above, two stars below)

@Burundi:Economy

Economy - overview: Burundi is a landlocked, resource-poor country
with an underdeveloped manufacturing sector. The economy is
predominantely agricultural with roughly 90% of the population
dependent on subsistence agriculture. Its economic health depends on
the coffee crop, which accounts for 80% of foreign exchange earnings.
The ability to pay for imports therefore rests largely on the vagaries
of the climate and the international coffee market. Since October 1993
the nation has suffered from massive ethnic-based violence which has
resulted in the death of perhaps 250,000 persons and the displacement
of about 800,000 others. Foods, medicines, and electricity remain in
short supply.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $4.2 billion (1999 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: -1% (1999 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $730 (1999 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 46%
industry: 17%
services: 37% (1998 est.)

Population below poverty line: 36.2% (1990 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 26% (1999 est.)

Labor force: 1.9 million

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 93%, government 4%, industry
and commerce 1.5%, services 1.5% (1983 est.)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
revenues: $125 million
expenditures: $176 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
(2000 est.)

Industries: light consumer goods such as blankets, shoes, soap;
assembly of imported components; public works construction; food
processing

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - production: 127 million kWh (1998)

Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 1.57%
hydro: 98.43%
nuclear: 0%
other: 0% (1998)

Electricity - consumption: 153 million kWh (1998)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1998)

Electricity - imports: 35 million kWh
note: imports some electricity from Democratic Republic of the Congo
(1998)

Agriculture - products: coffee, cotton, tea, corn, sorghum, sweet
potatoes, bananas, manioc (tapioca); beef, milk, hides

Exports: $56 million (f.o.b., 1999)

Exports - commodities: coffee, tea, sugar, cotton, hides

Exports - partners: UK, Germany, Benelux, Switzerland (1998)

Imports: $108 million (f.o.b., 1999)

Imports - commodities: capital goods, petroleum products, foodstuffs

Imports - partners: Benelux, France, Zambia, Germany, Kenya, Japan
(1998)

Debt - external: $1.247 billion (1997 est.)

Economic aid - recipient: $1.344 billion (1999 est.)

Currency: 1 Burundi franc (FBu) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: Burundi francs (FBu) per US$1 - 626.79 (January 2000),
563.56 (1999), 477.77 (1998), 352.35 (1997), 302.75 (1996), 249.76
(1995)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Burundi:Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 17,000 (1995)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 343 (1995)

Telephone system: primitive system
domestic: sparse system of open wire, radiotelephone communications,
and low-capacity microwave radio relay
international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 2, FM 2, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios: 440,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 1 (1999)

Televisions: 25,000 (1997)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): NA

@Burundi:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways:
total: 14,480 km
paved: 1,028 km
unpaved: 13,452 km (1996 est.)

Waterways: Lake Tanganyika

Ports and harbors: Bujumbura

Airports: 4 (1999 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 1
over 3,047 m: 1 (1999 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 2
under 914 m: 1 (1999 est.)

@Burundi:Military

Military branches: Army (includes naval and air units), paramilitary
Gendarmerie

Military manpower - military age: 16 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 1,344,177 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males age 15-49: 701,367 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 76,866 (2000 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $25 million (FY93)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 2.6% (FY93)

@Burundi:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

______________________________________________________________________



CAMBODIA

@Cambodia:Introduction

Background: Following a five-year struggle, communist Khmer Rouge
forces captured Phnom Penh in 1975 and ordered the evacuation of all
cities and towns; over 1 million displaced people died from execution
or enforced hardships. A 1978 Vietnamese invasion drove the Khmer
Rouge into the countryside and touched off 13 years of fighting.
UN-sponsored elections in 1993 helped restore some semblance of
normalcy, as did the rapid diminishment of the Khmer Rouge in the
mid-1990s. A coalition government, formed after national elections in
1998, brought renewed political stability and the surrender of
remaining Khmer Rouge forces.

@Cambodia:Geography

Location: Southeastern Asia, bordering the Gulf of Thailand, between
Thailand, Vietnam, and Laos

Geographic coordinates: 13 00 N, 105 00 E

Map references: Southeast Asia

Area:
total: 181,040 sq km
land: 176,520 sq km
water: 4,520 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Oklahoma

Land boundaries:
total: 2,572 km
border countries: Laos 541 km, Thailand 803 km, Vietnam 1,228 km

Coastline: 443 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 24 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; rainy, monsoon season (May to November); dry season
(December to April); little seasonal temperature variation

Terrain: mostly low, flat plains; mountains in southwest and north

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Gulf of Thailand 0 m
highest point: Phnum Aoral 1,810 m

Natural resources: timber, gemstones, some iron ore, manganese,
phosphates, hydropower potential

Land use:
arable land: 13%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 11%
forests and woodland: 66%
other: 10% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 920 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: monsoonal rains (June to November); flooding;
occasional droughts

Environment - current issues: illegal logging activities throughout
the country and strip mining for gems in the western region along the
border with Thailand have resulted in habitat loss and declining
biodiversity (in particular, destruction of mangrove swamps threatens
natural fisheries); soil erosion; in rural areas, a majority of the
population does not have access to potable water; toxic waste delivery
from Taiwan sparked unrest in Kampong Saom (Sihanoukville) in December
1998

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered
Species, Marine Life Conservation, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 94,
Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping

Geography - note: a land of paddies and forests dominated by the
Mekong River and Tonle Sap

@Cambodia:People

Population: 12,212,306
note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the
effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life
expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population
and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age
and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2000 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 42% (male 2,610,009; female 2,505,932)
15-64 years: 55% (male 3,132,198; female 3,542,655)
65 years and over: 3% (male 173,179; female 248,333) (2000 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.27% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 33.48 births/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 10.79 deaths/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.88 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.7 male(s)/female
total population: 0.94 male(s)/female (2000 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 66.82 deaths/1,000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 56.53 years
male: 54.44 years
female: 58.74 years (2000 est.)

Total fertility rate: 4.82 children born/woman (2000 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Cambodian(s)
adjective: Cambodian

Ethnic groups: Khmer 90%, Vietnamese 5%, Chinese 1%, other 4%

Religions: Theravada Buddhist 95%, other 5%

Languages: Khmer (official) 95%, French, English

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 35%
male: 48%
female: 22% (1990 est.)

@Cambodia:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Kingdom of Cambodia
conventional short form: Cambodia
local long form: Preahreacheanachakr Kampuchea
local short form: Kampuchea

Data code: CB

Government type: multiparty liberal democracy under a constitutional
monarchy established in September 1993

Capital: Phnom Penh

Administrative divisions: 20 provinces (khett, singular and plural)
and 3 municipalities* (krong, singular and plural); Banteay Mean
Cheay, Batdambang, Kampong Cham, Kampong Chhnang, Kampong Spoe,
Kampong Thum, Kampot, Kandal, Kaoh Kong, Keb*, Krachen, Mondol Kiri,
Otdar Mean Cheay, Phnum Penh*, Pouthisat, Preah Seihanu*
(Sihanoukville), Preah Vihear, Prey Veng, Rotanah Kiri, Siem Reab,
Stoeng Treng, Svay Rieng, Takev
note: there may be a new municipality called Pailin

Independence: 9 November 1953 (from France)

National holiday: Independence Day, 9 November (1953)

Constitution: promulgated 21 September 1993

Legal system: primarily a civil law mixture of French-influenced codes
from the United Nations Transitional Authority in Cambodia (UNTAC)
period, royal decrees, and acts of the legislature, with influences of
customary law and remnants of communist legal theory; increasing
influence of common law in recent years

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: King Norodom SIHANOUK (reinstated 24 September 1993)
head of government: Prime Minister HUN SEN (since 30 November 1998)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the monarch
elections: none; the monarch is chosen by a Royal Throne Council;
prime minister appointed by the monarch after a vote of confidence by
the National Assembly

Legislative branch: bicameral consists of the National Assembly (122
seats; members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms) and
the Senate (61 seats; two members appointed by the monarch, two
elected by the National Assembly, and 57 elected by "functional
constituencies"; members serve five-year terms
elections: National Assembly - last held 26 July 1998 (next to be held
NA 2003); Senate - last held 2 March 1999 (next to be held NA 2004)
election results: National Assembly - percent of vote by party - CPP
41%, FUNCINPEC 32%, SRP 14%, other 13%; seats by party - CPP 64,
FUNCINPEC 43, SRP 15; Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by
party - CPP 31, FUNCINPEC 21, SRP 7

Judicial branch: Supreme Council of the Magistracy, provided for in
the constitution, was formed in December 1997; a Supreme Court and
lower courts exercise judicial authority

Political parties and leaders: Buddhist Liberal Party or BLP [IENG
MOULY]; Cambodian Pracheachon Party or Cambodian People's Party or CPP
; Khmer Citizen Party or KCP ; National United
Front for an Independent, Neutral, Peaceful, and Cooperative Cambodia
or FUNCINPEC ; Sam Rangsi Party or SRP
(formerly Khmer Nation Party or KNP) 

International organization participation: ACCT, AsDB, ASEAN, CP,
ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO,
IMF, IMO, Intelsat (nonsignatory user), Interpol, IOC, ISO
(subscriber), ITU, NAM, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU,
WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO (applicant)

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Roland ENG
chancery: 4500 16th Street NW, Washington, DC 20011
telephone:  (202) 726-7742
FAX:  (202) 726-8381

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Kent M. WIEDEMANN
embassy: 27 EO Street 240, Phnom Penh
mailing address: Box P, APO AP 96546
telephone:  (23) 216-436, 216-438
FAX:  (23) 216-811

Flag description: three horizontal bands of blue (top), red (double
width), and blue with a white three-towered temple representing Angkor
Wat outlined in black in the center of the red band

@Cambodia:Economy

Economy - overview: After four years of solid macroeconomic
performance, Cambodia's economy slowed dramatically in 1997-98 due to
the regional economic crisis, civil violence, and political
infighting. Foreign investment and tourism fell off. Also, in 1998 the
main harvest was hit by drought. But in 1999, the first full year of
peace in 30 years, progress was made on economic reforms and growth
resumed at 4%. The long-term development of the economy after decades
of war remains a daunting challenge. The population lacks education
and productive skills, particularly in the poverty-ridden countryside,
which suffers from an almost total lack of basic infrastructure.
Recurring political instability and corruption within government
discourage foreign investment and delay foreign aid. On the brighter
side, the government is addressing these issues with assistance from
bilateral and multilateral donors. So long as political stability
lasts, the Cambodian economy is likely to grow at a respectable pace.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $8.2 billion (1999 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 4% (1999 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $710 (1999 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 43%
industry: 20%
services: 37% (1998 est.)

Population below poverty line: 36% (1997 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 4.5% (1999 est.)

Labor force: 6 million (1998 est.)

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 80% (1999 est.)

Unemployment rate: 2.8% (1999 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $327 million
expenditures: $393 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1999 est.)

Industries: garments, rice milling, fishing, wood and wood products,
rubber, cement, gem mining, textiles

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - production: 210 million kWh (1998)

Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 59.52%
hydro: 40.48%
nuclear: 0%
other: 0% (1998)

Electricity - consumption: 195 million kWh (1998)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1998)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1998)

Agriculture - products: rice, rubber, corn, vegetables

Exports: $821 million (f.o.b., 1999 est.)

Exports - commodities: timber, garments, rubber, rice, fish

Exports - partners: US, Singapore, Japan, Thailand, Hong Kong,
Indonesia, Malaysia, US

Imports: $1.2 billion (f.o.b., 1999 est.)

Imports - commodities: cigarettes, gold, construction materials,
petroleum products, machinery, motor vehicles

Imports - partners: Singapore, Vietnam, Japan, Australia, Hong Kong,
Indonesia, Thailand

Debt - external: $829 million (1999 est.)

Economic aid - recipient: $470 million pledged in grants and
concessional loans for 2000 by international donors

Currency: 1 new riel (CR) = 100 sen

Exchange rates: new riels (CR) per US$1 - 3,786.0 (January 2000),
3,807.8 (1999), 3,744.4 (1998), 2,946.3 (1997), 2,624.1 (1996),
2,450.8 (1995)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Cambodia:Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 21,800 (mid-1998)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 34,880 (1998)

Telephone system: adequate landline and/or cellular service in Phnom
Penh and other provincial cities; rural areas have little telephone
service
domestic: NA
international: adequate but expensive landline and cellular service
available to all countries from Phnom Penh and major provincial
cities; satellite earth station - 1 Intersputnik (Indian Ocean region)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 7, FM 3, shortwave 3 (1999)

Radios: 1.34 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 5 (1999)

Televisions: 94,000 (1997)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 2 (1999)

@Cambodia:Transportation

Railways:
total: 603 km
narrow gauge: 603 km 1.000-m gauge

Highways:
total: 35,769 km
paved: 4,165 km
unpaved: 31,604 km (1997 est.)

Waterways: 3,700 km navigable all year to craft drawing 0.6 m or less;
282 km navigable to craft drawing 1.8 m or less

Ports and harbors: Kampong Saom (Sihanoukville), Kampot, Krong Kaoh
Kong, Phnom Penh

Merchant marine:
total: 211 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 953,105 GRT/1,345,766
DWT
ships by type: bulk 20, cargo 166, combination bulk 1, container 5,
livestock carrier 2, multi-functional large load carrier 1,
passenger/cargo 1, petroleum tanker 2, refrigerated cargo 7,
roll-on/roll-off 6 (1999 est.)
note: a flag of convenience registry; includes ships of 8 countries:
Aruba 1, Cyprus 7, Egypt 1, South Korea 1, Malta 1, Panama 1, Russia
5, Singapore 1 (1998 est.)

Airports: 19 (1999 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 6
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 2 (1999 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 13
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 11 (1999 est.)

Heliports: 3 (1999 est.)

@Cambodia:Military

Military branches: Royal Cambodian Armed Forces (RCAF), including
Army, Navy, and Air Force - created in 1993 by the merger of the
Cambodian People's Armed Forces and the two noncommunist resistance
armies
note: there are also resistance forces comprised of the Khmer Rouge
(also known as the National United Army or NUA) and a separate
royalist resistance movement

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 2,763,568 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males age 15-49: 1,547,078 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 156,119 (2000 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $85 million (FY98)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 2.4% (FY98)

@Cambodia:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: offshore islands and sections of the
boundary with Vietnam are in dispute; maritime boundary with Vietnam
not defined; parts of border with Thailand are indefinite; maritime
boundary with Thailand not clearly defined

Illicit drugs: transshipment site for Golden Triangle heroin; possible
money laundering; narcotics-related corruption reportedly involving
some in the government, military, and police; possible small-scale
opium, heroin, and amphetamine production; large producer of cannabis
for the international market

______________________________________________________________________



CAMEROON

@Cameroon:Introduction

Background: The former French Cameroon and part of British Cameroon
merged in 1961 to form the present country. Cameroon has generally
enjoyed stability, which has permitted the development of agriculture,
roads, and railways, as well as a petroleum industry. Despite movement
toward democratic reform, political power remains firmly in the hands
of an ethnic oligarchy.

@Cameroon:Geography

Location: Western Africa, bordering the Bight of Biafra, between
Equatorial Guinea and Nigeria

Geographic coordinates: 6 00 N, 12 00 E

Map references: Africa

Area:
total: 475,440 sq km
land: 469,440 sq km
water: 6,000 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly larger than California

Land boundaries:
total: 4,591 km
border countries: Central African Republic 797 km, Chad 1,094 km,
Republic of the Congo 523 km, Equatorial Guinea 189 km, Gabon 298 km,
Nigeria 1,690 km

Coastline: 402 km

Maritime claims:
territorial sea: 50 nm

Climate: varies with terrain, from tropical along coast to semiarid
and hot in north

Terrain: diverse, with coastal plain in southwest, dissected plateau
in center, mountains in west, plains in north

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Fako 4,095 m

Natural resources: petroleum, bauxite, iron ore, timber, hydropower

Land use:
arable land: 13%
permanent crops: 2%
permanent pastures: 4%
forests and woodland: 78%
other: 3% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 210 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: recent volcanic activity with release of poisonous
gases

Environment - current issues: water-borne diseases are prevalent;
deforestation; overgrazing; desertification; poaching; overfishing

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered
Species, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Tropical Timber 83,
Tropical Timber 94
signed, but not ratified: Nuclear Test Ban

Geography - note: sometimes referred to as the hinge of Africa

@Cameroon:People

Population: 15,421,937
note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the
effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life
expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population
and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age
and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2000 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 43% (male 3,326,334; female 3,251,402)
15-64 years: 54% (male 4,181,038; female 4,153,680)
65 years and over: 3% (male 235,741; female 273,742) (2000 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.47% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 36.6 births/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 11.89 deaths/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: NA migrant(s)/1,000 population

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.86 male(s)/female
total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2000 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 70.87 deaths/1,000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 54.82 years
male: 54.01 years
female: 55.64 years (2000 est.)

Total fertility rate: 4.88 children born/woman (2000 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Cameroonian(s)
adjective: Cameroonian

Ethnic groups: Cameroon Highlanders 31%, Equatorial Bantu 19%, Kirdi
11%, Fulani 10%, Northwestern Bantu 8%, Eastern Nigritic 7%, other
African 13%, non-African less than 1%

Religions: indigenous beliefs 40%, Christian 40%, Muslim 20%

Languages: 24 major African language groups, English (official),
French (official)

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 63.4%
male: 75%
female: 52.1% (1995 est.)

@Cameroon:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Cameroon
conventional short form: Cameroon
former: French Cameroon

Data code: CM

Government type: unitary republic; multiparty presidential regime
(opposition parties legalized in 1990)
note: preponderance of power remains with the president

Capital: Yaounde

Administrative divisions: 10 provinces; Adamaoua, Centre, Est,
Extreme-Nord, Littoral, Nord, Nord-Ouest, Ouest, Sud, Sud-Ouest

Independence: 1 January 1960 (from UN trusteeship under French
administration), 1 October 1961 (for areas ruled by Britain under UN
trusteeship)

National holiday: National Day, 20 May (1972)

Constitution: 20 May 1972 approved by referendum; 2 June 1972 formally
adopted

Legal system: based on French civil law system, with common law
influence; does not accept compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 21 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Paul BIYA (since 6 November 1982)
head of government: Prime Minister Peter Mafany MUSONGE (since 19
September 1996)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
elections: president elected by popular vote for a seven-year term;
election last held 12 October 1997 (next to be held NA October 2004);
prime minister appointed by the president
election results: President Paul BIYA reelected; percent of vote -
Paul BIYA 92.6%; note - supporters of the opposition candidates
boycotted the elections, making a comparison of vote shares relatively
meaningless

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly or Assemblee
Nationale (180 seats; members are elected by direct popular vote to
serve five-year terms; note - the president can either lengthen or
shorten the term of the legislature)
elections: last held 11 May 1997 (next to be held NA 2002)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - RDCP
109, SDF 43, UNDP 13, UDC 5, UPC-K 1, MDR 1, MLJC 1; note - results
from 7 contested seats were cancelled by the Supreme Court and have
yet to be filled
note: the constitution calls for an upper chamber for the legislature,
to be called a Senate, but it has yet to be established

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, judges are appointed by the president

Political parties and leaders: Cameroonian Democratic Union or UDC
; Cameroon Liberation and Development Movement or
MLDC ; Democratic Rally of the Cameroon People or RDPC
(the RDPC or its predecessor parties have ruled since independence)
; Movement for the Defense of the Republic or
MDR ; Movement for the Liberation of Cameroonian
Youths or MLJC ; National Union for Democracy and Progress
or UNDP ; Social Democratic Front or
SDF ; Union of Cameroonian Populations or UPC-K
Political pressure groups and leaders: Alliance for Change or FAC
; Cameroon Anglophone Movement or CAM [Vishe FAI, secretary
general]; Southern Cameroon National Council 

International organization participation: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, BDEAC, C,
CCC, CEEAC, ECA, FAO, FZ, G-19, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU,
ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat,
Interpol, IOC, ITU, NAM, OAU, OIC, OPCW, PCA, UDEAC, UN, UNCTAD,
UNESCO, UNIDO, UNITAR, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Jerome MENDOUGA
chancery: 2349 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone:  (202) 265-8790
FAX:  (202) 387-3826

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador John M. YATES
embassy: Rue Nachtigal, Yaounde
mailing address: B. P. 817, Yaounde; pouch: American Embassy,
Department of State, Washington, DC 20521-2520
telephone:  23-45-52
FAX:  23-07-53

Flag description: three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side),
red, and yellow with a yellow five-pointed star centered in the red
band; uses the popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia

@Cameroon:Economy

Economy - overview: Because of its oil resources and favorable
agricultural conditions, Cameroon has one of the best-endowed primary
commodity economies in sub-Saharan Africa. Still, it faces many of the
serious problems facing other underdeveloped countries, such as a
top-heavy civil service and a generally unfavorable climate for
business enterprise. Since 1990, the government has embarked on
various IMF and World Bank programs designed to spur business
investment, increase efficiency in agriculture, improve trade, and
recapitalize the nation's banks. The government, however, has failed
to press forward vigorously with these programs. The latest enhanced
structural adjustment agreement was signed in October 1997; the
parties hope this will prove more successful, yet government
mismanagement and corruption remain problems. Inflation has been
brought back under control. Progress toward privatization of remaining
state industry should support continued economic growth in 2000.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $31.5 billion (1999 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 5.2% (1999 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $2,000 (1999 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 42%
industry: 22%
services: 36% (1997 est.)

Population below poverty line: 40% (1984 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.1% (1999 est.)

Labor force: NA

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 70%, industry and commerce
13%, other 17%

Unemployment rate: 30% (1998 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $2.23 billion
expenditures: $2.23 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
(FY96/97 est.)

Industries: petroleum production and refining, food processing, light
consumer goods, textiles, lumber

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - production: 3.285 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 2.59%
hydro: 97.41%
nuclear: 0%
other: 0% (1998)

Electricity - consumption: 3.055 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1998)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1998)

Agriculture - products: coffee, cocoa, cotton, rubber, bananas,
oilseed, grains, root starches; livestock; timber

Exports: $2 billion (f.o.b., 1999)

Exports - commodities: crude oil and petroleum products, lumber, cocoa
beans, aluminum, coffee, cotton

Exports - partners: Italy 25%, Spain 20%, France 16%, Netherlands 7%
(1997 est.)

Imports: $1.5 billion (f.o.b., 1999)

Imports - commodities: machines and electrical equipment, transport
equipment, fuel, food

Imports - partners: France 25%, Nigeria 8%, US 8%, Germany 6% (1997
est.)

Debt - external: $11.5 billion (1999 est.)

Economic aid - recipient: $606.1 million (1995); note - France signed
two loan agreements totaling $55 million in September 1997, and the
Paris Club agreed in October 1997 to reduce the official debt by 50%
and to reschedule it on favorable terms with a consolidation of
payments due through 2000

Currency: 1 Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (CFAF) = 100
centimes

Exchange rates: Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (CFAF) per US$1
- 647.25 (January 2000), 615.70 (1999), 589.95 (1998), 583.67 (1997),
511.55 (1996), 499.15 (1995)
note: since 1 January 1999, the CFAF is pegged to the euro at a rate
of 655.957 CFA francs per euro

Fiscal year: 1 July - 30 June

@Cameroon:Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 60,000 (1995)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 2,800 (1995)

Telephone system: available only to business and government
domestic: cable, microwave radio relay, and tropospheric scatter
international: satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 11, FM 8, shortwave 3 (1998)

Radios: 2.27 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 1 (1998)

Televisions: 450,000 (1997)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): NA

@Cameroon:Transportation

Railways:
total: 1,104 km
narrow gauge: 1,104 km 1.000-m gauge (1995 est.)

Highways:
total: 34,300 km
paved: 4,288 km
unpaved: 30,012 km (1995 est.)

Waterways: 2,090 km; of decreasing importance

Ports and harbors: Bonaberi, Douala, Garoua, Kribi, Tiko

Airports: 50 (1999 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 11
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 4
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 1
under 914 m: 1 (1999 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 39
1,524 to 2,437 m: 8
914 to 1,523 m: 20
under 914 m: 11 (1999 est.)

@Cameroon:Military

Military branches: Army, Navy (includes Naval Infantry), Air Force,
National Gendarmerie, Presidential Guard

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 3,653,548 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males age 15-49: 1,847,871 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 169,661 (2000 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $155 million (FY98/99)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 1.4% (FY98/99)

@Cameroon:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: delimitation of international boundaries in
the vicinity of Lake Chad, the lack of which led to border incidents
in the past, is complete and awaits ratification by Cameroon, Chad,
Niger, and Nigeria; dispute with Nigeria over land and maritime
boundaries around the Bakasi Peninsula and Lake Chad is currently
before the ICJ, as is a dispute with Equatorial Guinea over the
exclusive maritime economic zone

______________________________________________________________________



CANADA

@Canada:Introduction

Background: A land of vast distances and rich natural resources,
Canada became a self-governing dominion in 1867 while retaining ties
to the British crown. Economically and technologically the nation has
developed in parallel with the US, its neighbor to the south across an
unfortified border. Its paramount political problem continues to be
the relationship of the province of Quebec, with its French-speaking
residents and unique culture, to the remainder of the country.

@Canada:Geography

Location: Northern North America, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean
and North Pacific Ocean, north of the conterminous US

Geographic coordinates: 60 00 N, 95 00 W

Map references: North America

Area:
total: 9,976,140 sq km
land: 9,220,970 sq km
water: 755,170 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly larger than the US

Land boundaries:
total: 8,893 km
border countries: US 8,893 km (includes 2,477 km with Alaska)

Coastline: 243,791 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 24 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: varies from temperate in south to subarctic and arctic in
north

Terrain: mostly plains with mountains in west and lowlands in
southeast

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Mount Logan 5,959 m

Natural resources: iron ore, nickel, zinc, copper, gold, lead,
molybdenum, potash, silver, fish, timber, wildlife, coal, petroleum,
natural gas, hydropower

Land use:
arable land: 5%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 3%
forests and woodland: 54%
other: 38% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 7,100 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: continuous permafrost in north is a serious obstacle
to development; cyclonic storms form east of the Rocky Mountains, a
result of the mixing of air masses from the Arctic, Pacific, and North
American interior, and produce most of the country's rain and snow

Environment - current issues: air pollution and resulting acid rain
severely affecting lakes and damaging forests; metal smelting,
coal-burning utilities, and vehicle emissions impacting on
agricultural and forest productivity; ocean waters becoming
contaminated due to agricultural, industrial, mining, and forestry
activities

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air
Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air
Pollution-Sulphur 94, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change,
Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification,
Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer
Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94,
Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds,
Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Law
of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation

Geography - note: second-largest country in world (after Russia);
strategic location between Russia and US via north polar route; nearly
90% of the population is concentrated within 160 km of the US/Canada
border

@Canada:People

Population: 31,281,092 (July 2000 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 19% (male 3,077,994; female 2,932,821)
15-64 years: 68% (male 10,714,305; female 10,591,494)
65 years and over: 13% (male 1,683,704; female 2,280,774) (2000 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.02% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 11.41 births/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 7.39 deaths/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: 6.2 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.74 male(s)/female
total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2000 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 5.08 deaths/1,000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 79.43 years
male: 76.02 years
female: 83 years (2000 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.64 children born/woman (2000 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Canadian(s)
adjective: Canadian

Ethnic groups: British Isles origin 28%, French origin 23%, other
European 15%, Amerindian 2%, other, mostly Asian, African, Arab 6%,
mixed background 26%

Religions: Roman Catholic 42%, Protestant 40%, other 18%

Languages: English 59.3% (official), French 23.2% (official), other
17.5%

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 97% (1986 est.)
male: NA%
female: NA%

@Canada:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Canada

Data code: CA

Government type: confederation with parliamentary democracy

Capital: Ottawa

Administrative divisions: 10 provinces and 3 territories*; Alberta,
British Columbia, Manitoba, New Brunswick, Newfoundland, Northwest
Territories*, Nova Scotia, Nunavut*, Ontario, Prince Edward Island,
Quebec, Saskatchewan, Yukon Territory*

Independence: 1 July 1867 (from UK)

National holiday: Canada Day, 1 July (1867)

Constitution: 17 April 1982 (Constitution Act); originally, the
machinery of the government was set up in the British North America
Act of 1867; charter of rights and unwritten customs

Legal system: based on English common law, except in Quebec, where
civil law system based on French law prevails; accepts compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction, with reservations

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952),
represented by Governor General Adrienne CLARKSON (since 7 October
1999)
head of government: Prime Minister Jean CHRETIEN (since 4 November
1993)
cabinet: Federal Ministry chosen by the prime minister from among the
members of his own party sitting in Parliament
elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; governor general appointed
by the monarch on the advice of the prime minister for a five-year
term; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority
party in the House of Commons is automatically designated by the
governor general to become prime minister

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament or Parlement consists of the
Senate or Senat (a body whose members are appointed to serve until
reaching 75 years of age by the governor general and selected on the
advice of the prime minister; its normal limit is 104 senators) and
the House of Commons or Chambre des Communes (301 seats; members
elected by direct popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: House of Commons - last held 2 June 1997 (next to be held
by NA June 2002)
election results: percent of vote by party - Liberal Party 38%, Reform
Party 19%, Progressive Conservative Party 19%, Bloc Quebecois 11%, New
Democratic Party 11%, other 2%; seats by party - Liberal Party 155,
Reform Party 60, Bloc Quebecois 44, New Democratic Party 21,
Progressive Conservative Party 20, independents 1
note: seats by party as of December 1999 - Liberal Party 157, Reform
Party 57, Bloc Quebecois 44, New Democratic Party 20, Progressive
Conservative Party 19, independents 4

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, judges are appointed by the prime
minister through the governor general

Political parties and leaders: Bloc Quebecois ;
Liberal Party ; New Democratic Party ;
Progressive Conservative Party ; Reform Party [Preston
MANNING]

International organization participation: ABEDA, ACCT, AfDB, APEC,
AsDB, Australia Group, BIS, C, CCC, CDB (non-regional), CE (observer),
EAPC, EBRD, ECE, ECLAC, ESA (cooperating state), FAO, G- 7, G-10,
IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS,
IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU,
MINURCA, MINURSO, MIPONUH, MONUC, NAM (guest), NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS,
OECD, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, UN, UN Security Council (temporary), UNCTAD,
UNDOF, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNMIBH, UNMIK, UNMOP,
UNTAET, UNTSO, UNU, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Raymond A. J. CHRETIEN
chancery: 501 Pennsylvania Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20001
telephone:  (202) 682-1740
FAX:  (202) 682-7726
consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Boston, Buffalo, Chicago, Dallas,
Detroit, Los Angeles, Minneapolis, New York, and Seattle
consulate(s): Miami, Princeton, San Francisco, and San Jose

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Gordon D. GIFFIN
embassy: 100 Wellington Street, K1P 5T1, Ottawa
mailing address: P. O. Box 5000, Ogdensburg, NY 13669-0430
telephone:  (613) 238-5335, 4470
FAX:  (613) 238-5720
consulate(s) general: Calgary, Halifax, Montreal, Quebec, Toronto, and
Vancouver

Flag description: three vertical bands of red (hoist side), white
(double width, square), and red with a red maple leaf centered in the
white band

@Canada:Economy

Economy - overview: As an affluent, high-tech industrial society,
Canada today closely resembles the US in its market-oriented economic
system, pattern of production, and high living standards. Since World
War II, the impressive growth of the manufacturing, mining, and
service sectors has transformed the nation from a largely rural
economy into one primarily industrial and urban. Real rates of growth
have averaged nearly 3.0% since 1993. Unemployment is falling and
government budget surpluses are being partially devoted to reducing
the large public sector debt. The 1989 US-Canada Free Trade Agreement
(FTA) and 1994 North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) (which
included Mexico) have touched off a dramatic increase in trade and
economic integration with the US. With its great natural resources,
skilled labor force, and modern capital plant Canada enjoys solid
economic prospects. Two shadows loom, the first being the continuing
constitutional impasse between English- and French-speaking areas,
which has been raising the possibility of a split in the federation.
Another long-term concern is the flow south to the US of professional
persons lured by higher pay, lower taxes, and the immense high-tech
infrastructure.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $722.3 billion (1999 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 3.6% (1999 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $23,300 (1999 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 3%
industry: 31%
services: 66% (1998)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 2.8%
highest 10%: 23.8% (1994)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1.7% (1999)

Labor force: 15.9 million (1999)

Labor force - by occupation: services 75%, manufacturing 16%,
construction 5%, agriculture 3%, other 1% (1997)

Unemployment rate: 7.6% (1999)

Budget:
revenues: $121.8 billion
expenditures: $115.1 billion, including capital expenditures of $1.7
billion (1998)

Industries: processed and unprocessed minerals, food products, wood
and paper products, transportation equipment, chemicals, fish
products, petroleum and natural gas

Industrial production growth rate: 4.3% (1999 est.)

Electricity - production: 550.852 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 27.18%
hydro: 59.77%
nuclear: 12.25%
other: 0.8% (1998)

Electricity - consumption: 484.515 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - exports: 39.502 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - imports: 11.725 billion kWh (1998)

Agriculture - products: wheat, barley, oilseed, tobacco, fruits,
vegetables; dairy products; forest products; fish

Exports: $277 billion (f.o.b., 1999 est.)

Exports - commodities: motor vehicles and parts, newsprint, wood pulp,
timber, crude petroleum, machinery, natural gas, aluminum,
telecommunications equipment, electricity

Exports - partners: US 84%, Japan 3%, UK, Germany, South Korea,
Netherlands, China (1998)

Imports: $259.3 billion (f.o.b., 1999 est.)

Imports - commodities: machinery and equipment, crude oil, chemicals,
motor vehicles and parts, durable consumer goods, electricity

Imports - partners: US 77%, Japan 3%, UK, Germany, France, Mexico,
Taiwan, South Korea (1998)

Debt - external: $253 billion (1996)

Economic aid - donor: ODA, $2.1 billion (1997)

Currency: 1 Canadian dollar (Can$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Canadian dollars (Can$) per US$1 - 1.4489 (January
2000), 1.4857 (1999), 1.4835 (1998), 1.3846 (1997), 1.3635 (1996),
1.3724 (1995)

Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March

@Canada:Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 18.5 million (1999)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 3 million (1999)

Telephone system: excellent service provided by modern technology
domestic: domestic satellite system with about 300 earth stations
international: 5 coaxial submarine cables; satellite earth stations -
5 Intelsat (4 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Pacific Ocean) and 2 Intersputnik
(Atlantic Ocean region)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 535, FM 53, shortwave 6 (1998)

Radios: 32.3 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 80 (plus many repeaters) (1997)

Televisions: 21.5 million (1997)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 750 (1999 est.)

@Canada:Transportation

Railways:
total: 36,114 km; note - there are two major transcontinental freight
railway systems: Canadian National (privatized November 1995) and
Canadian Pacific Railway; passenger service provided by
government-operated firm VIA, which has no trackage of its own
standard gauge: 36,114 km 1.435-m gauge (156 km electrified) (1998)

Highways:
total: 901,902 km
paved: 318,371 km (including 16,571 km of expressways)
unpaved: 583,531 km (1999 est.)

Waterways: 3,000 km, including Saint Lawrence Seaway

Pipelines: crude and refined oil 23,564 km; natural gas 74,980 km

Ports and harbors: Becancour (Quebec), Churchill, Halifax, Hamilton,
Montreal, New Westminster, Prince Rupert, Quebec, Saint John (New
Brunswick), St. John's (Newfoundland), Sept Isles, Sydney,
Trois-Rivieres, Thunder Bay, Toronto, Vancouver, Windsor

Merchant marine:
total: 114 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,602,275 GRT/2,371,146
DWT
ships by type: barge carrier 1, bulk 61, cargo 11, chemical tanker 5,
combination bulk 2, passenger 3, passenger/cargo 1, petroleum tanker
16, rail car carrier 2, roll-on/roll-off 8, short-sea passenger 3,
specialized tanker 1 (1999 est.)
note: does not include ships used exclusively in the Great Lakes (1998
est.)

Airports: 1,411 (1999 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 515
over 3,047 m: 16
2,438 to 3,047 m: 17
1,524 to 2,437 m: 152
914 to 1,523 m: 240
under 914 m: 90 (1999 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 896
1,524 to 2,437 m: 73
914 to 1,523 m: 362
under 914 m: 461 (1999 est.)

Heliports: 15 (1999 est.)

@Canada:Military

Military branches: Canadian Forces (includes Land Forces Command or
LC, Maritime Command or MC, Air Command or AC, Communications Command
or CC, Training Command or TC), Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP)

Military manpower - military age: 17 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 8,282,846 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males age 15-49: 7,086,335 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 212,701 (2000 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $7.4 billion (FY97/98)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 1.2% (FY97/98)

@Canada:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: maritime boundary disputes with the US
(Dixon Entrance, Beaufort Sea, Strait of Juan de Fuca, Machias Seal
Island)

Illicit drugs: illicit producer of cannabis for the domestic drug
market; use of hydroponics technology permits growers to plant large
quantities of high-quality marijuana indoors; growing role as a
transit point for heroin and cocaine entering the US market

______________________________________________________________________



CAPE VERDE

@Cape Verde:Introduction

Background: The uninhabited islands were discovered and colonized by
the Portuguese in the 15th century; they subsequently became a trading
center for African slaves. Most Cape Verdeans descend from both
groups. Independence was achieved in 1975.

@Cape Verde:Geography

Location: Western Africa, group of islands in the North Atlantic
Ocean, west of Senegal

Geographic coordinates: 16 00 N, 24 00 W

Map references: World

Area:
total: 4,033 sq km
land: 4,033 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly larger than Rhode Island

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 965 km

Maritime claims: measured from claimed archipelagic baselines
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: temperate; warm, dry summer; precipitation meager and very
erratic

Terrain: steep, rugged, rocky, volcanic

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Mt. Fogo 2,829 m (a volcano on Fogo Island)

Natural resources: salt, basalt rock, pozzuolana (a siliceous volcanic
ash used to produce hydraulic cement), limestone, kaolin, fish

Land use:
arable land: 11%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 6%
forests and woodland: 0%
other: 83% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 30 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: prolonged droughts; harmattan wind can obscure
visibility; volcanically and seismically active

Environment - current issues: overgrazing of livestock and improper
land use such as the cultivation of crops on steep slopes has led to
soil erosion; demand for wood used as fuel has resulted in
deforestation; desertification; environmental damage has threatened
several species of birds and reptiles; overfishing

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Environmental
Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping,
Nuclear Test Ban
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note: strategic location 500 km from west coast of Africa
near major north-south sea routes; important communications station;
important sea and air refueling site

@Cape Verde:People

Population: 401,343 (July 2000 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 44% (male 88,202; female 86,630)
15-64 years: 50% (male 95,079; female 105,928)
65 years and over: 6% (male 10,043; female 15,461) (2000 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.98% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 29.67 births/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 7.38 deaths/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: -12.49 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.9 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.65 male(s)/female
total population: 0.93 male(s)/female (2000 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 54.58 deaths/1,000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 68.91 years
male: 65.63 years
female: 72.29 years (2000 est.)

Total fertility rate: 4.19 children born/woman (2000 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Cape Verdean(s)
adjective: Cape Verdean

Ethnic groups: Creole (mulatto) 71%, African 28%, European 1%

Religions: Roman Catholic (infused with indigenous beliefs);
Protestant (mostly Church of the Nazarene)

Languages: Portuguese, Crioulo (a blend of Portuguese and West African
words)

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 71.6%
male: 81.4%
female: 63.8% (1995 est.)

@Cape Verde:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Cape Verde
conventional short form: Cape Verde
local long form: Republica de Cabo Verde
local short form: Cabo Verde

Data code: CV

Government type: republic

Capital: Praia

Administrative divisions: 14 districts (concelhos, singular -
concelho); Boa Vista, Brava, Fogo, Maio, Paul, Praia, Porto Novo,
Ribeira Grande, Sal, Santa Catarina, Santa Cruz, Sao Nicolau, Sao
Vicente, Tarrafal
note: there may be a new administrative structure of 16 districts (Boa
Vista, Brava, Maio, Mosteiros, Paul, Praia, Porto Novo, Ribeira
Grande, Sal, Santa Catarina, Santa Cruz, Sao Domingos, Sao Nicolau,
Sao Filipe, Sao Vicente, Tarrafal)

Independence: 5 July 1975 (from Portugal)

National holiday: Independence Day, 5 July (1975)

Constitution: new constitution came into force 25 September 1992

Legal system: derived from the legal system of Portugal

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Antonio MASCARENHAS Monteiro (since 22 March
1991)
head of government: Prime Minister Carlos Alberto Wahnon de Carvalho
VEIGA (since 13 January 1991)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the
recommendation of the prime minister from among the members of the
National Assembly
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term;
election last held 18 February 1996 (next to be held NA February
2001); prime minister nominated by the National Assembly and appointed
by the president
election results: Antonio MASCARENHAS Monteiro reelected president;
percent of vote - Antonio MASCARENHAS Monteiro (independent) 80.1%

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly or Assembleia
Nacional (72 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve
five-year terms)
elections: last held 17 December 1995 (next to be held NA December
2000)
election results: percent of vote by party - MPD 61.3%, PAICV 29.8%,
PCD 6.7%, other 2.2%; seats by party - MPD 50, PAICV 21, PCD 1

Judicial branch: Supreme Tribunal of Justice or Supremo Tribunal de
Justia

Political parties and leaders: African Party for Independence of Cape
Verde or PAICV ; Movement for
Democracy or MPD ;
Party for Democratic Convergence or PCD [Dr. Eurico MONTEIRO,
president]; Party of Work and Solidarity or PTS [Dr. Oresimo SILVEIRA,
president]

International organization participation: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, CCC, ECA,
ECOWAS, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS,
ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ITU, NAM, OAU,
OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO
(applicant)

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Ferdinand Amilcar Spencer LOPES
chancery: 3415 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20007
telephone:  (202) 965-6820
FAX:  (202) 965-1207
consulate(s) general: Boston

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Lawrence Neal BENEDICT
embassy: Rua Abilio Macedo 81, Praia
mailing address: C. P. 201, Praia
telephone:  61 56 16
FAX:  61 13 55

Flag description: three horizontal bands of light blue (top, double
width), white (with a horizontal red stripe in the middle third), and
light blue; a circle of 10 yellow five-pointed stars is centered on
the hoist end of the red stripe and extends into the upper and lower
blue bands

@Cape Verde:Economy

Economy - overview: Cape Verde's low per capita GDP reflects a poor
natural resource base, including serious water shortages exacerbated
by cycles of long-term drought. The economy is service-oriented, with
commerce, transport, and public services accounting for almost 70% of
GDP. Although nearly 70% of the population lives in rural areas, the
share of agriculture in GDP in 1998 was only 13%, of which fishing
accounts for 1.5%. About 90% of food must be imported. The fishing
potential, mostly lobster and tuna, is not fully exploited. Cape Verde
annually runs a high trade deficit, financed by foreign aid and
remittances from emigrants; remittances constitute a supplement to GDP
of more than 20%. Economic reforms, launched by the new democratic
government in 1991, are aimed at developing the private sector and
attracting foreign investment to diversify the economy. Prospects for
2000 depend heavily on the maintenance of aid flows, remittances, and
the momentum of the government's development program.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $618 million (1999 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 5% (1999 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $1,500 (1999 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 13%
industry: 19%
services: 68% (1998)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 5% (1999)

Labor force: NA

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
revenues: $188 million
expenditures: $228 million, including capital expenditures of $116
million (1996)

Industries: food and beverages, fish processing, shoes and garments,
salt mining, ship repair

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - production: 40 million kWh (1998)

Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 100%
hydro: 0%
nuclear: 0%
other: 0% (1998)

Electricity - consumption: 37 million kWh (1998)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1998)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1998)

Agriculture - products: bananas, corn, beans, sweet potatoes,
sugarcane, coffee, peanuts; fish

Exports: $38 million (f.o.b., 1999 est.)

Exports - commodities: fuel, shoes, garments, fish, bananas, hides

Exports - partners: Portugal, Germany, Spain, France, UK, Malaysia

Imports: $225 million (f.o.b., 1999 est.)

Imports - commodities: foodstuffs, industrial products, transport
equipment, fuels

Imports - partners: Portugal, Netherlands, France, UK, Spain, US

Debt - external: $220 million (1998)

Economic aid - recipient: $111.3 million (1995)

Currency: 1 Cape Verdean escudo (CVEsc) = 100 centavos

Exchange rates: Cape Verdean escudos (CVEsc) per US$1 - 107.280
(December 1999), 102.700 (1999), 98.158 (1998), 93.177 (1997), 82.591
(1996), 76.853 (1995)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Cape Verde:Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 22,000 (1995)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 0 (1995)

Telephone system:
domestic: interisland microwave radio relay system with both analog
and digital exchanges; work is in progress on a submarine fiber-optic
cable system which was scheduled for completion in 1998
international: 2 coaxial submarine cables; HF radiotelephone to
Senegal and Guinea-Bissau; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat
(Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 6, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios: 73,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 1 (1997)

Televisions: 2,000 (1997)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): NA

@Cape Verde:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways:
total: 1,100 km
paved: 858 km
unpaved: 242 km (1996 est.)

Ports and harbors: Mindelo, Praia, Tarrafal

Merchant marine:
total: 5 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 9,523 GRT/11,795 DWT
ships by type: cargo 4, chemical tanker 1 (1999 est.)

Airports: 6 (1999 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 6
over 3,047 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 5 (1999 est.)

@Cape Verde:Military

Military branches: single branch that includes both ground and naval
elements

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 86,675 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males age 15-49: 49,069 (2000 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $4 million (FY96)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 1.8% (FY96)

@Cape Verde:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

Illicit drugs: used as a transshipment point for illicit drugs moving
from Latin America and Africa destined for Western Europe

______________________________________________________________________



CAYMAN ISLANDS

@Cayman Islands:Introduction

Background: The Cayman Islands were colonized from Jamaica by the
British during the 18th and 19th centuries. Administered by Jamaica
from 1863, they remained a British dependency after 1962 when the
former became independent.

@Cayman Islands:Geography

Location: Caribbean, island group in Caribbean Sea, nearly one-half of
the way from Cuba to Honduras

Geographic coordinates: 19 30 N, 80 30 W

Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

Area:
total: 259 sq km
land: 259 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: 1.5 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 160 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical marine; warm, rainy summers (May to October) and
cool, relatively dry winters (November to April)

Terrain: low-lying limestone base surrounded by coral reefs

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m
highest point: The Bluff 43 m

Natural resources: fish, climate and beaches that foster tourism

Land use:
arable land: 0%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 8%
forests and woodland: 23%
other: 69% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: hurricanes (July to November)

Environment - current issues: no natural fresh water resources;
drinking water supplies must be met by rainwater catchment

Geography - note: important location between Cuba and Central America

@Cayman Islands:People

Population: 34,763 (July 2000 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 22.36% (male 3,769; female 4,005)
15-64 years: 69.84% (male 11,864; female 12,416)
65 years and over: 7.79% (male 1,241; female 1,468) (2000 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.22% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 14.21 births/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 5.09 deaths/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: 13.12 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2000 est.)
note: major destination for Cubans trying to migrate to the US

Sex ratio:
at birth: 0.86 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 0.94 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.85 male(s)/female
total population: 0.94 male(s)/female (2000 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 10.44 deaths/1,000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 78.88 years
male: 76.1 years
female: 81.27 years (2000 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.05 children born/woman (2000 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Caymanian(s)
adjective: Caymanian

Ethnic groups: mixed 40%, white 20%, black 20%, expatriates of various
ethnic groups 20%

Religions: United Church (Presbyterian and Congregational), Anglican,
Baptist, Roman Catholic, Church of God, other Protestant

Languages: English

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over has ever attended school
total population: 98%
male: 98%
female: 98% (1970 est.)

@Cayman Islands:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Cayman Islands

Data code: CJ

Dependency status: overseas territory of the UK

Government type: British crown colony

Capital: George Town

Administrative divisions: 8 districts; Creek, Eastern, Midland, South
Town, Spot Bay, Stake Bay, West End, Western

Independence: none (overseas territory of the UK)

National holiday: Constitution Day (first Monday in July)

Constitution: 1959, revised 1972 and 1992

Legal system: British common law and local statutes

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952)
head of government: Governor and President of the Executive Council
Peter SMITH (since 5 May 1999)
cabinet: Executive Council (three members appointed by the governor,
four members elected by the Legislative Assembly)
elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; the governor is appointed
by the monarch

Legislative branch: unicameral Legislative Assembly (18 seats, three
official members and 15 elected by popular vote; members serve
four-year terms)
elections: last held 20 November 1996 (next to be held NA November
2000)
election results: percent of vote - NA; seats - National Team
coalition 9, independents 6

Judicial branch: Summary Court; Grand Court; Cayman Islands Court of
Appeal

Political parties and leaders: no formal political parties
note: the National Team, an organization formed in 1992 to oppose some
proposals in the constitutional draft, continues to exert legislative
power

International organization participation: Caricom (observer), CDB,
Interpol (subbureau), IOC

Diplomatic representation in the US: none (overseas territory of the
UK)

Diplomatic representation from the US: none (overseas territory of the
UK)

Flag description: blue, with the flag of the UK in the upper
hoist-side quadrant and the Caymanian coat of arms on a white disk
centered on the outer half of the flag; the coat of arms includes a
pineapple and turtle above a shield with three stars (representing the
three islands) and a scroll at the bottom bearing the motto HE HATH
FOUNDED IT UPON THE SEAS

@Cayman Islands:Economy

Economy - overview: With no direct taxation, the islands are a
thriving offshore financial center. More than 40,000 companies were
registered in the Cayman Islands as of 1997, including almost 600
banks and trust companies; banking assets exceed $500 billion. A stock
exchange was opened in 1997. Tourism is also a mainstay, accounting
for about 70% of GDP and 75% of foreign currency earnings. The tourist
industry is aimed at the luxury market and caters mainly to visitors
from North America. Total tourist arrivals exceeded 1.2 million
visitors in 1997. About 90% of the islands' food and consumer goods
must be imported. The Caymanians enjoy one of the highest outputs per
capita and one of the highest standards of living in the world.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $930 million (1997 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 5% (1997 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $24,500 (1997 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 1.4%
industry: 3.2%
services: 95.4% (1994 est.)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3% (1998)

Labor force: 19,820 (1995)

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 1.4%, industry 12.6%,
services 86% (1995)

Unemployment rate: 5.1% (1996)

Budget:
revenues: $265.2 million
expenditures: $248.9 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1997)

Industries: tourism, banking, insurance and finance, construction,
construction materials, furniture

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - production: 290 million kWh (1998)

Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 100%
hydro: 0%
nuclear: 0%
other: 0% (1998)

Electricity - consumption: 270 million kWh (1998)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1998)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1998)

Agriculture - products: vegetables, fruit; livestock, turtle farming

Exports: $2.17 million (1997)

Exports - commodities: turtle products, manufactured consumer goods

Exports - partners: mostly US

Imports: $432 million (1997)

Imports - commodities: foodstuffs, manufactured goods

Imports - partners: US, Trinidad and Tobago, UK, Netherlands Antilles,
Japan

Debt - external: $70 million (1996)

Economic aid - recipient: $NA

Currency: 1 Caymanian dollar (CI$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Caymanian dollars (CI$) per US$1 - 0.83 (3 November
1995), 0.85 (22 November 1993)

Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March

@Cayman Islands:Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 19,000 (1995)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 2,534 (1995)

Telephone system:
domestic: NA
international: 1 submarine coaxial cable; satellite earth station - 1
Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 5, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios: 36,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: NA

Televisions: 7,000 (1997)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 1 (1999)

@Cayman Islands:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways:
total: 406 km
paved: 304 km
unpaved: 102 km

Ports and harbors: Cayman Brac, George Town

Merchant marine:
total: 85 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,139,740 GRT/1,693,212
DWT
ships by type: bulk 18, cargo 10, chemical tanker 14, container 4,
liquified gas 1, petroleum tanker 2, refrigerated cargo 26,
roll-on/roll-off 6, specialized tanker 2, vehicle carrier 2 (1999
est.)
note: a flag of convenience registry; includes ships from 11 countries
among which are: Greece 15, US 5, UK 5, Cyprus 2, Denmark 2, Norway 3
(1998 est.)

Airports: 3 (1999 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2 (1999 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (1999 est.)

@Cayman Islands:Military

Military branches: Royal Cayman Islands Police Force (RCIPF)

Military - note: defense is the responsibility of the UK

@Cayman Islands:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

Illicit drugs: vulnerable to drug money laundering and drug
transshipment

______________________________________________________________________



CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC

@Central African Republic:Introduction

Background: The former French colony of Ubangi-Shari became the
Central African Republic upon independence in 1960. After three
tumultuous decades of misrule - mostly by military governments - a
civilian government was installed in 1993.

@Central African Republic:Geography

Location: Central Africa, north of Democratic Republic of the Congo

Geographic coordinates: 7 00 N, 21 00 E

Map references: Africa

Area:
total: 622,984 sq km
land: 622,984 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Texas

Land boundaries:
total: 5,203 km
border countries: Cameroon 797 km, Chad 1,197 km, Democratic Republic
of the Congo 1,577 km, Republic of the Congo 467 km, Sudan 1,165 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: tropical; hot, dry winters; mild to hot, wet summers

Terrain: vast, flat to rolling, monotonous plateau; scattered hills in
northeast and southwest

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Oubangui River 335 m
highest point: Mont Ngaoui 1,420 m

Natural resources: diamonds, uranium, timber, gold, oil, hydropower

Land use:
arable land: 3%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 5%
forests and woodland: 75%
other: 17% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: hot, dry, dusty harmattan winds affect northern
areas; floods are common

Environment - current issues: tap water is not potable; poaching has
diminished its reputation as one of the last great wildlife refuges;
desertification; deforestation

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered
Species, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Tropical Timber 94
signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea

Geography - note: landlocked; almost the precise center of Africa

@Central African Republic:People

Population: 3,512,751
note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the
effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life
expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population
and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age
and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2000 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 43% (male 768,550; female 757,710)
15-64 years: 53% (male 909,463; female 946,083)
65 years and over: 4% (male 58,224; female 72,721) (2000 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.77% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 37.52 births/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 18.44 deaths/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: -1.42 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.8 male(s)/female
total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2000 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 106.69 deaths/1,000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 44.02 years
male: 42.26 years
female: 45.84 years (2000 est.)

Total fertility rate: 4.95 children born/woman (2000 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Central African(s)
adjective: Central African

Ethnic groups: Baya 34%, Banda 27%, Sara 10%, Mandjia 21%, Mboum 4%,
M'Baka 4%, Europeans 6,500 (including 1,500 French)

Religions: indigenous beliefs 24%, Protestant 25%, Roman Catholic 25%,
Muslim 15%, other 11%
note: animistic beliefs and practices strongly influence the Christian
majority

Languages: French (official), Sangho (lingua franca and national
language), Arabic, Hunsa, Swahili

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 60%
male: 68.5%
female: 52.4% (1995 est.)

@Central African Republic:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Central African Republic
conventional short form: none
local long form: Republique Centrafricaine
local short form: none
former: Central African Empire
abbreviation: CAR

Data code: CT

Government type: republic

Capital: Bangui

Administrative divisions: 14 prefectures (prefectures, singular -
prefecture), 2 economic prefectures* (prefectures economiques,
singular - prefecture economique), and 1 commune**; Bamingui-Bangoran,
Bangui**, Basse-Kotto, Gribingui*, Haute-Kotto, Haute-Sangha,
Haut-Mbomou, Kemo-Gribingui, Lobaye, Mbomou, Nana-Mambere,
Ombella-Mpoko, Ouaka, Ouham, Ouham-Pende, Sangha*, Vakaga

Independence: 13 August 1960 (from France)

National holiday: National Day, 1 December (1958) (proclamation of the
republic)

Constitution: passed by referendum 29 December 1994; adopted 7 January
1995

Legal system: based on French law

Suffrage: 21 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Ange-Felix PATASSE (since 22 October 1993)
head of government: Prime Minister Anicet Georges DOLOGUELE (since 4
January 1999)
cabinet: Council of Ministers
elections: president elected by popular vote for a six-year term;
election last held 19 September 1999 (next to be held NA 2005); prime
minister appointed by the president
election results: Ange-Felix PATASSE reelected president; percent of
vote - Ange-Felix PATASSE 51.63%, Andre KOLINGBA 19.38%, David DACKO
11.15%

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly or Assemblee
Nationale (109 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve
five-year terms; note - there were 85 seats in the National Assembly
before the 1998 election)
elections: last held 22-23 November and 13 December 1998 (next to be
held NA 2003)
election results: percent of vote by party - MLPC 43%, RDC 18%, MDD
9%, FPP 6%, PSD 5%, ADP 4%, PUN 3%, FODEM 2%, PLD 2%, UPR 1%, FC 1%,
independents 6%; seats by party - MLPC 47, RDC 20, MDD 8, FPP 7, PSD
6, ADP 5, PUN 3, FODEM 2, PLD 2, UPR 1, FC 1, independents 7; note -
results of election are being contested
note: the National Assembly is advised by the Economic and Regional
Council or Conseil Economique et Regional; when they sit together they
are called the Congress or Congres

Judicial branch: Supreme Court or Cour Supreme, judges appointed by
the president; Constitutional Court, judges appointed by the president

Political parties and leaders: Alliance for Democracy and Progress or
ADP ; Central African Democratic Assembly or RDC [Andre
KOLINGBA]; Civic Forum or FC ; Democratic
Forum or FODEM ; Liberal Democratic Party or PLD
; Movement for Democracy and Development or MDD
; Movement for the Liberation of the Central African
People or MLPC ;
Patriotic Front for Progress or FPP ; People's Union for
the Republic or UPR ; National Unity Party or PUN
; Social Democratic Party or PSD 

International organization participation: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, BDEAC, CCC,
CEEAC, ECA, FAO, FZ, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC,
IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ITU, NAM, OAU, OIC
(observer), OPCW, UDEAC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO,
WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Henri KOBA
chancery: 1618 22nd Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone:  (202) 483-7800
FAX:  (202) 332-9893

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Robert C. PERRY
embassy: Avenue David Dacko, Bangui
mailing address: B. P. 924, Bangui
telephone:  61 26 21
FAX:  61 44 94

Flag description: four equal horizontal bands of blue (top), white,
green, and yellow with a vertical red band in center; there is a
yellow five-pointed star on the hoist side of the blue band

@Central African Republic:Economy

Economy - overview: Subsistence agriculture, together with forestry,
remains the backbone of the economy of the Central African Republic
(CAR), with more than 70% of the population living in outlying areas.
The agricultural sector generates half of GDP. Timber has accounted
for about 16% of export earnings and the diamond industry for nearly
54%. Important constraints to economic development include the CAR's
landlocked position, a poor transportation system, a largely unskilled
work force, and a legacy of misdirected macroeconomic policies. The
50% devaluation of the currencies of 14 Francophone African nations on
12 January 1994 had mixed effects on the CAR's economy. Diamond,
timber, coffee, and cotton exports increased, leading an estimated
rise of GDP of 7% in 1994 and nearly 5% in 1995. Military rebellions
and social unrest in 1996 were accompanied by widespread destruction
of property and a drop in GDP of 2%. Ongoing violence between the
government and rebel military groups over pay issues, living
conditions, and political representation has destroyed many businesses
in the capital and reduced tax revenues for the government. The IMF
approved an Extended Structure Adjustment Facility in 1998. The
government has set targets of annual 5% growth and 2.5% inflation for
2000-2001.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $5.8 billion (1999 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 5% (1999 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $1,700 (1999 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 53%
industry: 21%
services: 26% (1997 est.)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.6% (1999 est.)

Labor force: NA

Unemployment rate: 6% (1993)

Budget:
revenues: $638 million
expenditures: $1.9 billion, including capital expenditures of $888
million (1994 est.)

Industries: diamond mining, sawmills, breweries, textiles, footwear,
assembly of bicycles and motorcycles

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - production: 105 million kWh (1998)

Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 19.05%
hydro: 80.95%
nuclear: 0%
other: 0% (1998)

Electricity - consumption: 98 million kWh (1998)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1998)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1998)

Agriculture - products: cotton, coffee, tobacco, manioc (tapioca),
yams, millet, corn, bananas; timber

Exports: $195 million (f.o.b., 1999)

Exports - commodities: diamonds, timber, cotton, coffee, tobacco

Exports - partners: Benelux 36%, Cote d'Ivoire 5%, Spain 4%, Egypt 3%,
France (1997)

Imports: $170 million (f.o.b., 1999)

Imports - commodities: food, textiles, petroleum products, machinery,
electrical equipment, motor vehicles, chemicals, pharmaceuticals,
consumer goods, industrial products

Imports - partners: France 30%, Cote d'Ivoire 18%, Cameroon 11%,
Germany 4%, Japan (1997)

Debt - external: $790 million (1999 est.)

Economic aid - recipient: $172.2 million (1995); note - traditional
budget subsidies from France

Currency: 1 Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (CFAF) = 100
centimes

Exchange rates: Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (CFAF) per US$1
- 647.25 (January 2000), 615.70 (1999), 589.95 (1998), 583.67 (1997),
511.55 (1996), 499.15 (1995)
note: since 1 January 1999, the CFAF is pegged to the euro at a rate
of 655.957 CFA francs per euro

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Central African Republic:Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 8,000 (1995)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 79 (1995)

Telephone system: fair system
domestic: network consists principally of microwave radio relay and
low-capacity, low-powered radiotelephone communication
international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 3, shortwave 1 (1998)

Radios: 283,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: NA

Televisions: 18,000 (1997)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): NA

@Central African Republic:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways:
total: 23,810 km
paved: 429 km
unpaved: 23,381 km (1998 est.)

Waterways: 800 km; traditional trade carried on by means of
shallow-draft dugouts; Oubangui is the most important river

Ports and harbors: Bangui, Nola

Airports: 52 (1999 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 3
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2 (1999 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 49
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 10
914 to 1,523 m: 23
under 914 m: 15 (1999 est.)

@Central African Republic:Military

Military branches: Central African Armed Forces (includes Republican
Guard and Air Force), Presidential Guard, National Gendarmerie, Police
Force

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 804,941 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males age 15-49: 420,619 (2000 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $29 million (FY96)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 2.2% (FY96)

@Central African Republic:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

______________________________________________________________________



CHAD

@Chad:Introduction

Background: Chad, part of France's African holdings until 1960,
endured three decades of ethnic warfare as well as invasions by Libya
before a semblance of peace was finally restored in 1990. A
transitional government eventually suppressed or came to terms with
most political-military groups, settled a territorial dispute with
Libya on terms favorable to Chad, drafted a democratic constitution,
and held multiparty presidential and National Assembly elections in
1996 and 1997 respectively. In 1998 a new rebellion broke out in
northern Chad, which continued to escalate throughout 1999. Despite
movement toward democratic reform, power remains in the hands of a
northern ethnic oligarchy.

@Chad:Geography

Location: Central Africa, south of Libya

Geographic coordinates: 15 00 N, 19 00 E

Map references: Africa

Area:
total: 1.284 million sq km
land: 1,259,200 sq km
water: 24,800 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly more than three times the size of
California

Land boundaries:
total: 5,968 km
border countries: Cameroon 1,094 km, Central African Republic 1,197
km, Libya 1,055 km, Niger 1,175 km, Nigeria 87 km, Sudan 1,360 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: tropical in south, desert in north

Terrain: broad, arid plains in center, desert in north, mountains in
northwest, lowlands in south

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Djourab Depression 160 m
highest point: Emi Koussi 3,415 m

Natural resources: petroleum (unexploited but exploration under way),
uranium, natron, kaolin, fish (Lake Chad)

Land use:
arable land: 3%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 36%
forests and woodland: 26%
other: 35% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 140 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: hot, dry, dusty harmattan winds occur in north;
periodic droughts; locust plagues

Environment - current issues: inadequate supplies of potable water;
improper waste disposal in rural areas contributes to soil and water
pollution; desertification

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered
Species, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping

Geography - note: landlocked; Lake Chad is the most significant water
body in the Sahel

@Chad:People

Population: 8,424,504 (July 2000 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 48% (male 2,022,339; female 1,994,978)
15-64 years: 49% (male 1,964,216; female 2,204,902)
65 years and over: 3% (male 99,459; female 138,610) (2000 est.)

Population growth rate: 3.31% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 48.81 births/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 15.71 deaths/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.04 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.89 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.72 male(s)/female
total population: 0.94 male(s)/female (2000 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 96.66 deaths/1,000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 50.49 years
male: 48.5 years
female: 52.56 years (2000 est.)

Total fertility rate: 6.63 children born/woman (2000 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Chadian(s)
adjective: Chadian

Ethnic groups: Muslims, commonly referred to as "northerners" or
"gorane" (Arabs, Toubou, Hadjerai, Fulbe, Kotoko, Kanembou, Baguirmi,
Boulala, Zaghawa, and Maba); non-Muslims, commonly referred to as
"southerners" (Sara, Ngambaye, Mbaye, Goulaye, Moundang, Moussei,
Massa) including nonindigenous 150,000 (of whom 1,000 are French)
note: ethnicity and regional background more commonly used to identify
Chadians than religious affiliation

Religions: Muslim 50%, Christian 25%, indigenous beliefs (mostly
animism) 25%

Languages: French (official), Arabic (official), Sara and Sango (in
south), more than 100 different languages and dialects

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write French or Arabic
total population: 48.1%
male: 62.1%
female: 34.7% (1995 est.)

@Chad:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Chad
conventional short form: Chad
local long form: Republique du Tchad
local short form: Tchad

Data code: CD

Government type: republic

Capital: N'Djamena

Administrative divisions: 14 prefectures (prefectures, singular -
prefecture); Batha, Biltine, Borkou-Ennedi-Tibesti, Chari-Baguirmi,
Guera, Kanem, Lac, Logone Occidental, Logone Oriental, Mayo-Kebbi,
Moyen-Chari, Ouaddai, Salamat, Tandjile

Independence: 11 August 1960 (from France)

National holiday: Independence Day, 11 August (1960)

Constitution: passed by referendum 31 March 1995

Legal system: based on French civil law system and Chadian customary
law; does not accept compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Lt. Gen. Idriss DEBY (since 4 December 1990)
head of government: Prime Minister Nagdum YAMASSOUM (since 13 December
1999)
cabinet: Council of State, members appointed by the president on the
recommendation of the prime minister
elections: president elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms;
if no candidate receives at least 50% of the total vote, the two
candidates receiving the most votes must stand for a second round of
voting; last held 2 June and 11 July 1996 (next to be held June 2001);
prime minister appointed by the president
election results: in the first round of voting none of the 15
candidates received the required 50% of the total vote; percent of
vote, first round - Lt. Gen. Idriss DEBY 43.8%, Wadal Abdelkader
KAMOUGUE 12.4%; percent of vote, second round - Lt. Gen. Idriss DEBY
69.1%, Wadal Abdelkader KAMOUGUE 30.9%
note: government coalition - MPS, UNDR, and URD

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly (125 seats; members
elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms); replaces the Higher
Transitional Council or the Conseil Superieur de Transition
elections: National Assembly - last held in two rounds on 5 January
and 23 February 1997 (next to be held NA 2001); in the first round of
voting some candidates won clear victories by receiving 50% or more of
the vote; where that did not happen, the two highest scoring
candidates stood for a second round of voting
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - MPS
65, URD 29, UNDR 15, RDP 3, others 13

Judicial branch: Supreme Court; Court of Appeal; Criminal Courts;
Magistrate Courts

Political parties and leaders: National Union for Development and
Renewal or UNDR ; Patriotic Salvation Movement or MPS
(originally in opposition but now the
party in power and the party of the president); Rally for Democracy
and Progress or RDP ; Union for Renewal and
Democracy or URD 

International organization participation: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, BDEAC,
CEEAC, ECA, FAO, FZ, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD,
IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ITU, NAM, OAU, OIC,
OPCW, UDEAC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO,
WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Hassaballah Abdelhadi Ahmat SOUBIANE
chancery: 2002 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20009
telephone:  (202) 462-4009
FAX:  (202) 265-1937

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Christopher GOLDTHWAIT
embassy: Avenue Felix Eboue, N'Djamena
mailing address: B. P. 413, N'Djamena
telephone:  (51) 70-09, (51) 90-52, (51) 92-33
FAX:  (51) 56-54

Flag description: three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side),
yellow, and red; similar to the flag of Romania; also similar to the
flags of Andorra and Moldova, both of which have a national coat of
arms centered in the yellow band; design was based on the flag of
France

@Chad:Economy

Economy - overview: Landlocked Chad's economic development suffers
from it's geographic remoteness, drought, lack of infrastructure, and
political turmoil. About 85% of the population depends on agriculture,
including the herding of livestock. Of Africa's Francophone countries,
Chad benefited least from the 50% devaluation of their currencies in
January 1994. Financial aid from the World Bank, the African
Development Fund, and other sources is directed largely at the
improvement of agriculture, especially livestock production. Due to
lack of financing, the development of the Doba Basin oil fields,
originally due to finish in 2000, has been substantially delayed.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $7.6 billion (1999 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 0.6% (1999 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $1,000 (1999 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 38%
industry: 14%
services: 48% (1998)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 12% (1998 est.)

Labor force: NA

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 85% (subsistence farming,
herding, and fishing)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
revenues: $198 million
expenditures: $218 million, including capital expenditures of $146
million (1998 est.)

Industries: cotton textiles, meat packing, beer brewing, natron
(sodium carbonate), soap, cigarettes, construction materials

Industrial production growth rate: 5% (1995)

Electricity - production: 100 million kWh (1998)

Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 100%
hydro: 0%
nuclear: 0%
other: 0% (1998)

Electricity - consumption: 93 million kWh (1998)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1998)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1998)

Agriculture - products: cotton, sorghum, millet, peanuts, rice,
potatoes, manioc (tapioca); cattle, sheep, goats, camels

Exports: $288 million (f.o.b., 1999 est.)

Exports - commodities: cotton, cattle, textiles

Exports - partners: Portugal 30%, Germany 14%, Thailand, Costa Rica,
South Africa, France (1997)

Imports: $359 million (f.o.b., 1999 est.)

Imports - commodities: machinery and transportation equipment,
industrial goods, petroleum products, foodstuffs, textiles

Imports - partners: France 41%, Nigeria 10%, Cameroon 7%, India 6%
(1997)

Debt - external: $1 billion (1999 est.)

Economic aid - recipient: $238.3 million (1995); note - $125 million
committed by Taiwan (August 1997); $30 million committed by African
Development Bank

Currency: 1 Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (CFAF) = 100
centimes

Exchange rates: Communaute Financiere Africaine Francs (CFAF) per US$1
- 647.25 (January 2000), 615.70 (1999), 589.95 (1998), 583.67 (1997),
511.55 (1996), 499.15 (1995)
note: since 1 January 1999, the CFAF is pegged to the euro at a rate
of 655.957 CFA francs per euro

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Chad:Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 5,000 (1995)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 0 (1995)

Telephone system: primitive system
domestic: fair system of radiotelephone communication stations
international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 2, FM 3, shortwave 5 (1998)

Radios: 1.67 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 1 (1997)

Televisions: 10,000 (1997)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 1 (1999)

@Chad:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways:
total: 33,400 km
paved: 267 km
unpaved: 33,133 km (1996 est.)

Waterways: 2,000 km navigable

Ports and harbors: none

Airports: 49 (1999 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 7
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 1
under 914 m: 1 (1999 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 42
1,524 to 2,437 m: 13
914 to 1,523 m: 19
under 914 m: 10 (1999 est.)

@Chad:Military

Military branches: Armed Forces (includes Ground Force, Air Force, and
Gendarmerie), Republican Guard, Rapid Intervention Force, Police,
Rural and Nomadic Guard (GNNT)

Military manpower - military age: 20 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 1,749,033 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males age 15-49: 915,664 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 79,596 (2000 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $39 million (FY96)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 3.5% (FY96)

@Chad:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: delimitation of international boundaries in
the vicinity of Lake Chad, the lack of which led to border incidents
in the past, has been completed and awaits ratification by Cameroon,
Chad, Niger, and Nigeria

______________________________________________________________________



CHILE

@Chile:Introduction

Background: A three-year-old Marxist government was overthrown in 1973
by a dictatorial military regime led by Augusto PINOCHET, which ruled
until a freely elected president was installed in 1990. Sound economic
policies, first implemented by the PINOCHET dictatorship, led to
unprecedented growth in 1991-97 and have helped secure the country's
commitment to democratic and representative government. Growth slowed
in 1998-99, but will likely recover in 2000.

@Chile:Geography

Location: Southern South America, bordering the South Atlantic Ocean
and South Pacific Ocean, between Argentina and Peru

Geographic coordinates: 30 00 S, 71 00 W

Map references: South America

Area:
total: 756,950 sq km
land: 748,800 sq km
water: 8,150 sq km
note: includes Easter Island (Isla de Pascua) and Isla Sala y Gomez

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than twice the size of Montana

Land boundaries:
total: 6,171 km
border countries: Argentina 5,150 km, Bolivia 861 km, Peru 160 km

Coastline: 6,435 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 24 nm
continental shelf: 200/350 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: temperate; desert in north; Mediterranean in central region;
cool and damp in south

Terrain: low coastal mountains; fertile central valley; rugged Andes
in east

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
highest point: Cerro Aconcagua 6,962 m

Natural resources: copper, timber, iron ore, nitrates, precious
metals, molybdenum, hydropower

Land use:
arable land: 5%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 18%
forests and woodland: 22%
other: 55% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 12,650 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: severe earthquakes; active volcanism; tsunamis

Environment - current issues: air pollution from industrial and
vehicle emissions; water pollution from raw sewage

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty,
Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species,
Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine
Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution,
Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol

Geography - note: strategic location relative to sea lanes between
Atlantic and Pacific Oceans (Strait of Magellan, Beagle Channel, Drake
Passage); Atacama Desert is one of world's driest regions

@Chile:People

Population: 15,153,797 (July 2000 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 28% (male 2,137,826; female 2,044,546)
15-64 years: 65% (male 4,919,060; female 4,958,030)
65 years and over: 7% (male 453,234; female 641,101) (2000 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.17% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 17.19 births/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 5.52 deaths/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.71 male(s)/female
total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2000 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 9.6 deaths/1,000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 75.74 years
male: 72.43 years
female: 79.22 years (2000 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.2 children born/woman (2000 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Chilean(s)
adjective: Chilean

Ethnic groups: white and white-Amerindian 95%, Amerindian 3%, other 2%

Religions: Roman Catholic 89%, Protestant 11%, Jewish NEGL

Languages: Spanish

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 95.2%
male: 95.4%
female: 95% (1995 est.)

@Chile:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Chile
conventional short form: Chile
local long form: Republica de Chile
local short form: Chile

Data code: CI

Government type: republic

Capital: Santiago

Administrative divisions: 13 regions (regiones, singular - region);
Aisen del General Carlos Ibanez del Campo, Antofagasta, Araucania,
Atacama, Bio-Bio, Coquimbo, Libertador General Bernardo O'Higgins, Los
Lagos, Magallanes y de la Antartica Chilena, Maule, Region
Metropolitana (Santiago), Tarapaca, Valparaiso
note: the US does not recognize claims to Antarctica

Independence: 18 September 1810 (from Spain)

National holiday: Independence Day, 18 September (1810)

Constitution: 11 September 1980, effective 11 March 1981; amended 30
July 1989 and in 1993

Legal system: based on Code of 1857 derived from Spanish law and
subsequent codes influenced by French and Austrian law; judicial
review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court; does not accept
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal and compulsory

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Ricardo LAGOS Escobar (since 11 March 2000);
note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Ricardo LAGOS Escobar (since 11 March
2000); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of
government
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
elections: president elected by popular vote for a six-year term;
election last held 12 December 1999, with runoff election held 16
January 2000 (next to be held NA December 2005)
election results: Ricardo LAGOS Escobar elected president; percent of
vote - Ricardo LAGOS Escobar 51.32%, Joaquin LAVIN 48.68%

Legislative branch: bicameral National Congress or Congreso Nacional
consists of the Senate or Senado (48 seats, 38 elected by popular vote
and 10 appointed (all former presidents are senators for life);
members serve eight-year terms - one-half elected every four years)
and the Chamber of Deputies or Camara de Diputados (120 seats; members
are elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)
elections: Senate - last held 11 December 1997 (next to be held NA
December 2001); Chamber of Deputies - last held 11 December 1997 (next
to be held NA December 2001)
election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by
party - CPD (PDC 14, PS 4, PPD 2), UPP 17 (RN 7, UDI 10), Chile 2000
(UCCP) 1, independents 10; Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by
party - CPD 50.55% (PDC 22.98%, PS 11.10%, PPD 12.55%, PRSD 3.13%),
UPP 36.23% (RN 16.78%, UDI 14.43%); seats by party - CPD 70 (PDC 39,
PPD 16, PRSD 4, PS 11), UPP 46 (RN 24, UDI 21, Party of the South 1),
right-wing independents 4

Judicial branch: Supreme Court or Corte Suprema, judges are appointed
by the president and ratified by the Senate from lists of candidates
provided by the court itself, the president of the Supreme Court is
elected by the 21-member court; Constitutional Tribunal

Political parties and leaders: Chile 2000 - main party is UCCP
; Christian Democratic Party or PDC
; Coalition of Parties for Democracy
("Concertacion") or CPD  - including PDC, PS,
PPD, PRSD; Independent Democratic Union or UDI ;
National Renewal or RN ; Party for Democracy or PPD
; Party of the South or PS ; Progressive
Center-Center Union or UCCP ; Radical
Social Democratic Party or PRSD ; Socialist Party or PS
; Union for the Progress of Chile ("Alliance for
Chile") or UPP  - including RN and UDI

Political pressure groups and leaders: revitalized university student
federations at all major universities; Roman Catholic Church; United
Labor Central or CUT includes trade unionists from the country's five
largest labor confederations

International organization participation: APEC, CCC, ECLAC, FAO, G-11,
G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS,
IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU,
LAES, LAIA, Mercosur (associate), NAM, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, PCA, RG, UN,
UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNITAR, UNMIBH, UNMOGIP, UNTSO, UNU, UPU, WCL,
WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Mario ARTAZA
chancery: 1732 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
telephone:  (202) 785-1746
FAX:  (202) 887-5579
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York,
Philadelphia, San Francisco, and San Juan (Puerto Rico)

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador John O'LEARY
embassy: Avenida Andres Bello 2800, Santiago
mailing address: APO AA 34033
telephone:  (2) 232-2600
FAX:  (2) 330-3710

Flag description: two equal horizontal bands of white (top) and red;
there is a blue square the same height as the white band at the
hoist-side end of the white band; the square bears a white
five-pointed star in the center; design was based on the US flag

@Chile:Economy

Economy - overview: Chile has a market-oriented economy characterized
by a high level of foreign trade. During the early 1990s, Chile's
reputation as a role model for economic reform was strengthened when
the democratic government of Patricio AYLWIN - which took over from
the military in 1990 - deepened the economic reform initiated by the
military government. Growth in real GDP averaged 8% during the period
1991-1997, but fell to half that level in 1998 because of tight
monetary policies implemented to keep the current account deficit in
check and lower export earnings - the latter a product of the global
financial crisis. A severe drought exacerbated the recession in 1999,
reducing crop yields and causing hydroelectric shortfalls and
rationing, and Chile experienced negative economic growth for the
first time in more than 15 years. Despite the effects of the
recession, Chile maintained its reputation for strong financial
institutions and sound policy that have given it the strongest
sovereign bond rating in South America. By the end of 1999, exports
and economic activity had begun to recover, and a return to strong
growth in 2000 is likely. The inauguration of Ricardo LAGOS in March
2000, succeeding Eduardo FREI, will keep the presidency in the hands
of the center-left Concertacion coalition that has held office since
the return of civilian rule in 1990.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $185.1 billion (1999 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: -1% (1999 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $12,400 (1999 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 6%
industry: 33%
services: 61% (1999)

Population below poverty line: 22% (1998 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 1.2%
highest 10%: 41.3% (1998)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3.4% (1999 est.)

Labor force: 5.8 million (1999 est.)

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 14%, industry 27%, services
59% (1997 est.)

Unemployment rate: 9% (1999)

Budget:
revenues: $17 billion
expenditures: $17 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1998
est.)

Industries: copper, other minerals, foodstuffs, fish processing, iron
and steel, wood and wood products, transport equipment, cement,
textiles

Industrial production growth rate: -1.3% (1999 est.)

Electricity - production: 37.49 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 50%
hydro: 50%
nuclear: 0%
other: 0% (December 1999)

Electricity - consumption: 26.665 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1998)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1998)

Agriculture - products: wheat, corn, grapes, beans, sugar beets,
potatoes, fruit; beef, poultry, wool; fish; timber

Exports: $15.6 billion (f.o.b., 1999)

Exports - commodities: copper, fish, fruits, paper and pulp, chemicals

Exports - partners: EU 27%, US 16%, Japan 14%, Brazil 6%, Argentina 5%
(1998)

Imports: $13.9 billion (c.i.f., 1999)

Imports - commodities: consumer goods, chemicals, motor vehicles,
fuels, electrical machinery, heavy industrial machinery, food

Imports - partners: US 24%, EU 23%, Argentina 11%, Brazil 6%, Japan
6%, Mexico 5% (1998)

Debt - external: $39 billion (1999)

Economic aid - recipient: ODA, $50.3 million (1996 est.)

Currency: 1 Chilean peso (Ch$) = 100 centavos

Exchange rates: Chilean pesos (Ch$) per US$1 - 520.45 (January 2000),
508.78 (1999), 460.29 (1998), 419.30 (1997), 412.27 (1996), 396.77
(1995)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Chile:Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 2.603 million (1998)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 197,300 (1995)

Telephone system: modern system based on extensive microwave radio
relay facilities
domestic: extensive microwave radio relay links; domestic satellite
system with 3 earth stations
international: satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 180 (eight inactive), FM 64, shortwave 17
(one inactive) (1998)

Radios: 5.18 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 63 (plus 121 repeaters) (1997)

Televisions: 3.15 million (1997)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 26 (1999)

@Chile:Transportation

Railways:
total: 6,782 km
broad gauge: 3,743 km 1.676-m gauge (1,653 km electrified)
narrow gauge: 116 km 1.067-m gauge; 2,923 km 1.000-m gauge (40 km
electrified) (1995)

Highways:
total: 79,800 km
paved: 11,012 km
unpaved: 68,788 km (1996 est.)

Waterways: 725 km

Pipelines: crude oil 755 km; petroleum products 785 km; natural gas
320 km

Ports and harbors: Antofagasta, Arica, Chanaral, Coquimbo, Iquique,
Puerto Montt, Punta Arenas, San Antonio, San Vicente, Talcahuano,
Valparaiso

Merchant marine:
total: 45 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 580,749 GRT/860,034 DWT
ships by type: bulk 11, cargo 9, chemical tanker 8, container 2,
liquified gas 2, passenger 3, petroleum tanker 4, roll-on/roll-off 4,
vehicle carrier 2 (1999 est.)

Airports: 370 (1999 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 62
over 3,047 m: 6
2,438 to 3,047 m: 6
1,524 to 2,437 m: 20
914 to 1,523 m: 20
under 914 m: 10 (1999 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 308
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 4
1,524 to 2,437 m: 12
914 to 1,523 m: 68
under 914 m: 223 (1999 est.)

@Chile:Military

Military branches: Army, Navy (includes Naval Air, Coast Guard, and
Marines), Air Force, Carabineros of Chile (National Police),
Investigations Police
note: normally administered by Ministry of Interior; in times of
national emergency, Carabineros and Investigations Police are
considered part of the military

Military manpower - military age: 19 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 4,012,900 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males age 15-49: 2,973,246 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 136,912 (2000 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $2.5 billion (FY99)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 3.1% (FY99)

@Chile:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: Bolivia has wanted a sovereign corridor to
the South Pacific Ocean since the Atacama area was lost to Chile in
1884; dispute with Bolivia over Rio Lauca water rights; territorial
claim in Antarctica (Chilean Antarctic Territory) partially overlaps
Argentine and British claims

Illicit drugs: a growing transshipment country for cocaine destined
for the US and Europe; economic prosperity has made Chile more
attractive to traffickers seeking to launder drug profits; imported
precursors passed on to Bolivia; domestic cocaine consumption is
rising

______________________________________________________________________



CHINA

@China:Introduction

Background: For centuries China has stood as a leading civilization,
outpacing the rest of the world in the arts and sciences. But in the
first half of the 20th century, China was beset by major famines,
civil unrest, military defeats, and foreign occupation. After World
War II, the Communists under MAO Zedong established a dictatorship
that, while ensuring China's sovereignty, imposed strict controls over
everyday life and cost the lives of tens of millions of people. After
1978, his successor DENG Xiaoping decentralized economic decision
making. Output quadrupled in the next 20 years and China now has the
world's second largest GDP. Political controls remain tight even while
economic controls continue to weaken.

@China:Geography

Location: Eastern Asia, bordering the East China Sea, Korea Bay,
Yellow Sea, and South China Sea, between North Korea and Vietnam

Geographic coordinates: 35 00 N, 105 00 E

Map references: Asia

Area:
total: 9,596,960 sq km
land: 9,326,410 sq km
water: 270,550 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than the US

Land boundaries:
total: 22,143.34 km
border countries: Afghanistan 76 km, Bhutan 470 km, Burma 2,185 km,
Hong Kong 30 km, India 3,380 km, Kazakhstan 1,533 km, North Korea
1,416 km, Kyrgyzstan 858 km, Laos 423 km, Macau 0.34 km, Mongolia
4,673 km, Nepal 1,236 km, Pakistan 523 km, Russia (northeast) 3,605
km, Russia (northwest) 40 km, Tajikistan 414 km, Vietnam 1,281 km

Coastline: 14,500 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 24 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: extremely diverse; tropical in south to subarctic in north

Terrain: mostly mountains, high plateaus, deserts in west; plains,
deltas, and hills in east

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Turpan Pendi -154 m
highest point: Mount Everest 8,850 m (1999 est.)

Natural resources: coal, iron ore, petroleum, natural gas, mercury,
tin, tungsten, antimony, manganese, molybdenum, vanadium, magnetite,
aluminum, lead, zinc, uranium, hydropower potential (world's largest)

Land use:
arable land: 10%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 43%
forests and woodland: 14%
other: 33% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 498,720 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: frequent typhoons (about five per year along southern
and eastern coasts); damaging floods; tsunamis; earthquakes; droughts

Environment - current issues: air pollution (greenhouse gases, sulfur
dioxide particulates) from reliance on coal, produces acid rain; water
shortages, particularly in the north; water pollution from untreated
wastes; deforestation; estimated loss of one-fifth of agricultural
land since 1949 to soil erosion and economic development;
desertification; trade in endangered species

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty,
Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species,
Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer
Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94,
Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Nuclear Test
Ban

Geography - note: world's fourth-largest country (after Russia,
Canada, and US)

@China:People

Population: 1,261,832,482 (July 2000 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 25% (male 168,040,006; female 152,826,953)
15-64 years: 68% (male 439,736,737; female 413,454,673)
65 years and over: 7% (male 41,200,297; female 46,573,816) (2000 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.9% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 16.12 births/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 6.73 deaths/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.4 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.15 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.1 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.88 male(s)/female
total population: 1.06 male(s)/female (2000 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 28.92 deaths/1,000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 71.38 years
male: 69.6 years
female: 73.33 years (2000 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.82 children born/woman (2000 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Chinese (singular and plural)
adjective: Chinese

Ethnic groups: Han Chinese 91.9%, Zhuang, Uygur, Hui, Yi, Tibetan,
Miao, Manchu, Mongol, Buyi, Korean, and other nationalities 8.1%

Religions: Daoist (Taoist), Buddhist, Muslim 2%-3%, Christian 1%
(est.)
note: officially atheist

Languages: Standard Chinese or Mandarin (Putonghua, based on the
Beijing dialect), Yue (Cantonese), Wu (Shanghaiese), Minbei (Fuzhou),
Minnan (Hokkien-Taiwanese), Xiang, Gan, Hakka dialects, minority
languages (see Ethnic groups entry)

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 81.5%
male: 89.9%
female: 72.7% (1995 est.)

@China:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: People's Republic of China
conventional short form: China
local long form: Zhonghua Renmin Gongheguo
local short form: Zhong Guo
abbreviation: PRC

Data code: CH

Government type: Communist state

Capital: Beijing

Administrative divisions: 23 provinces (sheng, singular and plural), 5
autonomous regions* (zizhiqu, singular and plural), and 4
municipalities** (shi, singular and plural); Anhui, Beijing**,
Chongqing**, Fujian, Gansu, Guangdong, Guangxi*, Guizhou, Hainan,
Hebei, Heilongjiang, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Jilin,
Liaoning, Nei Mongol*, Ningxia*, Qinghai, Shaanxi, Shandong,
Shanghai**, Shanxi, Sichuan, Tianjin**, Xinjiang*, Xizang* (Tibet),
Yunnan, Zhejiang
note: China considers Taiwan its 23rd province; see separate entries
for the special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau

Independence: 221 BC (unification under the Qin or Ch'in Dynasty 221
BC; Qing or Ch'ing Dynasty replaced by the Republic on 12 February
1912; People's Republic established 1 October 1949)

National holiday: National Day, 1 October (1949)

Constitution: most recent promulgation 4 December 1982

Legal system: a complex amalgam of custom and statute, largely
criminal law; rudimentary civil code in effect since 1 January 1987;
new legal codes in effect since 1 January 1980; continuing efforts are
being made to improve civil, administrative, criminal, and commercial
law

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President JIANG Zemin (since 27 March 1993) and Vice
President HU Jintao (since 16 March 1998)
head of government: Premier ZHU Rongji (since 18 March 1998); Vice
Premiers QIAN Qichen (since 29 March 1993), LI Lanqing (29 March
1993), WU Bangguo (since 17 March 1995), and WEN Jiabao (since 18
March 1998)
cabinet: State Council appointed by the National People's Congress
(NPC)
elections: president and vice president elected by the National
People's Congress for five-year terms; elections last held 16-18 March
1998 (next to be held NA March 2003); premier nominated by the
president, confirmed by the National People's Congress
election results: JIANG Zemin reelected president by the Ninth
National People's Congress with a total of 2,882 votes (36 delegates
voted against him, 29 abstained, and 32 did not vote); HU Jintao
elected vice president by the Ninth National People's Congress with a
total of 2,841 votes (67 delegates voted against him, 39 abstained,
and 32 did not vote)

Legislative branch: unicameral National People's Congress or Quanguo
Renmin Daibiao Dahui (2,979 seats; members elected by municipal,
regional, and provincial people's congresses to serve five-year terms)
elections: last held NA December 1997-NA February 1998 (next to be
held late 2002-NA March 2003)
election results: percent of vote - NA; seats - NA

Judicial branch: Supreme People's Court, judges appointed by the
National People's Congress

Political parties and leaders: Chinese Communist Party or CCP [JIANG
Zemin, General Secretary of the Central Committee]; eight registered
small parties controlled by CCP

Political pressure groups and leaders: no substantial political
opposition groups exist, although the government has identified the
Falungong sect and the China Democracy Party as potential rivals

International organization participation: AfDB, APEC, AsDB, BIS, CCC,
CDB (non-regional), ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU,
ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat,
Interpol, IOC, ISO, ITU, LAIA (observer), MINURSO, NAM (observer),
OPCW, PCA, UN, UN Security Council, UNAMSIL, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR,
UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNITAR, UNTSO, UNU, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO
(applicant), ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador LI Zhaoxing
chancery: 2300 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone:  (202) 328-2500
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, New York, and San
Francisco

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Joseph W. PRUEHER
embassy: Xiu Shui Bei Jie 3, 100600 Beijing
mailing address: PSC 461, Box 50, FPO AP 96521-0002
telephone:  (10) 6532-3831
FAX:  (10) 6532-6422
consulate(s) general: Chengdu, Guangzhou, Shanghai, Shenyang

Flag description: red with a large yellow five-pointed star and four
smaller yellow five-pointed stars (arranged in a vertical arc toward
the middle of the flag) in the upper hoist-side corner

@China:Economy

Economy - overview: Beginning in late 1978 the Chinese leadership has
been moving the economy from a sluggish Soviet-style centrally planned
economy to a more market-oriented economy but still within a rigid
political framework of Communist Party control. To this end the
authorities have switched to a system of household responsibility in
agriculture in place of the old collectivization, increased the
authority of local officials and plant managers in industry, permitted
a wide variety of small-scale enterprise in services and light
manufacturing, and opened the economy to increased foreign trade and
investment. The result has been a quadrupling of GDP since 1978. In
1999, with its 1.25 billion people but a GDP of just $3,800 per
capita, China became the second largest economy in the world after the
US. Agricultural output doubled in the 1980s, and industry also posted
major gains, especially in coastal areas near Hong Kong and opposite
Taiwan, where foreign investment helped spur output of both domestic
and export goods. On the darker side, the leadership has often
experienced in its hybrid system the worst results of socialism
(bureaucracy, lassitude, corruption) and of capitalism (windfall gains
and stepped-up inflation). Beijing thus has periodically backtracked,
retightening central controls at intervals. In late 1993 China's
leadership approved additional long-term reforms aimed at giving still
more play to market-oriented institutions and at strengthening the
center's control over the financial system; state enterprises would
continue to dominate many key industries in what was now termed "a
socialist market economy". In 1995-99 inflation dropped sharply,
reflecting tighter monetary policies and stronger measures to control
food prices. At the same time, the government struggled to (a) collect
revenues due from provinces, businesses, and individuals; (b) reduce
corruption and other economic crimes; and (c) keep afloat the large
state-owned enterprises, most of which had not participated in the
vigorous expansion of the economy and many of which had been losing
the ability to pay full wages and pensions. From 50 to 100 million
surplus rural workers are adrift between the villages and the cities,
many subsisting through part-time low-paying jobs. Popular resistance,
changes in central policy, and loss of authority by rural cadres have
weakened China's population control program, which is essential to
maintaining growth in living standards. Another long-term threat to
continued rapid economic growth is the deterioration in the
environment, notably air pollution, soil erosion, and the steady fall
of the water table especially in the north. China continues to lose
arable land because of erosion and economic development. The next few
years will witness increasing tensions between a highly centralized
political system and an increasingly decentralized economic system.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $4.8 trillion (1999 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 7% (1999 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $3,800 (1999 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 15%
industry: 35%
services: 50% (1999 est.)

Population below poverty line: 10% (1999 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 2.2%
highest 10%: 30.9% (1995)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): -1.3% (1999 est.)

Labor force: 700 million (1998 est.)

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 50%, industry 24%, services
26% (1998)

Unemployment rate: urban unemployment roughly 10%; substantial
unemployment and underemployment in rural areas (1999 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $NA
expenditures: $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA

Industries: iron and steel, coal, machine building, armaments,
textiles and apparel, petroleum, cement, chemical fertilizers,
footwear, toys, food processing, automobiles, consumer electronics,
telecommunications

Industrial production growth rate: 8.8% (1999 est.)

Electricity - production: 1.16 trillion kWh (1998)

Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 80.31%
hydro: 18.46%
nuclear: 1.23%
other: 0% (1998)

Electricity - consumption: 1.014 trillion kWh (1998)

Electricity - exports: 7.935 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - imports: 89 million kWh (1998)

Agriculture - products: rice, wheat, potatoes, sorghum, peanuts, tea,
millet, barley, cotton, oilseed; pork; fish

Exports: $194.9 billion (f.o.b., 1999)

Exports - commodities: machinery and equipment; textiles and clothing,
footwear, toys and sporting goods; mineral fuels, chemicals

Exports - partners: US 22%, Hong Kong 19%, Japan 17%, Germany, South
Korea, Netherlands, UK, Singapore, Taiwan (1999)

Imports: $165.8 billion (c.i.f., 1999)

Imports - commodities: machinery and equipment, plastics, chemicals,
iron and steel, mineral fuels

Imports - partners: Japan 20%, US 12%, Taiwan 12%, South Korea 10%,
Germany, Hong Kong, Russia, Singapore (1999)

Debt - external: $159 billion (1998 est.)

Economic aid - recipient: $NA

Currency: 1 yuan = 10 jiao

Exchange rates: yuan per US$1 - 8.2793 (January 2000), 8.2783 (1999),
8.2790 (1998), 8.2898 (1997), 8.3142 (1996), 8.3514 (1995)
note: beginning 1 January 1994, the People's Bank of China quotes the
midpoint rate against the US dollar based on the previous day's
prevailing rate in the interbank foreign exchange market

Fiscal year: calendar year

@China:Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 110 million (1999 est.)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 23.4 million (1998)

Telephone system: domestic and international services are increasingly
available for private use; unevenly distributed domestic system serves
principal cities, industrial centers, and many towns
domestic: interprovincial fiber-optic trunk lines and cellular
telephone systems have been installed; a domestic satellite system
with 55 earth stations is in place
international: satellite earth stations - 5 Intelsat (4 Pacific Ocean
and 1 Indian Ocean), 1 Intersputnik (Indian Ocean region) and 1
Inmarsat (Pacific and Indian Ocean regions); several international
fiber-optic links to Japan, South Korea, Hong Kong, Russia, and
Germany

Radio broadcast stations: AM 369, FM 259, shortwave 45 (1998)

Radios: 417 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 3,240 (of which 209 are operated by
China Central Television, 31 are provincial TV stations and nearly
3,000 are local city stations) (1997)

Televisions: 400 million (1997)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 3 (1999)

@China:Transportation

Railways:
total: 65,650 km (including 5,400 km of provincial "local" rails)
standard gauge: 62,050 km 1.435-m gauge (12,150 km electrified; 20,250
km double track)
narrow gauge: 3,600 km 0.750-m gauge local industrial lines (1998
est.)
note: a new total of 68,000 km has been estimated for early 1999

Highways:
total: 1.21 million km
paved: 271,300 km (with at least 24,474 km of expressways)
unpaved: 938,700 km (1998 est.)

Waterways: 110,000 km navigable (1999)

Pipelines: crude oil 9,070 km; petroleum products 560 km; natural gas
9,383 km (1998)

Ports and harbors: Dalian, Fuzhou, Guangzhou, Haikou, Huangpu,
Lianyungang, Nanjing, Nantong, Ningbo, Qingdao, Qinhuangdao, Shanghai,
Shantou, Tianjin, Xiamen, Xingang, Yantai, Zhanjiang

Merchant marine:
total: 1,746 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 16,637,023
GRT/24,552,567 DWT
ships by type: barge carrier 2, bulk 325, cargo 840, chemical tanker
21, combination bulk 11, combination ore/oil 1, container 125,
liquified gas 20, multi-functional large load carrier 5, passenger 8,
passenger/cargo 46, petroleum tanker 251, refrigerated cargo 24,
roll-on/roll-off 21, short-sea passenger 43, specialized tanker 2,
vehicle carrier 1 (1999 est.)

Airports: 206 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 192
over 3,047 m: 18
2,438 to 3,047 m: 65
1,524 to 2,437 m: 90
914 to 1,523 m: 13
under 914 m: 6 (1996 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 14
1,524 to 2,437 m: 8
914 to 1,523 m: 5
under 914 m: 1 (1996 est.)

@China:Military

Military branches: People's Liberation Army (PLA), which includes the
Ground Forces, Navy (includes Marines and Naval Aviation), Air Force,
Second Artillery Corps (the strategic missile force), People's Armed
Police (internal security troops, nominally subordinate to Ministry of
Public Security, but included by the Chinese as part of the "armed
forces" and considered to be an adjunct to the PLA in wartime)

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 363,050,980 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males age 15-49: 199,178,361 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 10,839,039 (2000 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $12.608 billion (FY99); note -
Western analysts believe that China's real defense spending is several
times higher than the official figure because a number of significant
items are funded elsewhere

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 1.2% (FY99)

@China:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: boundary with India in dispute; dispute over
at least two small sections of the boundary with Russia remain to be
settled, despite 1997 boundary agreement; portions of the boundary
with Tajikistan are indefinite; 33-km section of boundary with North
Korea in the Paektu-san (mountain) area is indefinite; involved in a
complex dispute over the Spratly Islands with Malaysia, Philippines,
Taiwan, Vietnam, and possibly Brunei; maritime boundary dispute with
Vietnam in the Gulf of Tonkin; Paracel Islands occupied by China, but
claimed by Vietnam and Taiwan; claims Japanese-administered
Senkaku-shoto (Senkaku Islands/Diaoyu Tai), as does Taiwan; agreement
on land border with Vietnam was signed in December 1999, but details
of alignment have not yet been made public

Illicit drugs: major transshipment point for heroin produced in the
Golden Triangle; growing domestic drug abuse problem

______________________________________________________________________



CHRISTMAS ISLAND

@Christmas Island:Introduction

Background: This island was annexed by the UK in 1888, following the
discovery of phosphate rock.

@Christmas Island:Geography

Location: Southeastern Asia, island in the Indian Ocean, south of
Indonesia

Geographic coordinates: 10 30 S, 105 40 E

Map references: Southeast Asia

Area:
total: 135 sq km
land: 135 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: about 0.7 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 138.9 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 12 nm
exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 3 nm

Climate: tropical; heat and humidity moderated by trade winds

Terrain: steep cliffs along coast rise abruptly to central plateau

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point: Murray Hill 361 m

Natural resources: phosphate

Land use:
arable land: NA%
permanent crops: NA%
permanent pastures: NA%
forests and woodland: NA%
other: NA%
note: mainly tropical rainforest of which 60%-70% is in a national
park

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: the narrow fringing reef surrounding the island can
be a maritime hazard

Environment - current issues: NA

Geography - note: located along major sea lanes of Indian Ocean

@Christmas Island:People

Population: 2,564 (July 2000 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: NA
15-64 years: NA
65 years and over: NA

Population growth rate: 7.77% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: NA births/1,000 population

Death rate: NA deaths/1,000 population

Net migration rate: NA migrant(s)/1,000 population

Infant mortality rate: NA deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: NA years
male: NA years
female: NA years

Total fertility rate: NA children born/woman

Nationality:
noun: Christmas Islander(s)
adjective: Christmas Island

Ethnic groups: Chinese 61%, Malay 25%, European 11%, other 3%, no
indigenous population

Religions: Buddhist 55%, Christian 15%, Muslim 10%, other 20% (1991)

Languages: English, Chinese, Malay

@Christmas Island:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Territory of Christmas Island
conventional short form: Christmas Island

Data code: KT

Dependency status: territory of Australia; administered from Canberra
by the Australian Department of the Environment, Sport and Territories

Government type: NA

Capital: The Settlement

Administrative divisions: none (territory of Australia)

Independence: none (territory of Australia)

National holiday: NA

Constitution: Christmas Island Act of 1958

Legal system: under the authority of the governor general of Australia
and Australian law

Executive branch:
chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952),
represented by the Australian governor general
head of government: Administrator (acting) Graham NICHOLLS (since NA)
elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; administrator appointed by
the governor general of Australia and represents the monarch and
Australia

Legislative branch: unicameral Christmas Island Shire Council (9
seats; members elected by popular vote to serve one-year terms)
elections: last held NA December 1999 (next to be held NA December
2000)
election results: percent of vote - NA; seats - independents 9

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders: none

International organization participation: none

Diplomatic representation in the US: none (territory of Australia)

Diplomatic representation from the US: none (territory of Australia)

Flag description: the flag of Australia is used

@Christmas Island:Economy

Economy - overview: Phosphate mining had been the only significant
economic activity, but in December 1987 the Australian Government
closed the mine. In 1991, the mine was reopened by union workers. With
the support of the government, Australian-based Casinos Austria
International Ltd. built a $34 million casino on Christmas Island,
which opened in 1993. As of yearend 1999, gaming facilities at the
casino were temporarily closed but were expected to reopen in early
2000. Another economic prospect is the possible location of a
space-launching site on the island.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $NA

GDP - real growth rate: NA%

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $NA

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: NA%
industry: NA%
services: NA%

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA%

Labor force: NA

Labor force - by occupation: tourism 400 people, mining 100 people
(1995)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
revenues: $NA
expenditures: $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA

Industries: tourism, phosphate extraction (near depletion)

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - production: NA kWh

Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: NA%
hydro: NA%
nuclear: NA%
other: NA%

Electricity - consumption: NA kWh

Electricity - exports: NA kWh

Electricity - imports: NA kWh

Agriculture - products: NA

Exports: $NA

Exports - commodities: phosphate

Exports - partners: Australia, NZ

Imports: $NA

Imports - commodities: consumer goods

Imports - partners: principally Australia

Debt - external: $NA

Economic aid - recipient: $NA

Currency: 1 Australian dollar ($A) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Australian dollars ($A) per US$1 - 1.5207 (January
2000), 1.5497 (1999), 1.5888 (1998), 1.3439 (1997), 1.2773 (1996),
1.3486 (1995)

Fiscal year: 1 July - 30 June

@Christmas Island:Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: NA

Telephones - mobile cellular: 0 (1999)

Telephone system:
domestic: NA
international: external telephone and telex services are provided by
Intelsat satellite

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 1, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios: 1,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: NA

Televisions: 600 (1997)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): NA

@Christmas Island:Transportation

Railways: 24 km to serve phosphate mines

Highways:
total: NA km
paved: NA km
unpaved: NA km

Ports and harbors: Flying Fish Cove

Merchant marine: none (1999 est.)

Airports: 1 (1999 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (1999 est.)

@Christmas Island:Military

Military - note: defense is the responsibility of Australia

@Christmas Island:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

______________________________________________________________________



CLIPPERTON ISLAND

@Clipperton Island:Geography

Location: Middle America, atoll in the North Pacific Ocean, 1,120 km
southwest of Mexico

Geographic coordinates: 10 17 N, 109 13 W

Map references: World

Area:
total: 7 sq km
land: 7 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: about 12 times the size of The Mall in Washington,
DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 11.1 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical, humid, average temperature 20-32 degrees C, rains
May-October

Terrain: coral atoll

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
highest point: Rocher Clipperton 29 m

Natural resources: none

Land use:
arable land: 0%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 0%
forests and woodland: 0%
other: 100% (all coral)

Irrigated land: 0 sq km (1993)

Natural hazards: subject to tornadoes

Environment - current issues: NA

Geography - note: reef about 8 km in circumference

@Clipperton Island:People

Population: uninhabited (July 2000 est.)

@Clipperton Island:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Clipperton Island
local long form: none
local short form: Ile Clipperton
former: sometimes called Ile de la Passion

Data code: IP

Dependency status: possession of France; administered by France from
French Polynesia by a high commissioner of the Republic

Flag description: the flag of France is used

@Clipperton Island:Economy

Economy - overview: Although 115 species of fish have been identified
in the territorial waters of Clipperton Island, the only economic
activity is tuna fishing.

@Clipperton Island:Transportation

Ports and harbors: none; offshore anchorage only

@Clipperton Island:Military

Military - note: defense is the responsibility of France

@Clipperton Island:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

______________________________________________________________________



COCOS

______________________________________________________________________



COLOMBIA

@Colombia:Introduction

Background: Colombia was one of the three countries that emerged from
the collapse of Gran Colombia in 1830 (the others being Ecuador and
Venezuela). A 40-year insurgent campaign to overthrow the Colombian
Government escalated during the 1990s, undergirded in part by funds
from the drug trade. Although the violence is deadly and large swaths
of the countryside are under guerrilla influence, the movement lacks
the military strength or popular support necessary to overthrow the
government. While Bogota continues to try to negotiate a settlement,
neighboring countries worry about the violence spilling over their
borders.

@Colombia:Geography

Location: Northern South America, bordering the Caribbean Sea, between
Panama and Venezuela, and bordering the North Pacific Ocean, between
Ecuador and Panama

Geographic coordinates: 4 00 N, 72 00 W

Map references: South America, Central America and the Caribbean

Area:
total: 1,138,910 sq km
land: 1,038,700 sq km
water: 100,210 sq km
note: includes Isla de Malpelo, Roncador Cay, Serrana Bank, and
Serranilla Bank

Area - comparative: slightly less than three times the size of Montana

Land boundaries:
total: 6,004 km
border countries: Brazil 1,643 km, Ecuador 590 km, Panama 225 km, Peru
1,496 km (est.), Venezuela 2,050 km

Coastline: 3,208 km (Caribbean Sea 1,760 km, North Pacific Ocean 1,448
km)

Maritime claims:
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical along coast and eastern plains; cooler in highlands

Terrain: flat coastal lowlands, central highlands, high Andes
Mountains, eastern lowland plains

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
highest point: Nevado del Huila 5,750 m

Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, coal, iron ore, nickel,
gold, copper, emeralds, hydropower

Land use:
arable land: 4%
permanent crops: 1%
permanent pastures: 39%
forests and woodland: 48%
other: 8% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 5,300 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: highlands subject to volcanic eruptions; occasional
earthquakes; periodic droughts

Environment - current issues: deforestation; soil damage from overuse
of pesticides; air pollution, especially in Bogota, from vehicle
emissions

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change,
Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Life
Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship
Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Law of the
Sea, Marine Dumping

Geography - note: only South American country with coastlines on both
North Pacific Ocean and Caribbean Sea

@Colombia:People

Population: 39,685,655 (July 2000 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 32% (male 6,463,195; female 6,310,723)
15-64 years: 63% (male 12,206,095; female 12,854,682)
65 years and over: 5% (male 832,986; female 1,017,974) (2000 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.68% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 22.85 births/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 5.73 deaths/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.33 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.82 male(s)/female
total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2000 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 24.7 deaths/1,000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 70.28 years
male: 66.43 years
female: 74.27 years (2000 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.69 children born/woman (2000 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Colombian(s)
adjective: Colombian

Ethnic groups: mestizo 58%, white 20%, mulatto 14%, black 4%, mixed
black-Amerindian 3%, Amerindian 1%

Religions: Roman Catholic 90%

Languages: Spanish

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 91.3%
male: 91.2%
female: 91.4% (1995 est.)

@Colombia:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Colombia
conventional short form: Colombia
local long form: Republica de Colombia
local short form: Colombia

Data code: CO

Government type: republic; executive branch dominates government
structure

Capital: Bogota

Administrative divisions: 32 departments (departamentos, singular -
departamento) and 1 capital district* (distrito capital); Amazonas,
Antioquia, Arauca, Atlantico, Bolivar, Boyaca, Caldas, Caqueta,
Casanare, Cauca, Cesar, Choco, Cordoba, Cundinamarca, Guainia,
Guaviare, Huila, La Guajira, Magdalena, Meta, Narino, Norte de
Santander, Putumayo, Quindio, Risaralda, San Andres y Providencia,
Distrito Capital de Santa fe de Bogota*, Santander, Sucre, Tolima,
Valle del Cauca, Vaupes, Vichada

Independence: 20 July 1810 (from Spain)

National holiday: Independence Day, 20 July (1810)

Constitution: 5 July 1991

Legal system: based on Spanish law; a new criminal code modeled after
US procedures was enacted in 1992-93; judicial review of executive and
legislative acts; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with
reservations

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Andres PASTRANA (since 7 August 1998); Vice
President Gustavo BELL Lemus (since 7 August 1998); note - the
president is both the chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Andres PASTRANA (since 7 August 1998);
Vice President Gustavo BELL Lemus (since 7 August 1998); note - the
president is both the chief of state and head of government
cabinet: Cabinet
elections: president elected by popular vote for a four-year term;
election last held 31 May 1998 (next to be held NA May 2002); vice
president elected by popular vote for a four-year term in a new
procedure that replaces the traditional designation of vice presidents
by newly elected presidents; election last held 31 May 1998 (next to
be held NA May 2002)
election results: no candidate received more than 50% of the total
vote, therefore, a run-off election to select a president from the two
leading candidates was held 21 June 1998; Andres PASTRANA elected
president; percent of vote - 50.3%; Gustavo BELL elected vice
president; percent of vote - 50.3%

Legislative branch: Bicameral Congress or Congreso consists of the
Senate or Senado (102 seats; members are elected by popular vote to
serve four-year terms) and the House of Representatives or Camara de
Representantes (163 seats; members are elected by popular vote to
serve four-year terms)
elections: Senate - last held NA March 1998 (next to be held NA March
2002); House of Representatives - last held NA March 1998 (next to be
held NA March 2002)
election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - PL 50%, PSC 24%,
smaller parties (many aligned with conservatives) 26%; seats by party
- PL 58, PSC 28, smaller parties 16; House of Representatives -
percent of vote by party - PL 52%, PSC 17%, other 31%; seats by party
- PL 98, PSC 52, indigenous parties 2, others 11

Judicial branch: Supreme Court of Justice or Corte Suprema de
Justical, highest court of criminal law, judges are selected from the
nominees of the Higher Council of Justice for eight-year terms;
Council of State, highest court of administrative law, judges are
selected from the nominees of the Higher Council of Justice for
eight-year terms; Constitutional Court, guards integrity and supremacy
of the constitution, rules on constitutionality of laws, amendments to
the constitution, and international treaties

Political parties and leaders: Democratic Alliance-April 19 Movement
or AD/M-19 is a coalition of small leftist parties and dissident
liberals and conservatives [Carlos Franco ECHAVARRIA, Antonio NAVARRO
Wolff, Otty PATINO, Carlos Alonso LUCIO]; Liberal Party or PL [Jose
Fernando BAUTISTA]; New Democratic Force or NDF ; Patriotic
Union or UP is a legal political party formed by Revolutionary Armed
Forces of Colombia or FARC and Colombian Communist Party or PCC [Aida
ABELLA]; Social Conservative Party or PSC [Dr. Eugenio MERLANO de la
Ossa]

Political pressure groups and leaders: two largest insurgent groups
active in Colombia - National Liberation Army or ELN; and
Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia or FARC

International organization participation: BCIE, CAN, Caricom
(observer), CCC, CDB, ECLAC, FAO, G- 3, G-11, G-24, G-77, IADB, IAEA,
IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF,
IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LAES, LAIA,
NAM, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, PCA, RG, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO,
UNU, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Luis Alberto MORENO Mejia
chancery: 2118 Leroy Place NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone:  (202) 387-8338
FAX:  (202) 232-8643
consulate(s) general: Boston, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami,
New Orleans, New York, San Francisco, San Juan (Puerto Rico), and
Washington, DC
consulate(s): Atlanta

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Curtis Warren KAMMAN
embassy: Calle 22D-BIS, numbers 47-51, Apartado Aereo 3831
mailing address: APO AA 34038
telephone:  (1) 315-0811
FAX:  (1) 315-2197

Flag description: three horizontal bands of yellow (top,
double-width), blue, and red; similar to the flag of Ecuador, which is
longer and bears the Ecuadorian coat of arms superimposed in the
center

@Colombia:Economy

Economy - overview: Colombia is poised for moderate growth in the next
several years, marking an end to the severe 1999 recession when GDP
fell by about 5%. President PASTRANA's well-respected economic team is
taking steps to keep the recovery on track, such as lowering interest
rates and shoring up the financial system. In its loan agreement with
the IMF, the administration has pledged to take additional steps to
restore growth, reduce inflation, and improve the public sector's
fiscal health. Many challenges to sustainable growth remain, however.
Unemployment reached a record 20% in 1999 and may remain high,
contributing to the extreme inequality in income distribution.
Colombia's leading exports, oil and coffee, face an uncertain future:
new exploration is needed to offset a pending decline in oil
production, and the coffee harvest has dropped off because of aging
plantations and natural disasters. The lack of public security is a
key concern for investors, making progress in the government's peace
negotiations with insurgent groups an important driver of economic
performance. Colombia is looking for international financial
assistance to boost economic recovery and peace prospects.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $245.1 billion (1999 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: -5% (1999 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $6,200 (1999 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 19%
industry: 26%
services: 55% (1999 est.)

Population below poverty line: 17.7% (1992 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 1%
highest 10%: 46.9% (1995)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 9.2% (1999)

Labor force: 16.8 million (1997 est.)

Labor force - by occupation: services 46%, agriculture 30%, industry
24% (1990)

Unemployment rate: 20% (1999 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $22 billion
expenditures: $24 billion including capital expenditures of $NA (2000
est.)

Industries: textiles, food processing, oil, clothing and footwear,
beverages, chemicals, cement; gold, coal, emeralds

Industrial production growth rate: -7% (1999 est.)

Electricity - production: 45.02 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 30.11%
hydro: 69.25%
nuclear: 0%
other: 0.64% (1998)

Electricity - consumption: 41.963 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1998)

Electricity - imports: 94 million kWh (1998)

Agriculture - products: coffee, cut flowers, bananas, rice, tobacco,
corn, sugarcane, cocoa beans, oilseed, vegetables; forest products;
shrimp

Exports: $11.5 billion (f.o.b., 1999 est.)

Exports - commodities: petroleum, coffee, coal, gold, bananas, cut
flowers

Exports - partners: US 39%, EU 24%, Andean Community 15%, Japan 2%
(1998)

Imports: $10 billion (f.o.b., 1999 est.)

Imports - commodities: industrial equipment, transportation equipment,
consumer goods, chemicals, paper products, fuels, electricity

Imports - partners: US 35%, EU 20%, Andean Community 15%, Japan 7%
(1998)

Debt - external: $35 billion (1998 est.)

Economic aid - recipient: $40.7 million (1995)

Currency: 1 Colombian peso (Col$) = 100 centavos

Exchange rates: Colombian pesos (Col$) per US$1 - 1,925.63 (January
2000), 1,756.23 (1999), 1,426.04 (1998), 1,140.96 (1997), 1,036.69
(1996), 912.83 (1995)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Colombia:Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 5,433,565 (December 1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 1,800,229 (December 1998)

Telephone system: modern system in many respects
domestic: nationwide microwave radio relay system; domestic satellite
system with 41 earth stations; fiber-optic network linking 50 cities
international: satellite earth stations - 6 Intelsat, 1 Inmarsat; 3
fully digitalized international switching centers; 8 submarine cables

Radio broadcast stations: AM 454, FM 34, shortwave 27 (1999)

Radios: 21 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 60 (includes seven low-power stations)
(1997)

Televisions: 4.59 million (1997)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 13 (1999)

@Colombia:Transportation

Railways:
total: 3,380 km
standard gauge: 150 km 1.435-m gauge (connects Cerrejon coal mines to
maritime port at Bahia de Portete)
narrow gauge: 3,230 km 0.914-m gauge (1,830 km in use) (1995)

Highways:
total: 115,564 km
paved: 13,868 km
unpaved: 101,696 km (1997 est.)

Waterways: 18,140 km, navigable by river boats (April 1996)

Pipelines: crude oil 3,585 km; petroleum products 1,350 km; natural
gas 830 km; natural gas liquids 125 km

Ports and harbors: Bahia de Portete, Barranquilla, Buenaventura,
Cartagena, Leticia, Puerto Bolivar, San Andres, Santa Marta, Tumaco,
Turbo

Merchant marine:
total: 13 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 51,343 GRT/67,168 DWT
ships by type: bulk 4, cargo 5, container 1, multi-functional large
load carrier 1, petroleum tanker 2 (1999 est.)

Airports: 1,101 (1999 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 90
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 9
1,524 to 2,437 m: 37
914 to 1,523 m: 35
under 914 m: 7 (1999 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 1,011
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 62
914 to 1,523 m: 330
under 914 m: 618 (1999 est.)

@Colombia:Military

Military branches: Army (Ejercito Nacional), Navy (Armada Nacional,
includes Marines and Coast Guard), Air Force (Fuerza Aerea
Colombiana), National Police (Policia Nacional)

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 10,599,704 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males age 15-49: 7,093,676 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 370,356 (2000 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $3.4 billion (FY99)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 3.7% (FY99)

@Colombia:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: maritime boundary dispute with Venezuela in
the Gulf of Venezuela; territorial disputes with Nicaragua over
Archipelago de San Andres y Providencia and Quita Sueno Bank

Illicit drugs: illicit producer of coca, opium poppies, and cannabis;
world's leading coca cultivator (cultivation of coca in 1998 - 101,500
hectares, a 28% increase over 1997); cultivation of opium in 1998
remained steady at 6,600 hectares; potential production of opium in
1997 - 66 metric tons, a 5% increase over 1996; the world's largest
processor of coca derivatives into cocaine; supplier of cocaine to the
US and other international drug markets, and an important supplier of
heroin to the US market; active aerial eradication program

______________________________________________________________________



COMOROS

@Comoros:Introduction

Background: Unstable Comoros has endured 19 coups or attempted coups
since gaining independence from France in 1975. In 1997, the islands
of Anjouan and Moheli declared their independence from Comoros. A
subsequent attempt by the government to reestablish control over the
rebellious islands by force failed, and presently the Organization of
African Unity is brokering negotiations to effect a reconciliation.

@Comoros:Geography

Location: Southern Africa, group of islands in the Mozambique Channel,
about two-thirds of the way between northern Madagascar and northern
Mozambique

Geographic coordinates: 12 10 S, 44 15 E

Map references: Africa

Area:
total: 2,170 sq km
land: 2,170 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly more than 12 times the size of
Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 340 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical marine; rainy season (November to May)

Terrain: volcanic islands, interiors vary from steep mountains to low
hills

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point: Le Kartala 2,360 m

Natural resources: NEGL

Land use:
arable land: 35%
permanent crops: 10%
permanent pastures: 7%
forests and woodland: 18%
other: 30% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: cyclones possible during rainy season (December to
April); Le Kartala on Grand Comore is an active volcano

Environment - current issues: soil degradation and erosion results
from crop cultivation on slopes without proper terracing;
deforestation

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered
Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection,
Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note: important location at northern end of Mozambique
Channel

@Comoros:People

Population: 578,400 (July 2000 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 43% (male 123,891; female 123,241)
15-64 years: 54% (male 155,062; female 159,287)
65 years and over: 3% (male 8,072; female 8,847) (2000 est.)

Population growth rate: 3.05% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 40.05 births/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 9.59 deaths/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.91 male(s)/female
total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2000 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 86.33 deaths/1,000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 60.03 years
male: 57.85 years
female: 62.28 years (2000 est.)

Total fertility rate: 5.38 children born/woman (2000 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Comoran(s)
adjective: Comoran

Ethnic groups: Antalote, Cafre, Makoa, Oimatsaha, Sakalava

Religions: Sunni Muslim 98%, Roman Catholic 2%

Languages: Arabic (official), French (official), Comoran (a blend of
Swahili and Arabic)

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 57.3%
male: 64.2%
female: 50.4% (1995 est.)

@Comoros:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Federal Islamic Republic of the Comoros
conventional short form: Comoros
local long form: Republique Federale Islamique des Comores
local short form: Comores

Data code: CN

Government type: independent republic

Capital: Moroni

Administrative divisions: three islands; Grande Comore (Njazidja),
Anjouan (Nzwani), and Moheli (Mwali)
note: there are also four municipalities named Domoni, Fomboni,
Moroni, and Moutsamoudou

Independence: 6 July 1975 (from France)

National holiday: Independence Day, 6 July (1975)

Constitution: 20 October 1996

Legal system: French and Muslim law in a new consolidated code

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President AZALI Assoumani (since 6 May 1999); note -
the interim government of President Tajiddine Ben Said MASSOUNDE,
which had assumed power on 6 November 1998 upon the death of President
Mohamed TAKI Abdulkarim, was overthrown in a bloodless coup on 30
April 1999
head of government: Prime Minister Bianrifi TARMIDI (since 2 December
1999)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term;
election last held 6 and 16 March 1996 (next to be held NA); prime
minister appointed by the president
note: President AZALI claimed a one-year term at the time of the coup;
elections, in theory, should be held in the spring of 2000 but are
likely to be dependent on the island of Anjouan remaining part of the
federation
election results: results of the last presidential election before the
coup were: Mohamed TAKI Abdulkarim elected president; percent of vote
- 64.3%

Legislative branch: bicameral legislature consists of the Senate (15
seats: five from each island); members selected by regional councils
for six-year terms) and a Federal Assembly or Assemblee Federale (43
seats; members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms); note
- the Federal Assembly was dissolved following the coup of 30 April
1999
elections: Federal Assembly - last held 1 and 8 December 1996 (next to
be held NA)
election results: Federal Assembly - percent of vote by party - NA;
seats by party - RND 39, FNJ 3, independent 1
note: the constitution stipulates that only parties that win six seats
in the Federal Assembly (two from each island) are permitted to be in
opposition, but if no party accomplishes that, the second most
successful party will be in opposition; in the elections of December
1996 the FNJ appeared to qualify as opposition

Judicial branch: Supreme Court or Cour Supremes, two members appointed
by the president, two members elected by the Federal Assembly, one by
the Council of each island, and former presidents of the republic

Political parties and leaders: Front National pour la Justice or FNJ
(Islamic party in opposition) [Ahmed Abdallah MOHAMED, Ahmed
ABOUBACAR, Soidiki M'BAPANOZA]; Rassemblement National pour le
Development or RND (party of the government) 

International organization participation: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, AFESD, AL,
CCC, ECA, FAO, FZ, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS
(associate), ILO, IMF, InOC, Intelsat, IOC, ITU, NAM, OAU, OIC, OPCW,
UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WMO, WTrO (applicant)

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador-designate Ahmed DJABIR (ambassador to the
US and Canada and permanent representative to the UN)
chancery: (temporary) care of the Permanent Mission of the Federal and
Islamic Republic of the Comoros to the United Nations, 420 East 50th
Street, New York, NY 10022
telephone:  (212) 983-4712

Diplomatic representation from the US: the US does not have an embassy
in Comoros; the ambassador to Mauritius is accredited to Comoros

Flag description: green with a white crescent in the center of the
field, its points facing downward; there are four white five-pointed
stars placed in a line between the points of the crescent; the
crescent, stars, and color green are traditional symbols of Islam; the
four stars represent the four main islands of the archipelago - Mwali,
Njazidja, Nzwani, and Mayotte (a territorial collectivity of France,
but claimed by Comoros); the design, the most recent of several, is
described in the constitution approved by referendum on 7 June 1992

@Comoros:Economy

Economy - overview: One of the world's poorest countries, Comoros is
made up of three islands that have inadequate transportation links, a
young and rapidly increasing population, and few natural resources.
The low educational level of the labor force contributes to a
subsistence level of economic activity, high unemployment, and a heavy
dependence on foreign grants and technical assistance. Agriculture,
including fishing, hunting, and forestry, is the leading sector of the
economy. It contributes 40% to GDP, employs 80% of the labor force,
and provides most of the exports. The country is not self-sufficient
in food production; rice, the main staple, accounts for the bulk of
imports. The government is struggling to upgrade education and
technical training, to privatize commercial and industrial
enterprises, to improve health services, to diversify exports, to
promote tourism, and to reduce the high population growth rate.
Continued foreign support is essential if the goal of 4% annual GDP
growth is to be met.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $410 million (1998 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 0% (1998 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $725 (1998 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 40%
industry: 5%
services: 55% (1997 est.)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 4% (1998)

Labor force: 144,500 (1996 est.)

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 80%, government 3%

Unemployment rate: 20% (1996 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $48 million
expenditures: $53 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1997)

Industries: tourism, perfume distillation, textiles, furniture,
jewelry, construction materials, soft drinks

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - production: 15 million kWh (1998)

Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 86.67%
hydro: 13.33%
nuclear: 0%
other: 0% (1998)

Electricity - consumption: 14 million kWh (1998)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1998)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1998)

Agriculture - products: vanilla, cloves, perfume essences, copra,
coconuts, bananas, cassava (tapioca)

Exports: $9.3 million (f.o.b., 1998 est.)

Exports - commodities: vanilla, ylang-ylang, cloves, perfume oil,
copra

Exports - partners: France 43%, US 43%, Germany 7% (1997)

Imports: $49.5 million (f.o.b., 1998 est.)

Imports - commodities: rice and other foodstuffs, consumer goods;
petroleum products, cement, transport equipment

Imports - partners: France 59%, South Africa 15%, Kenya 6% (1997)

Debt - external: $197 million (1997 est.)

Economic aid - recipient: $28.1 million (1997)

Currency: 1 Comoran franc (CF) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: Comoran francs (CF) per US$1 - 485.44 (January 2000),
461.77 (1999), 442.46 (1998), 437.75 (1997), 383.66 (1996), 374.36
(1995)
note: prior to January 1999, the official rate was pegged to the
French franc at 75 CFs per French franc; since 1 January 1999, the CF
is pegged to the euro at a rate of 491.9677 Comoran francs per euro

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Comoros:Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 5,000 (1995)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 0 (1995)

Telephone system: sparse system of microwave radio relay and HF
radiotelephone communication stations
domestic: HF radiotelephone communications and microwave radio relay
international: HF radiotelephone communications to Madagascar and
Reunion

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 2, shortwave 1 (1998)

Radios: 90,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 0 (1998)

Televisions: 1,000 (1997)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 1 (1999)

@Comoros:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways:
total: 880 km
paved: 673 km
unpaved: 207 km (1996 est.)

Ports and harbors: Fomboni, Moroni, Moutsamoudou

Merchant marine: none (1999 est.)

Airports: 4 (1999 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 4
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 3 (1999 est.)

@Comoros:Military

Military branches: Comoran Security Force

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 136,914 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males age 15-49: 81,477 (2000 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $NA

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: NA%

@Comoros:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: claims French-administered Mayotte; the
islands of Anjouan (Nzwani) and Moheli (Mwali) have moved to secede
from Comoros

______________________________________________________________________



CONGO

______________________________________________________________________



CONGO

______________________________________________________________________



COOK ISLANDS

@Cook Islands:Introduction

Background: Named after Captain Cook, who sighted them in 1770, the
islands became a British protectorate in 1888. By 1900, administrative
control was transferred to New Zealand; in 1965 residents chose
self-government in free association with New Zealand. The emigration
of skilled workers to New Zealand and government deficits are
continuing problems.

@Cook Islands:Geography

Location: Oceania, group of islands in the South Pacific Ocean, about
one-half of the way from Hawaii to New Zealand

Geographic coordinates: 21 14 S, 159 46 W

Map references: Oceania

Area:
total: 240 sq km
land: 240 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: 1.3 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 120 km

Maritime claims:
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; moderated by trade winds

Terrain: low coral atolls in north; volcanic, hilly islands in south

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
highest point: Te Manga 652 m

Natural resources: NEGL

Land use:
arable land: 9%
permanent crops: 13%
permanent pastures: 0%
forests and woodland: 0%
other: 78% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: typhoons (November to March)

Environment - current issues: NA

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Law of the
Sea
signed, but not ratified: Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol

@Cook Islands:People

Population: 20,407 (July 2000 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: NA
15-64 years: NA
65 years and over: NA

Population growth rate: 1.6% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 22.18 births/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 5.2 deaths/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.99 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 24.7 deaths/1,000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 71.14 years
male: 69.2 years
female: 73.1 years (2000 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.14 children born/woman (2000 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Cook Islander(s)
adjective: Cook Islander

Ethnic groups: Polynesian (full blood) 81.3%, Polynesian and European
7.7%, Polynesian and non-European 7.7%, European 2.4%, other 0.9%

Religions: Christian (majority of populace are members of the Cook
Islands Christian Church)

Languages: English (official), Maori

Literacy:
definition: NA
total population: NA%
male: NA%
female: NA%

@Cook Islands:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Cook Islands

Data code: CW

Dependency status: self-governing in free association with New
Zealand; Cook Islands is fully responsible for internal affairs; New
Zealand retains responsibility for external affairs, in consultation
with the Cook Islands

Government type: self-governing parliamentary democracy

Capital: Avarua

Administrative divisions: none

Independence: none (became self-governing in free association with New
Zealand on 4 August 1965 and has the right at any time to move to full
independence by unilateral action)

National holiday: Constitution Day, 4 August (1965)

Constitution: 4 August 1965

Legal system: based on New Zealand law and English common law

Suffrage: NA years of age; universal adult

Executive branch:
chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952),
represented by Apenera SHORT (since NA); New Zealand High Commissioner
Jon JONESSEN (since NA January 1998), representative of New Zealand
head of government: Prime Minister Dr. Terepai MAOATE (since 18
November 1999); Deputy Prime Minister Norman GEORGE (since NA)
cabinet: Cabinet chosen by the prime minister; collectively
responsible to Parliament
elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; the UK representative is
appointed by the monarch; the New Zealand high commissioner is
appointed by the New Zealand Government; following legislative
elections, the leader of the party that wins the most seats usually
becomes prime minister
note: ten years of rule by the Cook Islands Party (CIP) came to an end
18 November 1999 with the resignation of Prime Minister Joe WILLIAMS;
WILLIAMS had led a minority government since October 1999 when the New
Alliance Party (NAP) left the government coalition and joined the main
opposition Democratic Alliance Party (DAP); on 18 November 1999, DAP
leader Dr. Terepai MAOATE was sworn in as prime minister

Legislative branch: unicameral Parliament (25 seats; members elected
by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: last held NA June 1999 (next to be held by NA 2004)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - CIP
12, DAP 12, NAP 1
note: the House of Arikis (chiefs) advises on traditional matters, but
has no legislative powers

Judicial branch: High Court

Political parties and leaders: Cook Islands Party or CIP [Joe
WILLIAMS]; Democratic Alliance Party or DAP ; New
Alliance Party or NAP 

International organization participation: AsDB, ESCAP (associate),
FAO, ICAO, ICFTU, IFAD, Intelsat (nonsignatory user), IOC, OPCW,
Sparteca, SPC, SPF, UNESCO, WHO, WMO

Diplomatic representation in the US: none (self-governing in free
association with New Zealand)

Diplomatic representation from the US: none (self-governing in free
association with New Zealand)

Flag description: blue, with the flag of the UK in the upper
hoist-side quadrant and a large circle of 15 white five-pointed stars
(one for every island) centered in the outer half of the flag

@Cook Islands:Economy

Economy - overview: Like many other South Pacific island nations, the
Cook Islands' economic development is hindered by the isolation of the
country from foreign markets, lack of natural resources, periodic
devastation from natural disasters, and inadequate infrastructure.
Agriculture provides the economic base with major exports made up of
copra and citrus fruit. Manufacturing activities are limited to
fruit-processing, clothing, and handicrafts. Trade deficits are made
up for by remittances from emigrants and by foreign aid,
overwhelmingly from New Zealand. Efforts to exploit tourism potential,
encourage offshore banking, and expand the mining and fishing
industries have been partially successful in stimulating investment
and growth.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $112 million (1998 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: NA%

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $5,600 (1998 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 18%
industry: 9%
services: 73% (1995)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.6% (1994 est.)

Labor force: 6,601 (1993)

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 29%, industry 15%, services
56% (1995)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
revenues: $NA
expenditures: $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA

Industries: fruit processing, tourism

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - production: 15 million kWh (1998)

Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 100%
hydro: 0%
nuclear: 0%
other: 0% (1998)

Electricity - consumption: 14 million kWh (1998)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1998)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1998)

Agriculture - products: copra, citrus, pineapples, tomatoes, beans,
pawpaws, bananas, yams, taro, coffee

Exports: $4.2 million (f.o.b., 1994 est.)

Exports - commodities: copra, papayas, fresh and canned citrus fruit,
coffee; fish; pearls and pearl shells; clothing

Exports - partners: NZ 80%, Japan, Hong Kong (1993)

Imports: $85 million (c.i.f., 1994)

Imports - commodities: foodstuffs, textiles, fuels, timber, capital
goods

Imports - partners: NZ 49%, Italy, Australia (1993)

Debt - external: $141 million (1996 est.)

Economic aid - recipient: $13.1 million (1995); note - New Zealand
furnishes the greater part

Currency: 1 New Zealand dollar (NZ$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: New Zealand dollars (NZ$) per US$1 - 1.9451 (January
2000), 1.8886 (1999), 1.8632 (1998), 1.5083 (1997), 1.4543 (1996),
1.5235 (1995)

Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March

@Cook Islands:Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 4,180 (1994)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 0 (1994)

Telephone system:
domestic: the individual islands are connected by a combination of
satellite earth stations, microwave systems, and VHF and HF
radiotelephone; within the islands, service is provided by small
exchanges connected to subscribers by open wire, cable, and
fiber-optic cable
international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 2, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios: 14,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 2 (plus eight low-power repeaters)
(1997)

Televisions: 4,000 (1997)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 1 (1999)

@Cook Islands:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways:
total: 187 km
paved: 35 km
unpaved: 152 km (1980 est.)

Ports and harbors: Avarua, Avatiu

Merchant marine:
total: 1 ship (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 2,310 GRT/2,181 DWT
ships by type: cargo 1 (1999 est.)

Airports: 7 (1999 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (1999 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 6
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 3 (1999 est.)

@Cook Islands:Military

Military - note: defense is the responsibility of New Zealand, in
consultation with the Cook Islands and at its request

@Cook Islands:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

______________________________________________________________________



CORAL SEA ISLANDS

@Coral Sea Islands:Geography

Location: Oceania, islands in the Coral Sea, northeast of Australia

Geographic coordinates: 18 00 S, 152 00 E

Map references: Oceania

Area:
total: less than 3 sq km
land: less than 3 sq km
water: 0 sq km
note: includes numerous small islands and reefs scattered over a sea
area of about 1 million sq km, with the Willis Islets the most
important

Area - comparative: NA

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 3,095 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 3 nm

Climate: tropical

Terrain: sand and coral reefs and islands (or cays)

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
highest point: unnamed location on Cato Island 6 m

Natural resources: NEGL

Land use:
arable land: 0%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 0%
forests and woodland: 0%
other: 100% (mostly grass or scrub cover)

Irrigated land: 0 sq km (1993)

Natural hazards: occasional, tropical cyclones

Environment - current issues: no permanent fresh water resources

Geography - note: important nesting area for birds and turtles

@Coral Sea Islands:People

Population: no indigenous inhabitants
note: there is a staff of three to four at the meteorological station
(July 2000 est.)

@Coral Sea Islands:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Coral Sea Islands Territory
conventional short form: Coral Sea Islands

Data code: CR

Dependency status: territory of Australia; administered from Canberra
by the Department of the Environment, Sport and Territories

Legal system: the laws of Australia, where applicable, apply

Executive branch: administered from Canberra by the Department of the
Environment, Sport and Territories

Diplomatic representation in the US: none (territory of Australia)

Diplomatic representation from the US: none (territory of Australia)

Flag description: the flag of Australia is used

@Coral Sea Islands:Economy

Economy - overview: no economic activity

@Coral Sea Islands:Communications

Communications - note: there are automatic weather stations on many of
the isles and reefs relaying data to the mainland

@Coral Sea Islands:Transportation

Ports and harbors: none; offshore anchorage only

@Coral Sea Islands:Military

Military - note: defense is the responsibility of Australia; visited
regularly by the Royal Australian Navy; Australia has control over the
activities of visitors

@Coral Sea Islands:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

______________________________________________________________________



COSTA RICA

@Costa Rica:Introduction

Background: Costa Rica is a Central American success story: since the
late 19th century, only two brief periods of violence have marred its
democratic development. Although still a largely agricultural country,
it has achieved a relatively high standard of living. Land ownership
is widespread. Tourism is a rapidly expanding industry.

@Costa Rica:Geography

Location: Middle America, bordering both the Caribbean Sea and the
North Pacific Ocean, between Nicaragua and Panama

Geographic coordinates: 10 00 N, 84 00 W

Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

Area:
total: 51,100 sq km
land: 50,660 sq km
water: 440 sq km
note: includes Isla del Coco

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than West Virginia

Land boundaries:
total: 639 km
border countries: Nicaragua 309 km, Panama 330 km

Coastline: 1,290 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical and subtropical; dry season (December to April);
rainy season (May to November); cooler in highlands

Terrain: coastal plains separated by rugged mountains

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
highest point: Cerro Chirripo 3,810 m

Natural resources: hydropower

Land use:
arable land: 6%
permanent crops: 5%
permanent pastures: 46%
forests and woodland: 31%
other: 12% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 1,200 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: occasional earthquakes, hurricanes along Atlantic
coast; frequent flooding of lowlands at onset of rainy season; active
volcanoes

Environment - current issues: deforestation, largely a result of the
clearing of land for cattle ranching; soil erosion; water pollution
(rivers); fisheries protection; solid waste management

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered
Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea,
Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands,
Whaling
signed, but not ratified: Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Marine Life
Conservation

@Costa Rica:People

Population: 3,710,558 (July 2000 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 32% (male 609,051; female 581,302)
15-64 years: 63% (male 1,177,262; female 1,150,673)
65 years and over: 5% (male 89,541; female 102,729) (2000 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.69% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 20.69 births/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 4.31 deaths/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: 0.54 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.87 male(s)/female
total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (2000 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 11.49 deaths/1,000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 75.82 years
male: 73.3 years
female: 78.47 years (2000 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.52 children born/woman (2000 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Costa Rican(s)
adjective: Costa Rican

Ethnic groups: white (including mestizo) 94%, black 3%, Amerindian 1%,
Chinese 1%, other 1%

Religions: Roman Catholic 85%, Evangelical Protestant, approximately
14%, other less than 1%

Languages: Spanish (official), English spoken around Puerto Limon

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 94.8%
male: 94.7%
female: 95% (1995 est.)

@Costa Rica:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Costa Rica
conventional short form: Costa Rica
local long form: Republica de Costa Rica
local short form: Costa Rica

Data code: CS

Government type: democratic republic

Capital: San Jose

Administrative divisions: 7 provinces (provincias, singular -
provincia); Alajuela, Cartago, Guanacaste, Heredia, Limon, Puntarenas,
San Jose

Independence: 15 September 1821 (from Spain)

National holiday: Independence Day, 15 September (1821)

Constitution: 7 November 1949

Legal system: based on Spanish civil law system; judicial review of
legislative acts in the Supreme Court; has not accepted compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal and compulsory

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Miguel Angel RODRIGUEZ (since 8 May 1998);
First Vice President Astrid FISCHEL Volio (since 8 May 1998), Second
Vice President Elizabeth ODIO Benito (since 8 May 1998); note -
president is both the chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Miguel Angel RODRIGUEZ (since 8 May
1998); First Vice President Astrid FISCHEL Volio (since 8 May 1998),
Second Vice President Elizabeth ODIO Benito (since 8 May 1998); note -
president is both the chief of state and head of government
cabinet: Cabinet selected by the president
elections: president and vice presidents elected on the same ticket by
popular vote for four-year terms; election last held 1 February 1998
(next to be held 2 February 2002)
election results: Miguel Angel RODRIGUEZ elected president; percent of
vote - Miguel Angel RODRIGUEZ (PUSC) 46.6%, Jose Miguel CORRALES (PLN)
44.6%

Legislative branch: unicameral Legislative Assembly or Asamblea
Legislativa (57 seats; members are elected by direct popular vote to
serve four-year terms)
elections: last held 1 February 1998 (next to be held 2 February 2002)
election results: percent of vote by party - PUSC 41%, PLN 35%,
minority parties 24%; seats by party - PUSC 27, PLN 23, minority
parties 7

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Corte Suprema), justices are elected
for eight-year terms by the Legislative Assembly

Political parties and leaders: Agriculture Labor Action or PALA
; Costa Rican Renovation Party or PRC
; Democratic Force Party or PFD ;
Libertarian Movement Party or PML ; National Christian
Alliance Party or ANC ; National
Independent Party or PNI ; National Integration
Party or PIN ; National Liberation Party or PLN
; Social Christian Unity Party or PUSC [Luis Manuel
CHACON]
note: mainly a two-party system - PUSC and PLN; numerous small parties
share less than 25% of population's support

Political pressure groups and leaders: Authentic Confederation of
Democratic Workers or CATD (Communist Party affiliate); Chamber of
Coffee Growers; Confederated Union of Workers or CUT (Communist Party
affiliate); Costa Rican Confederation of Democratic Workers or CCTD
(Liberation Party affiliate); Federation of Public Service Workers or
FTSP; Free Costa Rica Movement or MCRL (rightwing militants); National
Association for Economic Development or ANFE; National Association of
Educators or ANDE

International organization participation: BCIE, CACM, ECLAC, FAO,
G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO,
IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LAES, LAIA
(observer), NAM (observer), OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO,
UNIDO, UNU, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Jaime DAREMBLUM
chancery: 2114 S Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone:  (202) 234-2945
FAX:  (202) 265-4795
consulate(s) general: Albuquerque, Atlanta, Chicago, Durham, Houston,
Los Angeles, Miami, New Orleans, New York, Philadelphia, San Antonio,
San Diego, San Francisco, San Juan (Puerto Rico), and Tampa
consulate(s): Austin

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Thomas J. DODD
embassy: Pavas Road, San Jose
mailing address: APO AA 34020
telephone:  220-3939
FAX:  220-2305

Flag description: five horizontal bands of blue (top), white, red
(double width), white, and blue, with the coat of arms in a white disk
on the hoist side of the red band

@Costa Rica:Economy

Economy - overview: Costa Rica's basically stable economy depends on
tourism, agriculture, and electronics exports. Poverty has been
substantially reduced over the past 15 years, and a strong social
safety net has been put into place. Economic growth has rebounded from
-0.9% in 1996 to 4% in 1997, 6% in 1998, and 7% in 1999. Inflation
rose to 22.5% in 1995, dropped to 11.1% in 1997, 12% in 1998, and 11%
in 1999. Large government deficits - fueled by interest payments on
the massive internal debt - have undermined efforts to maintain the
quality of social services. Curbing inflation, reducing the deficit,
and improving public sector efficiency remain key challenges to the
government. Political resistance to privatization has stalled
liberalization efforts.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $26 billion (1999 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 7% (1999 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $7,100 (1999 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 14%
industry: 22%
services: 64% (1998)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 1.3%
highest 10%: 34.7% (1996)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 10.8% (1999 est.)

Labor force: 1.377 million (1998)

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 20%, industry 22%, services
58% (1999 est.)

Unemployment rate: 5.6% (1998 est.); 7.5% underemployment

Budget:
revenues: $1.93 billion
expenditures: $2.27 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1999 est.)

Industries: microprocessors, food processing, textiles and clothing,
construction materials, fertilizer, plastic products

Industrial production growth rate: 24.5% (1999)

Electricity - production: 5.742 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 9.28%
hydro: 80.62%
nuclear: 0%
other: 10.1% (1998)

Electricity - consumption: 5.267 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - exports: 77 million kWh (1998)

Electricity - imports: 4 million kWh (1998)

Agriculture - products: coffee, bananas, sugar, corn, rice, beans,
potatoes; beef; timber

Exports: $6.4 billion (f.o.b., 1999 est.)

Exports - commodities: coffee, bananas, sugar; textiles, electronic
components, electricity

Exports - partners: US 49%, EU 22%, Central America 10% (1999)

Imports: $6.5 billion (c.i.f., 1999 est.)

Imports - commodities: raw materials, consumer goods, capital
equipment, petroleum, electricity

Imports - partners: US 41%, Japan 8.1%, Mexico 7.3%, Venezuela 4%
(1998)

Debt - external: $3.9 billion (1998 est.)

Economic aid - recipient: $107.1 million (1995)

Currency: 1 Costa Rican colon (C) = 100 centimos

Exchange rates: Costa Rican colones (C) per US$1 - 299.63 (February
2000), 285.68 (1999), 257.23 (1998), 232.60 (1997), 207.69 (1996),
179.73 (1995)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Costa Rica:Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 451,000 (525,700 main lines installed)
(yearend 1996)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 46,500 (December 1996)

Telephone system: very good domestic telephone service
domestic: point-to-point and point-to-multi-point microwave,
fiber-optic and coaxial cable link rural areas; Internet service is
available
international: connected to Central American Microwave System;
satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean); two submarine
cables (1999)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 50, FM 43, shortwave 19 (1998)

Radios: 980,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 6 (plus 11 repeaters) (1997)

Televisions: 525,000 (1997)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 2 (1999)

@Costa Rica:Transportation

Railways:
total: 950 km
narrow gauge: 950 km 1.067-m gauge (260 km electrified)

Highways:
total: 37,273 km
paved: 7,827 km
unpaved: 29,446 km (1998 est.)

Waterways: about 730 km, seasonally navigable

Pipelines: petroleum products 176 km

Ports and harbors: Caldera, Golfito, Moin, Puerto Limon, Puerto
Quepos, Puntarenas

Merchant marine: none (1999 est.)

Airports: 155 (1999 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 28
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 18
under 914 m: 7 (1999 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 127
914 to 1,523 m: 29
under 914 m: 98 (1999 est.)

@Costa Rica:Military

Military branches: Coast Guard, Air Section, Ministry of Public
Security Force (Fuerza Publica);

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 1,010,087 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males age 15-49: 676,691 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 38,043 (2000 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $55 million (FY95)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 2% (FY95)

@Costa Rica:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

Illicit drugs: transshipment country for cocaine and heroin from South
America; illicit production of cannabis on small, scattered plots;
domestic cocaine consumption has risen

______________________________________________________________________



COTE D

______________________________________________________________________



CROATIA

@Croatia:Introduction

Background: In 1918, the Croats, Serbs, and Slovenes formed a kingdom
known after 1929 as Yugoslavia. Following World War II, Yugoslavia
became an independent communist state under the strong hand of Marshal
TITO. Although Croatia declared its independence from Yugoslavia in
1991, it took four years of sporadic, but often bitter, fighting
before occupying Serb armies were mostly cleared from Croatian lands.
Under UN supervision the last Serb-held enclave in eastern Slavonia
was returned to Croatia in 1998.

@Croatia:Geography

Location: Southeastern Europe, bordering the Adriatic Sea, between
Bosnia and Herzegovina and Slovenia

Geographic coordinates: 45 10 N, 15 30 E

Map references: Europe

Area:
total: 56,538 sq km
land: 56,410 sq km
water: 128 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than West Virginia

Land boundaries:
total: 2,197 km
border countries: Bosnia and Herzegovina 932 km, Hungary 329 km,
Serbia and Montenegro 266 km (241 km with Serbia; 25 km with
Montenegro), Slovenia 670 km

Coastline: 5,790 km (mainland 1,778 km, islands 4,012 km)

Maritime claims:
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: Mediterranean and continental; continental climate
predominant with hot summers and cold winters; mild winters, dry
summers along coast

Terrain: geographically diverse; flat plains along Hungarian border,
low mountains and highlands near Adriatic coastline and islands

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Adriatic Sea 0 m
highest point: Dinara 1,830 m

Natural resources: oil, some coal, bauxite, low-grade iron ore,
calcium, natural asphalt, silica, mica, clays, salt, hydropower

Land use:
arable land: 21%
permanent crops: 2%
permanent pastures: 20%
forests and woodland: 38%
other: 19% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 30 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: frequent and destructive earthquakes

Environment - current issues: air pollution (from metallurgical
plants) and resulting acid rain is damaging the forests; coastal
pollution from industrial and domestic waste; widespread casualties
and destruction of infrastructure in border areas affected by civil
strife

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Biodiversity,
Climate Change, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping,
Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants,
Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification

Geography - note: controls most land routes from Western Europe to
Aegean Sea and Turkish Straits

@Croatia:People

Population: 4,282,216 (July 2000 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 18% (male 396,484; female 376,267)
15-64 years: 67% (male 1,445,101; female 1,420,159)
65 years and over: 15% (male 238,853; female 405,352) (2000 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.93% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 12.82 births/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 11.51 deaths/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: 7.98 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.59 male(s)/female
total population: 0.94 male(s)/female (2000 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 7.35 deaths/1,000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 73.67 years
male: 70.04 years
female: 77.51 years (2000 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.94 children born/woman (2000 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Croat(s)
adjective: Croatian

Ethnic groups: Croat 78.1%, Serb 12.2%, Muslim 0.9%, Hungarian 0.5%,
Slovenian 0.5%, Czech 0.4%, Albanian 0.3%, Montenegrin 0.3%, Roma
0.2%, others 6.6% (1991)

Religions: Roman Catholic 76.5%, Orthodox 11.1%, Muslim 1.2%,
Protestant 0.4%, others and unknown 10.8% (1991)

Languages: Croatian 96%, other 4% (including Italian, Hungarian,
Czech, Slovak, and German)

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 97%
male: 99%
female: 95% (1991 est.)

@Croatia:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Croatia
conventional short form: Croatia
local long form: Republika Hrvatska
local short form: Hrvatska

Data code: HR

Government type: presidential/parliamentary democracy

Capital: Zagreb

Administrative divisions: 20 counties (zupanije, zupanija - singular),
1 city (grad -singular)*: Bjelovarsko-Bilogorska Zupanija,
Brodsko-Posavska Zupanija, Dubrovacko-Neretvanska Zupanija, Istarska
Zupanija, Karlovacka Zupanija, Koprivnicko-Krizevacka Zupanija,
Krapinsko-Zagorska Zupanija, Licko-Senjska Zupanija, Medimurska
Zupanija, Osjecko-Baranjska Zupanija, Pozesko-Slavonska Zupanija,
Primorsko-Goranska Zupanija, Sibensko-Kninska Zupanija,
Sisacko-Moslavacka Zupanija, Splitsko-Dalmatinska Zupanija,
Varazdinska Zupanija, Viroviticko-Podravska Zupanija,
Vukovarsko-Srijemska Zupanija, Zadarska Zupanija, Zagreb*, Zagrebacka
Zupanija

Independence: 25 June 1991 (from Yugoslavia)

National holiday: Statehood Day, 30 May (1990)

Constitution: adopted on 22 December 1990

Legal system: based on civil law system

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal (16 years of age, if employed)

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Stjepan (Stipe) MESIC (since 18 February
2000)
head of government: Prime Minister Ivica RACAN (since 27 January
2000); Deputy Prime Ministers Goran GRANIC (since NA February 2000),
Zeljka ANTUNOVIC (since NA February 2000), Slavko LINIC (since NA
February 2000)
cabinet: Council of Ministers named by the prime minister and approved
by the president and the House of Representatives
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term;
election last held 7 February 2000 (next to be held NA 2005); prime
minister appointed by the president
election results: Stjepan MESIC elected president; percent of vote -
Stjepan MESIC (HNS) 56%, Drazen BUDISA (HSLS) 44%
note: government coalition - SDP, HSLS, HSS, LP, HNS, IDS

Legislative branch: bicameral Assembly or Sabor consists of the House
of Counties or Zupanijski Dom (68 seats - 63 directly elected by
popular vote, 5 appointed by the president; members serve four-year
terms) and House of Representatives or the Zastupnicki Dom (151 seats,
members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)
elections: House of Counties - last held 13 April 1997 (next to be
held NA 2001); House of Representatives - last held 2-3 January 2000
(next to be held NA 2004)
election results: House of Counties - percent of vote by party - NA;
seats by party - HDZ 42, HDZ/HSS 11, HSS 2, IDS 2, SDP/PGS/HNS 2,
SDP/HNS 2, HSLS/HSS/HNS 1, HSLS 1; note - in some districts certain
parties ran as coalitions, while in others they ran alone; House of
Representatives - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - HDZ
46, SDP 44, HSLS 24, HSS 17, HSP/HKDU 5, IDS 4, HNS 2, independents 4,
others 5

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, judges appointed for eight-year terms
by the Judicial Council of the Republic, which is elected by the House
of Representatives; Constitutional Court, judges appointed for
eight-year terms by the Judicial Council of the Republic, which is
elected by the House of Representatives

Political parties and leaders: Action of the Social Democrats of
Croatia or ASH ; Alliance of Croatian Coast and
Mountains Department or PGS ; Croatian Christian
Democratic Union or HKDU ; Croatian
Democratic Independents or HND ; Croatian
Democratic Union or HDZ ; Croatian
Party of Rights or HSP ; Croatian Party of Rights 1861 or
HSP 1861 ; Croatian Peasant Party or HSS [Zlatko
TOMCIC]; Croatian People's Party or HNS ;
Croatian Social Liberal Party or HSLS ;
Independent Democratic Serb Party or SDSS ;
Istrian Democratic Assembly or IDS ; Liberal Party or
LP ; Party of Democratic Action or SDA
; Primorje Gorski Kotar Alliance ; Serbian
National Party or SNS ; Slanvonsko-Baranja Croatian
Party or SBHS ; Social Democratic Party of Croatia or SDP

note: the Social Democratic Party or SDP and the Croatian Social
Liberal Party or HSLS formed a coalition as did the HSS, HNS, LP, and
IDS, which together defeated the Croatian Democratic Union or HDZ in
the 2000 lower house parliamentary election

Political pressure groups and leaders: NA

International organization participation: BIS, CCC, CE, CEI, EBRD,
ECE, FAO, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS,
IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU,
NAM (observer), OAS (observer), OPCW, OSCE, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO,
UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO (applicant)

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Miomir ZUZUL
chancery: 2343 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone:  (202) 588-5899
FAX:  (202) 588-8936
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Cleveland, Los Angeles, New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador William D. MONTGOMERY
embassy: Andrije Hebranga 2, Zagreb
mailing address: use street address
telephone:  (1) 455-55-00
FAX:  (1) 455-85-85

Flag description: red, white, and blue horizontal bands with Croatian
coat of arms (red and white checkered)

@Croatia:Economy

Economy - overview: Before the dissolution of Yugoslavia, the Republic
of Croatia, after Slovenia, was the most prosperous and industrialized
area, with a per capita output perhaps one-third above the Yugoslav
average. Croatia faces considerable economic problems stemming from:
the legacy of longtime communist mismanagement of the economy; damage
during the internecine fighting to bridges, factories, power lines,
buildings, and houses; the large refugee and displaced population,
both Croatian and Bosnian; and the disruption of economic ties.
Western aid and investment, especially in the tourist and oil
industries, would help restore the economy. The government has been
successful in some reform efforts - partially macroeconomic
stabilization policies - and it has normalized relations with its
creditors. Yet it still is struggling with privatization of large
state enterprises and with bank reform. The recession that began at
the end of 1998 continued through most of 1999, and GDP growth for the
year was flat. Inflation remained in check and the kuna was stable.
The death of President TUDJMAN in December 1999, and the defeat of his
ruling Coatian Democratic Union or HDZ party in parliamentary and
presidential elections in January 2000 has ushered in a new government
committed to economic reform but faced with the challenge of halting
the economic decline.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $23.9 billion (1999 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 0% (1999 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $5,100 (1999 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 10%
industry: 24%
services: 66% (1996 est.)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 4.4% (1999)

Labor force: 1.65 million (1999)

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture NA%, industry NA%, services
NA%

Unemployment rate: 20% (1999 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $6 billion
expenditures: $4.7 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1998)

Industries: chemicals and plastics, machine tools, fabricated metal,
electronics, pig iron and rolled steel products, aluminum, paper, wood
products, construction materials, textiles, shipbuilding, petroleum
and petroleum refining, food and beverages; tourism

Industrial production growth rate: -2% (1999 est.)

Electricity - production: 9.515 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 42.72%
hydro: 57.28%
nuclear: 0%
other: 0% (1998)

Electricity - consumption: 12.949 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - exports: 900 million kWh (1998)

Electricity - imports: 5 billion kWh (1998)

Agriculture - products: wheat, corn, sugar beets, sunflower seed,
alfalfa, clover, olives, citrus, grapes, vegetables; livestock, dairy
products

Exports: $4.5 billion (f.o.b., 1998)

Exports - commodities: textiles, chemicals, foodstuffs, fuels

Exports - partners: Italy 21%, Germany 18%, Bosnia and Herzegovina
15%, Slovenia 12% (1997)

Imports: $8.4 billion (c.i.f., 1998)

Imports - commodities: machinery, transport and electrical equipment,
chemicals, fuels and lubricants, foodstuffs

Imports - partners: Germany 20%, Italy 19%, Slovenia 8%, Austria 8%
(1997)

Debt - external: $8.1 billion (October 1999)

Economic aid - recipient: $NA

Currency: 1 Croatian kuna (HRK) = 100 lipas

Exchange rates: Croatian kuna per US$1 - 7.591 (January 2000), 7.112
(1999), 6.362 (1998), 6.157 (1997), 5.434 (1996), 5.230 (1995)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Croatia:Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 1.477 million (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 187,000 (yearend 1998)

Telephone system:
domestic: reconstruction plan calls for replacement of all analog
circuits with digital and enlarging the network; a backup will be
included in the plan for the main trunk
international: digital international service is provided through the
main switch in Zagreb; Croatia participates in the TEL project which
consists of two fiber-optic trunk connections with Slovenia and a
fiber-optic trunk line from Rijeka to Split and Dubrovnik; Croatia is
also investing in ADRIA 1, a joint fiber-optic project with Germany,
Albania, and Greece (2000)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 16, FM 98, shortwave 5 (1999)

Radios: 1.51 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 36 (plus 321 repeaters) (September
1995)

Televisions: 1.22 million (1997)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 4 (1999)

@Croatia:Transportation

Railways:
total: 2,296 km
standard gauge: 2,296 km 1.435-m gauge (983 km electrified)
note: some lines remain inoperative or not in use; disrupted by
territorial dispute (1997)

Highways:
total: 27,840 km
paved: 23,497 km (including 330 km of expressways)
unpaved: 4,343 km (1998 est.)

Waterways: 785 km perennially navigable; large sections of Sava
blocked by downed bridges, silt, and debris

Pipelines: crude oil 670 km; petroleum products 20 km; natural gas 310
km (1992); note - under repair following territorial dispute

Ports and harbors: Dubrovnik, Dugi Rat, Omisalj, Ploce, Pula, Rijeka,
Sibenik, Split, Vukovar (inland waterway port on Danube), Zadar

Merchant marine:
total: 65 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 818,887 GRT/1,232,803 DWT
ships by type: bulk 15, cargo 25, chemical tanker 1, combination bulk
5, container 5, liquified gas 1, multi-functional large load carrier
3, passenger 1, petroleum tanker 1, refrigerated cargo 1,
roll-on/roll-off 4, short-sea passenger 3 (1999 est.)

Airports: 67 (1999 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 22
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 6
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 4
under 914 m: 8 (1999 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 45
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 8
under 914 m: 36 (1999 est.)

Heliports: 1 (1999 est.)

@Croatia:Military

Military branches: Ground Forces, Naval Forces, Air and Air Defense
Forces, Frontier Guard, Home Guard

Military manpower - military age: 19 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 1,086,805 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males age 15-49: 860,023 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 30,022 (2000 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $950 million (FY99)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 5% (FY99)

@Croatia:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: Eastern Slavonia, which was held by ethnic
Serbs during the ethnic conflict between the Croats and the Serbs, was
returned to Croatian control by the UN Transitional Administration for
Eastern Slavonia on 15 January 1998; Croatia and Italy made progress
toward resolving a bilateral issue dating from World War II over
property and ethnic minority rights; significant progress has been
made with Slovenia toward resolving a maritime border dispute over
direct access to the sea in the Adriatic; Serbia and Montenegro is
disputing Croatia's claim to the Prevlaka Peninsula in southern
Croatia because it controls the entrance to Boka Kotorska in
Montenegro; Prevlaka is currently under observation by the UN Military
Observer Mission in Prevlaka (UNMOP)

Illicit drugs: transit point along the Balkan route for Southwest
Asian heroin to Western Europe; a minor transit point for maritime
shipments of South American cocaine bound for Western Europe

______________________________________________________________________



CUBA

@Cuba:Introduction

Background: Fidel CASTRO led a rebel army to victory in 1959; his iron
will has held the country together since. Cuba's communist revolution,
with Soviet support, was exported throughout Latin America and Africa
during the 1960s, 70s, and 80s. The country is now slowly recovering
from a severe economic recession following the withdrawal of former
Soviet subsidies, worth $4 billion to $6 billion annually, in 1990.
Havana blames its difficulties on the US embargo in place since 1962.

@Cuba:Geography

Location: Caribbean, island between the Caribbean Sea and the North
Atlantic Ocean, south of Florida

Geographic coordinates: 21 30 N, 80 00 W

Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

Area:
total: 110,860 sq km
land: 110,860 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Pennsylvania

Land boundaries:
total: 29 km
border countries: US Naval Base at Guantanamo Bay 29 km
note: Guantanamo Naval Base is leased by the US and thus remains part
of Cuba

Coastline: 3,735 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; moderated by trade winds; dry season (November to
April); rainy season (May to October)

Terrain: mostly flat to rolling plains, with rugged hills and
mountains in the southeast

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m
highest point: Pico Turquino 2,005 m

Natural resources: cobalt, nickel, iron ore, copper, manganese, salt,
timber, silica, petroleum, arable land

Land use:
arable land: 24%
permanent crops: 7%
permanent pastures: 27%
forests and woodland: 24%
other: 18% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 9,100 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: the east coast is subject to hurricanes from August
to October (in general, the country averages about one hurricane every
other year); droughts are common

Environment - current issues: pollution of Havana Bay; overhunting
threatens wildlife populations; deforestation

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change,
Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification,
Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer
Protection, Ship Pollution
signed, but not ratified: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Climate
Change-Kyoto Protocol, Marine Life Conservation

Geography - note: largest country in Caribbean

@Cuba:People

Population: 11,141,997 (July 2000 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 21% (male 1,221,602; female 1,157,846)
15-64 years: 69% (male 3,849,135; female 3,829,599)
65 years and over: 10% (male 503,711; female 580,104) (2000 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.39% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 12.68 births/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 7.31 deaths/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: -1.52 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.87 male(s)/female
total population: 1 male(s)/female (2000 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 7.51 deaths/1,000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 76.21 years
male: 73.84 years
female: 78.73 years (2000 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.6 children born/woman (2000 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Cuban(s)
adjective: Cuban

Ethnic groups: mulatto 51%, white 37%, black 11%, Chinese 1%

Religions: nominally 85% Roman Catholic prior to CASTRO assuming
power; Protestants, Jehovah's Witnesses, Jews, and Santeria are also
represented

Languages: Spanish

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 95.7%
male: 96.2%
female: 95.3% (1995 est.)

People - note: illicit migration is a continuing problem; Cubans
attempt to depart the island and enter the US using homemade rafts,
alien smugglers, or falsified visas; some 3,800 Cubans took to the
Florida Straits in 1999; the US Coast Guard interdicted about 40% of
these migrants

@Cuba:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Cuba
conventional short form: Cuba
local long form: Republica de Cuba
local short form: Cuba

Data code: CU

Government type: Communist state

Capital: Havana

Administrative divisions: 14 provinces (provincias, singular -
provincia) and 1 special municipality* (municipio especial); Camaguey,
Ciego de Avila, Cienfuegos, Ciudad de La Habana, Granma, Guantanamo,
Holguin, Isla de la Juventud*, La Habana, Las Tunas, Matanzas, Pinar
del Rio, Sancti Spiritus, Santiago de Cuba, Villa Clara

Independence: 20 May 1902 (from Spain 10 December 1898; administered
by the US from 1898 to 1902)

National holiday: Rebellion Day, 26 July (1953); Liberation Day, 1
January (1959)

Constitution: 24 February 1976, amended July 1992

Legal system: based on Spanish and American law, with large elements
of Communist legal theory; does not accept compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 16 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President of the Council of State and President of the
Council of Ministers Fidel CASTRO Ruz (prime minister from February
1959 until 24 February 1976, when office was abolished; president
since 2 December 1976); First Vice President of the Council of State
and First Vice President of the Council of Ministers Gen. Raul CASTRO
Ruz (since 2 December 1976); note - the president is both the chief of
state and head of government
head of government: President of the Council of State and President of
the Council of Ministers Fidel CASTRO Ruz (prime minister from
February 1959 until 24 February 1976 when office was abolished;
president since 2 December 1976); First Vice President of the Council
of State and First Vice President of the Council of Ministers Gen.
Raul CASTRO Ruz (since 2 December 1976); note - the president is both
the chief of state and head of government
cabinet: Council of Ministers proposed by the president of the Council
of State, appointed by the National Assembly
note: there is also a Council of State whose members are elected by
the National Assembly
elections: president and vice president elected by the National
Assembly; election last held 24 February 1998 (next election
unscheduled)
election results: Fidel CASTRO Ruz elected president; percent of
legislative vote - 100%; Raul CASTRO Ruz elected vice president;
percent of legislative vote - 100%

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly of People's Power or
Asemblea Nacional del Poder Popular (601 seats, elected directly from
slates approved by special candidacy commissions; members serve
five-year terms)
elections: last held 11 January 1998 (next to be held in 2003)
election results: percent of vote - PCC 94.39%; seats - PCC 601

Judicial branch: People's Supreme Court or Tribunal Supremo Popular;
president, vice president, and other judges are elected by the
National Assembly

Political parties and leaders: only party - Cuban Communist Party or
PCC 

International organization participation: CCC, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, IAEA,
ICAO, ICRM, IFAD, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat
(nonsignatory user), Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, LAES,
LAIA, NAM, OAS (excluded from formal participation since 1962), OPCW,
PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO,
WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US: none; note - Cuba has an
Interests Section in the Swiss Embassy, headed by Principal Officer
Fernando REMIREZ DE ESTENOZ; address: Cuban Interests Section, Swiss
Embassy, 2630 16th Street NW, Washington, DC 20009; telephone: 
(202) 797-8518

Diplomatic representation from the US: none; note - the US has an
Interests Section in the Swiss Embassy, headed by Principal Officer
Vicki HUDDLESTON; address: USINT, Swiss Embassy, Calzada between L and
M Streets, Vedado Seccion, Havana; telephone: 33-3551 through 3559 and
33-3543 through 3547 (operator assistance required); FAX: 33-3700;
protecting power in Cuba is Switzerland

Flag description: five equal horizontal bands of blue (top and bottom)
alternating with white; a red equilateral triangle based on the hoist
side bears a white, five-pointed star in the center

@Cuba:Economy

Economy - overview: The state under the durable dictatorship of Fidel
CASTRO plays the primary role in the domestic economy and controls
practically all foreign trade. The government has undertaken several
reforms in recent years to stem excess liquidity, increase labor
incentives, and alleviate serious shortages of food, consumer goods,
and services. The liberalized agricultural markets introduced in
October 1994, at which state and private farmers sell above-quota
production at unrestricted prices, have broadened legal consumption
alternatives and reduced black market prices. Government efforts to
lower subsidies to unprofitable enterprises and to shrink the money
supply caused the semi-official exchange rate for the Cuban peso to
move from a peak of 120 to the dollar in the summer of 1994 to 21 to
the dollar by yearend 1999. New taxes introduced in 1996 have helped
drive down the number of self-employed workers from 208,000 in January
1996. Havana announced in 1995 that GDP declined by 35% during
1989-93, the result of lost Soviet aid and domestic inefficiencies.
The drop in GDP apparently halted in 1994, when Cuba reported 0.7%
growth, followed by increases of 2.5% in 1995 and 7.8% in 1996. Growth
slowed again in 1997 and 1998 to 2.5% and 1.2% respectively. Growth
recovered again in 1999 with a 6.2% increase in GDP, due to the
continued growth of tourism. Central control is complicated by the
existence of the informal economy, much of which is denominated in
dollars. Living standards for the average (dollarless) Cuban remain at
a depressed level compared with 1990. The continuation of gradual
economic reforms and increase in tourism suggest growth of 4% to 5% in
2000.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $18.6 billion (1999 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 6.2% (1999 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $1,700 (1999 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 7.4%
industry: 36.5%
services: 56.1% (1997 est.)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 0.3% (1999 est.)

Labor force: 4.5 million economically active population
note: state sector 76%, non-state sector 24% (1996 est.)

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 23%, industry 24%, services
53%

Unemployment rate: 6% (December 1999 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $13.5 billion
expenditures: $14.3 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
(2000 est.)

Industries: sugar, petroleum, food, tobacco, textiles, chemicals,
paper and wood products, metals (particularly nickel), cement,
fertilizers, consumer goods, agricultural machinery

Industrial production growth rate: 6% (1995 est.)

Electricity - production: 15.274 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 89.52%
hydro: 0.65%
nuclear: 0%
other: 9.83% (1998)

Electricity - consumption: 14.205 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1998)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1998)

Agriculture - products: sugarcane, tobacco, citrus, coffee, rice,
potatoes, beans; livestock

Exports: $1.4 billion (f.o.b., 1999 est.)

Exports - commodities: sugar, nickel, tobacco, shellfish, medical
products, citrus, coffee

Exports - partners: Russia 25%, Netherlands 23%, Canada 16% (1999
est.)

Imports: $3.2 billion (c.i.f., 1999 est.)

Imports - commodities: petroleum, food, machinery, chemicals

Imports - partners: Spain 16%, Venezuela 15%, Mexico 7% (1999 est.)

Debt - external: $11.2 billion (convertible currency, 1998); another
$20 billion owed to Russia (1998)

Economic aid - recipient: $68.2 million (1997 est.)

Currency: 1 Cuban peso (Cu$) = 100 centavos

Exchange rates: Cuban pesos (Cu$) per US$1 - 1.0000 (nonconvertible,
official rate, linked to the US dollar)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Cuba:Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 353,000 (1995)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 1,939 (1995)

Telephone system:
domestic: principal trunk system, end to end of country, is coaxial
cable; fiber-optic distribution in Havana and on Isla de la Juventud;
2 microwave radio relay installations (one is old, US-built; the other
newer, Soviet-built); both analog and digital mobile cellular service
established
international: satellite earth station - 1 Intersputnik (Atlantic
Ocean region)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 169, FM 55, shortwave 1 (1998)

Radios: 3.9 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 58 (1997)

Televisions: 2.64 million (1997)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 1 (1999)

@Cuba:Transportation

Railways:
total: 4,807 km
standard gauge: 4,807 km 1.435-m gauge (147 km electrified)
note: a large amount of track is in private use by sugar plantations

Highways:
total: 60,858 km
paved: 29,820 km (including 638 km of expressway)
unpaved: 31,038 km (1997 est.)

Waterways: 240 km

Ports and harbors: Cienfuegos, Havana, Manzanillo, Mariel, Matanzas,
Nuevitas, Santiago de Cuba

Merchant marine:
total: 15 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 63,269 GRT/90,228 DWT
ships by type: bulk 1, cargo 7, liquified gas 1, petroleum tanker 1,
refrigerated cargo 5 (1999 est.)

Airports: 170 (1999 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 77
over 3,047 m: 7
2,438 to 3,047 m: 9
1,524 to 2,437 m: 15
914 to 1,523 m: 11
under 914 m: 35 (1999 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 93
914 to 1,523 m: 32
under 914 m: 61 (1999 est.)

@Cuba:Military

Military branches: Revolutionary Armed Forces (FAR) includes ground
forces, Revolutionary Navy (MGR), Air and Air Defense Force (DAAFAR),
Territorial Troops Militia (MTT), and Youth Labor Army (EJT); the
Border Guard (TGF) is controlled by the Interior Ministry

Military manpower - military age: 17 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 3,079,352
females age 15-49: 3,022,063 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males age 15-49: 1,906,172
females age 15-49: 1,865,369 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 80,771
females: 76,819 (2000 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $NA

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: roughly 4% (FY95 est.)

Military - note: Moscow, for decades the key military supporter and
supplier of Cuba, cut off almost all military aid by 1993

@Cuba:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: US Naval Base at Guantanamo Bay is leased to
US and only mutual agreement or US abandonment of the area can
terminate the lease

Illicit drugs: territorial waters and air space serve as transshipment
zone for cocaine bound for the US and Europe; established the death
penalty for certain drug-related crimes in 1999

______________________________________________________________________



CYPRUS

@Cyprus:Introduction

Background: Independence from the UK was approved in 1960 with
constitutional guarantees by the Greek Cypriot majority to the Turkish
Cypriot minority. In 1974 a Greek-sponsored attempt to seize the
government was met by military intervention from Turkey, which soon
controlled almost 40% of the island. In 1983 the Turkish-held area
declared itself the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus, but it is
recognized only by Turkey. Cyprus talks resumed in December 1999 to
prepare the ground for a comprehensive settlement.

@Cyprus:Geography

Location: Middle East, island in the Mediterranean Sea, south of
Turkey

Geographic coordinates: 35 00 N, 33 00 E

Map references: Middle East

Area:
total: 9,250 sq km (of which 3,355 sq km are in the Turkish Cypriot
area)
land: 9,240 sq km
water: 10 sq km

Area - comparative: about 0.6 times the size of Connecticut

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 648 km

Maritime claims:
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: temperate, Mediterranean with hot, dry summers and cool,
winters

Terrain: central plain with mountains to north and south; scattered
but significant plains along southern coast

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Mediterranean Sea 0 m
highest point: Olympus 1,951 m

Natural resources: copper, pyrites, asbestos, gypsum, timber, salt,
marble, clay earth pigment

Land use:
arable land: 12%
permanent crops: 5%
permanent pastures: 0%
forests and woodland: 13%
other: 70% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 390 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: moderate earthquake activity

Environment - current issues: water resource problems (no natural
reservoir catchments, seasonal disparity in rainfall, sea water
intrusion to island's largest aquifer, increased salination in the
north); water pollution from sewage and industrial wastes; coastal
degradation; loss of wildlife habitats from urbanization

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate
Change-Kyoto Protocol, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification,
Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban,
Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants

@Cyprus:People

Population: 758,363 (July 2000 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 23% (male 91,075; female 86,832)
15-64 years: 66% (male 252,252; female 247,464)
65 years and over: 11% (male 35,149; female 45,591) (2000 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.6% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 13.27 births/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 7.68 deaths/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: 0.44 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.77 male(s)/female
total population: 1 male(s)/female (2000 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 8.07 deaths/1,000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 76.71 years
male: 74.43 years
female: 79.1 years (2000 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.95 children born/woman (2000 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Cypriot(s)
adjective: Cypriot

Ethnic groups: Greek 78% (99.5% of the Greeks live in the Greek
Cypriot area; 0.5% of the Greeks live in the Turkish Cypriot area),
Turkish 18% (1.3% of the Turks live in the Greek Cypriot area; 98.7%
of the Turks live in the Turkish Cypriot area), other 4% (99.2% of the
other ethnic groups live in the Greek Cypriot area; 0.8% of the other
ethnic groups live in the Turkish Cypriot area)

Religions: Greek Orthodox 78%, Muslim 18%, Maronite, Armenian
Apostolic, and other 4%

Languages: Greek, Turkish, English

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 94%
male: 98%
female: 91% (1987 est.)

@Cyprus:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Cyprus
conventional short form: Cyprus
note: the Turkish Cypriot area refers to itself as the "Turkish
Republic of Northern Cyprus" (TRNC)

Data code: CY

Government type: republic
note: a disaggregation of the two ethnic communities inhabiting the
island began after the outbreak of communal strife in 1963; this
separation was further solidified following the Turkish intervention
in July 1974 following a Greek junta-based coup attempt, which gave
the Turkish Cypriots de facto control in the north; Greek Cypriots
control the only internationally recognized government; on 15 November
1983 Turkish Cypriot "President" Rauf DENKTASH declared independence
and the formation of a "Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus" (TRNC),
which has been recognized only by Turkey; both sides publicly call for
the resolution of intercommunal differences and creation of a new
federal system (Greek Cypriot position) or confederate system (Turkish
Cypriot position) of government

Capital: Nicosia
note: the Turkish Cypriot area's capital is Lefkosa (Nicosia)

Administrative divisions: 6 districts; Famagusta, Kyrenia, Larnaca,
Limassol, Nicosia, Paphos; note - Turkish Cypriot area's
administrative divisions include Kyrenia, all but a small part of
Famagusta, and small parts of Lefkosa (Nicosia) and Larnaca

Independence: 16 August 1960 (from UK)
note: Turkish Cypriot area proclaimed self-rule on 13 February 1975
from Republic of Cyprus

National holiday: Independence Day, 1 October; note - Turkish Cypriot
area celebrates 15 November as Independence Day

Constitution: 16 August 1960; negotiations to create the basis for a
new or revised constitution to govern the island and to better
relations between Greek and Turkish Cypriots have been held
intermittently; in 1975 Turkish Cypriots created their own
constitution and governing bodies within the "Turkish Federated State
of Cyprus," which was renamed the "Turkish Republic of Northern
Cyprus" in 1983; a new constitution for the Turkish Cypriot area
passed by referendum on 5 May 1985

Legal system: based on common law, with civil law modifications

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Glafcos CLERIDES (since 28 February 1993);
note - the president is both the chief of state and head of
government; post of vice president is currently vacant; under the 1960
constitution, the post is reserved for a Turkish Cypriot
head of government: President Glafcos CLERIDES (since 28 February
1993); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of
government; post of vice president is currently vacant; under the 1960
constitution, the post is reserved for a Turkish Cypriot
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed jointly by the president and
vice president
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term;
election last held 15 February 1998 (next to be held NA February 2003)
election results: Glafcos CLERIDES reelected president; percent of
vote - Glafcos CLERIDES 50.8%, George IAKOVOU 49.2%
note: Rauf R. DENKTASH has been "president" of the Turkish Cypriot
area since 13 February 1975 ("president" elected by popular vote for a
five-year term); elections last held 15 and 22 April 1995 (next to be
held NA April 2000); results - Rauf R. DENKTASH reelected president;
pecent of vote - Rauf R. DENKTASH 62.5%, Dervis EROGLU 37.5%; Dervis
EROGLU has been "prime minister" of the Turkish Cypriot area since 16
August 1996; there is a Council of Ministers (cabinet) in the Turkish
Cypriot area

Legislative branch: unicameral - Greek Cypriot area: House of
Representatives or Vouli Antiprosopon (80 seats; 56 assigned to the
Greek Cypriots, 24 to Turkish Cypriots; note - only those assigned to
Greek Cypriots are filled; members are elected by popular vote to
serve five-year terms); Turkish Cypriot area: Assembly of the Republic
or Cumhuriyet Meclisi (50 seats; members are elected by popular vote
to serve five-year terms)
elections: Greek Cypriot area: last held 26 May 1996 (next to be held
May 2001); Turkish Cypriot area: last held 6 December 1998 (next to be
held December 2003)
election results: Greek Cypriot area: House of Representatives -
percent of vote by party - DISY 34.5%, AKEL (Communist) 33.0%, DIKO
16.4%, EDEK 8.1%, KED 3.7%, others 4.3%; seats by party - DISY 20,
AKEL (Communist) 19, DIKO 10, EDEK 5, KED 2; Turkish Cypriot area:
Assembly of the Republic - percent of vote by party - UBP 40.3%, DP
22.6%, TKP 15.4%, CTP 13.4%, UDP 4.6%, YBH 2.5%, BP 1.2%; seats by
party - UBP 24, DP 13, TKP 7, CTP 6

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, judges are appointed by the Supreme
Council of Judicature
note: there is also a Supreme Court in the Turkish Cypriot area

Political parties and leaders: Greek Cypriot area: Democratic Party or
DIKO ; Democratic Rally or DISY [Nikos
ANASTASIADHIS]; Ecologists ; New Horizons
; Restorative Party of the
Working People or AKEL (Communist Party) ;
United Democratic Union of Cyprus or EDEK ; United
Democrats Movement or EDI (formerly Free Democrats Movement or KED)
; Turkish Cypriot area: Communal Liberation Party or
TKP ; Democratic Party or DP ;
National Birth Party or UDP ; National Unity Party or UBP
; Our Party or BP ; Patriotic Unity
Movement or YBH ; Republican Turkish Party or CTP [Mehmet
ALI TALAT]

Political pressure groups and leaders: Confederation of Cypriot
Workers or SEK (pro-West); Confederation of Revolutionary Labor Unions
or Dev-Is; Federation of Turkish Cypriot Labor Unions or Turk-Sen;
Pan-Cyprian Labor Federation or PEO (Communist controlled)

International organization participation: C, CCC, CE, EBRD, ECE, EU
(applicant), FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC,
IFRCS (associate), IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol,
IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, NAM, OAS (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, UN, UNCTAD,
UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Erato KOZAKOU-MARCOULLIS
chancery: 2211 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone:  (202) 462-5772
FAX:  (202) 483-6710
consulate(s) general: New York
note: representative of the Turkish Cypriot area in the US is Ahmet
ERDENGIZ; office at 1667 K Street NW, Washington, DC; telephone 
(202) 887-6198

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Donald K. BANDLER
embassy: corner of Metochiou and Ploutarchou Streets, Engomi, Nicosia
mailing address: P. O. Box 4536, FPO AE 09836
telephone:  (2) 776400
FAX:  (2) 780944

Flag description: white with a copper-colored silhouette of the island
(the name Cyprus is derived from the Greek word for copper) above two
green crossed olive branches in the center of the flag; the branches
symbolize the hope for peace and reconciliation between the Greek and
Turkish communities
note: the Turkish Cypriot flag has a horizontal red stripe at the top
and bottom between which is a red crescent and red star on a white
field

@Cyprus:Economy

Economy - overview: Economic affairs are dominated by the division of
the country into the southern (Greek) area controlled by the Cyprus
Government and the northern Turkish Cypriot-administered area. The
Greek Cypriot economy is prosperous but highly susceptible to external
shocks. Erratic growth rates in the 1990s reflect the economy's
vulnerability to swings in tourist arrivals, caused by political
instability on the island and fluctuations in economic conditions in
Western Europe. Economic policy in the south is focused on meeting the
criteria for admission to the EU. As in the Turkish sector, water
shortage is a growing problem, and several desalination plants are
planned. The Turkish Cypriot economy has about one-fifth the
population and one-third the per capita GDP of the south. Because it
is recognized only by Turkey, it has had much difficulty arranging
foreign financing, and foreign firms have hesitated to invest there.
The economy remains heavily dependent on agriculture and government
service, which together employ about half of the work force. Moreover,
the small, vulnerable economy has suffered because the Turkish lira is
legal tender. To compensate for the economy's weakness, Turkey
provides direct and indirect aid to tourism, education, industry, etc.

GDP: Greek Cypriot area: purchasing power parity - $9 billion; Turkish
Cypriot area: purchasing power parity - $820 million (1998 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: Greek Cypriot area: 3.0%; Turkish Cypriot
area: 5.3% (1998 est.)

GDP - per capita: Greek Cypriot area: purchasing power parity -
$15,400; Turkish Cypriot area: purchasing power parity - $5,000 (1998
est.)

GDP - composition by sector: Greek Cypriot area: agriculture 6.3%,
industry 22.4%, services 71.3%; Turkish Cypriot area: agriculture
11.8%, industry 20.5%, services 67.7% (1998)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): Greek Cypriot area: 2.3% (1998
est.); Turkish Cypriot area: 66% (1998 est.)

Labor force: Greek Cypriot area: 289,400; Turkish Cypriot area: 80,200
(1998)

Labor force - by occupation: Greek Cypriot area: services 66.6%,
industry 23.2%, agriculture 10.2% (1998); Turkish Cypriot area:
services 55.4%, industry 21.6%, agriculture 23% (1997)

Unemployment rate: Greek Cypriot area: 3.3% (1998 est.); Turkish
Cypriot area: 6.4% (1997)

Budget:
revenues: Greek Cypriot area - $2.9 billion (1998); Turkish Cypriot
area - $171 million (1997 est.)
expenditures: Greek Cypriot area - $3.4 billion, including capital
expenditures of $345 million (1998); Turkish Cypriot area - $306
million, including capital expenditures of $56.8 million (1997 est.)

Industries: food, beverages, textiles, chemicals, metal products,
tourism, wood products

Industrial production growth rate: Greek Cypriot area: 2.4% (1998);
Turkish Cypriot area: 5.1% (1997)

Electricity - production: Greek Cypriot area: 2.675 billion kWh;
Turkish Cypriot area: NA kWh (1998)

Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 100%
hydro: 0%
nuclear: 0%
other: 0% (1998)

Electricity - consumption: Greek Cypriot area: 2.488 billion kWh;
Turkish Cypriot area: NA kWh (1998)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1998)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1998)

Agriculture - products: potatoes, citrus, vegetables, barley, grapes,
olives, vegetables

Exports: Greek Cypriot area: $1.1 billion (f.o.b., 1998 est.); Turkish
Cypriot area: $63.9 million (f.o.b., 1998)

Exports - commodities: Greek Cypriot area: citrus, potatoes, grapes,
wine, cement, clothing and shoes; Turkish Cypriot area: citrus,
potatoes, textiles (1998)

Exports - partners: Greek Cypriot area: UK 14.5%, Russia 14.5%, Greece
9.8%, Lebanon 5.5%, UAE 4.9%; Turkish Cypriot area: Turkey 47%, UK
26%, other EU 15% (1998)

Imports: Greek Cypriot area: $3.5 billion (f.o.b., 1998 est.); Turkish
Cypriot area: $374 million (f.o.b., 1997)

Imports - commodities: Greek Cypriot area: consumer goods, petroleum
and lubricants, food and feed grains, machinery (1998); Turkish
Cypriot area: food, minerals, chemicals, machinery (1997)

Imports - partners: Greek Cypriot area: US 12.5%, UK 11.3%, Italy
9.4%, Germany 8.5%, Greece 8.2% (1998); Turkish Cypriot area: Turkey
56.4%, UK 13.5%, other EU 12.2% (1997)

Debt - external: Greek Cypriot area: $1.27 billion; Turkish Cypriot
area: $NA (1998)

Economic aid - recipient: Greek Cypriot area - $17 million (1998);
Turkish Cypriot area - $700 million from Turkey in grants and loans
(1990-97) that are usually forgiven

Currency: Greek Cypriot area: 1 Cypriot pound = 100 cents; Turkish
Cypriot area: 1 Turkish lira (TL) = 100 kurus

Exchange rates: Cypriot pounds per US$1 - 0.5688 (January 2000),
0.5423 (1999), 0.5170 (1998), 0.5135 (1997), 0.4663 (1996), 0.4522
(1995); Turkish liras (TL) per US$1 - 545,584 (January 2000), 418,783
(1999), 260,724 (1998), 151,865 (1997), 81,405 (1996), 45,845.1 (1995)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Cyprus:Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: Greek Cypriot area: 405,000 (1998);
Turkish Cypriot area: 70,845 (1996)

Telephones - mobile cellular: Greek Cypriot area: 68,000 (1998);
Turkish Cypriot area: 70,000 (1999)

Telephone system: excellent in both the Greek Cypriot and Turkish
Cypriot areas
domestic: open wire, fiber-optic cable, and microwave radio relay
international: tropospheric scatter; 3 coaxial and 5 fiber-optic
submarine cables; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (1 Atlantic
Ocean and 2 Indian Ocean), 2 Eutelsat, 2 Intersputnik, and 1 Arabsat

Radio broadcast stations: Greek Cypriot area: AM 7, FM 60, shortwave 1
(1998); Turkish Cypriot area: AM 3, FM 11, shortwave 1 (1998)

Radios: Greek Cypriot area: 310,000 (1997); Turkish Cypriot area:
56,450 (1994)

Television broadcast stations: Greek Cypriot area: 4 plus 225
low-power repeaters; Turkish Cypriot area: 4 plus 5 repeaters
(September 1995)

Televisions: Greek Cypriot area: 248,000 (1997); Turkish Cypriot area:
52,300 (1994)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 5 (1999)

@Cyprus:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways:
total: Greek Cypriot area: 10,663 km (1998 est.); Turkish Cypriot
area: 2,350 km (1996 est.)
paved: Greek Cypriot area: 6,249 km (1998 est.); Turkish Cypriot area:
1,370 km (1996 est.)
unpaved: Greek Cypriot area: 4,414 km (1998 est.); Turkish Cypriot
area: 980 km (1996 est.)

Ports and harbors: Famagusta, Kyrenia, Larnaca, Limassol, Paphos,
Vasilikos

Merchant marine:
total: 1,414 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 23,497,776
GRT/37,331,506 DWT
ships by type: barge carrier 2, bulk 442, cargo 495, chemical tanker
22, combination bulk 40, combination ore/oil 8, container 144,
liquified gas 6, passenger 8, petroleum tanker 142, refrigerated cargo
41, roll-on/roll-off 45, short-sea passenger 13, specialized tanker 4,
vehicle carrier 2 (1999 est.)
note: a flag of convenience registry; includes ships from 37 countries
among which are Greece 611, Germany 129, Russia 49, Latvia 278,
Netherlands 20, Japan 28, Cuba 16, China 15, Hong Kong 13, and Poland
15 (1998 est.)

Airports: 15 (1999 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 12
2,438 to 3,047 m: 7
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 3
under 914 m: 1 (1999 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 1
under 914 m: 2 (1999 est.)

Heliports: 6 (1999 est.)

@Cyprus:Military

Military branches: Greek Cypriot area: Greek Cypriot National Guard
(GCNG; includes air and naval elements), Hellenic Forces Regiment on
Cyprus (ELDYK), Greek Cypriot Police; Turkish Cypriot area: Turkish
Cypriot Security Force (TCSF), Turkish mainland army units

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 196,317 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males age 15-49: 134,865 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 6,541 (2000 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $320 million (FY99)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 5% (FY99)

@Cyprus:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: 1974 hostilities divided the island into two
de facto autonomous areas, a Greek Cypriot area controlled by the
internationally recognized Cypriot Government (59% of the island's
land area) and a Turkish-Cypriot area (37% of the island), that are
separated by a UN buffer zone (4% of the island); there are two UK
sovereign base areas mostly within the Greek Cypriot portion of the
island

Illicit drugs: minor transit point for heroin and hashish via air
routes and container traffic to Europe, especially from Lebanon and
Turkey; some cocaine transits as well

______________________________________________________________________



CZECH REPUBLIC

@Czech Republic:Introduction

Background: After World War II, Czechoslovakia fell within the Soviet
sphere of influence. In 1968, an invasion by Warsaw Pact troops ended
the efforts of the country's leaders to liberalize party rule and
create "socialism with a human face." Anti-Soviet demonstrations the
following year ushered in a period of harsh repression. With the
collapse of Soviet authority in 1989, Czechoslovakia regained its
freedom through a peaceful "Velvet Revolution." On 1 January 1993, the
country underwent a "velvet divorce" into its two national components,
the Czech Republic and Slovakia. Now a member of NATO, the Czech
Republic has moved toward integration in world markets, a development
that poses both opportunities and risks.

@Czech Republic:Geography

Location: Central Europe, southeast of Germany

Geographic coordinates: 49 45 N, 15 30 E

Map references: Europe

Area:
total: 78,866 sq km
land: 77,276 sq km
water: 1,590 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than South Carolina

Land boundaries:
total: 1,881 km
border countries: Austria 362 km, Germany 646 km, Poland 658 km,
Slovakia 215 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: temperate; cool summers; cold, cloudy, humid winters

Terrain: Bohemia in the west consists of rolling plains, hills, and
plateaus surrounded by low mountains; Moravia in the east consists of
very hilly country

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Elbe River 115 m
highest point: Snezka 1,602 m

Natural resources: hard coal, soft coal, kaolin, clay, graphite,
timber

Land use:
arable land: 41%
permanent crops: 2%
permanent pastures: 11%
forests and woodland: 34%
other: 12% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 240 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: flooding

Environment - current issues: air and water pollution in areas of
northwest Bohemia and in northern Moravia around Ostrava present
health risks; acid rain damaging forests

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air
Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile
Organic Compounds, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change,
Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law
of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution,
Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants,
Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol

Geography - note: landlocked; strategically located astride some of
oldest and most significant land routes in Europe; Moravian Gate is a
traditional military corridor between the North European Plain and the
Danube in central Europe

@Czech Republic:People

Population: 10,272,179 (July 2000 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 16% (male 866,754; female 823,795)
15-64 years: 70% (male 3,579,454; female 3,577,919)
65 years and over: 14% (male 547,462; female 876,795) (2000 est.)

Population growth rate: -0.08% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 9.1 births/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 10.87 deaths/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: 0.95 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.62 male(s)/female
total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2000 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 5.63 deaths/1,000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 74.51 years
male: 71.01 years
female: 78.22 years (2000 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.18 children born/woman (2000 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Czech(s)
adjective: Czech

Ethnic groups: Czech 81.2%, Moravian 13.2%, Slovak 3.1%, Polish 0.6%,
German 0.5%, Silesian 0.4%, Roma 0.3%, Hungarian 0.2%, other 0.5%
(March 1991)

Religions: atheist 39.8%, Roman Catholic 39.2%, Protestant 4.6%,
Orthodox 3%, other 13.4%

Languages: Czech

Literacy:
definition: NA
total population: 99.9% (1999 est.)
male: NA%
female: NA%

@Czech Republic:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Czech Republic
conventional short form: Czech Republic
local long form: Ceska Republika
local short form: Ceska Republika

Data code: EZ

Government type: parliamentary democracy

Capital: Prague

Administrative divisions: 73 districts (okresi, singular - okres) and
4 municipalities* (mesta, singular - mesto); Benesov, Beroun, Blansko,
Breclav, Brno*, Brno-Venkov, Bruntal, Ceske Budejovice, Ceska Lipa,
Cesky Krumlov, Cheb, Chomutov, Chrudim, Decin, Domazlice,
Frydek-Mistek, Havlickuv Brod, Hodonin, Hradec Kralove, Jablonec nad
Nisou, Jesenik, Jicin, Jihlava, Jindrichuv Hradec, Karlovy Vary,
Karvina, Kladno, Klatovy, Kolin, Kromeriz, Kutna Hora, Liberec,
Litomerice, Louny, Melnik, Mlada Boleslav, Most, Nachod, Novy Jicin,
Nymburk, Olomouc, Opava, Ostrava*, Pardubice, Pelhrimov, Pisek,
Plzen*, Plzen-Jih, Plzen-Sever, Prachatice, Praha*, Praha-Vychod,
Praha Zapad, Prerov, Pribram, Prostejov, Rakovnik, Rokycany, Rychnov
nad Kneznou, Semily, Sokolov, Strakonice, Sumperk, Svitavy, Tabor,
Tachov, Teplice, Trebic, Trutnov, Uherske Hradiste, Usti nad Labem,
Usti nad Orlici, Vsetin, Vyskov, Zdar nad Sazavou, Zlin, Znojmo

Independence: 1 January 1993 (Czechoslovakia split into the Czech and
Slovak Republics)

National holiday: National Liberation Day, 8 May; Founding of the
Republic, 28 October

Constitution: ratified 16 December 1992; effective 1 January 1993

Legal system: civil law system based on Austro-Hungarian codes; has
not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction; legal code modified to bring
it in line with Organization on Security and Cooperation in Europe
(OSCE) obligations and to expunge Marxist-Leninist legal theory

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Vaclav HAVEL (since 2 February 1993)
head of government: Prime Minister Milos ZEMAN (since 17 July 1998);
Deputy Prime Ministers Vladimir SPIDLA (since 17 July 1998), Pavel
RYCHETSKY (since 17 July 1998), Pavel MERTLIK (since 17 July 1998),
Jan KAZAN (since 8 December 1999)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president on the recommendation of
the prime minister
elections: president elected by Parliament for a five-year term;
election last held 20 January 1998 (next to be held NA January 2003);
prime minister appointed by the president
election results: Vaclav HAVEL reelected president; Vaclav HAVEL
received 47 of 81 votes in the Senate and 99 out of 200 votes in the
Chamber of Deputies (second round of voting)

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament or Parlament consists of the
Senate or Senat (81 seats; members are elected by popular vote to
serve staggered two-, four-, and six-year terms) and the Chamber of
Deputies or Poslanecka Snemovna (200 seats; members are elected by
popular vote to serve four-year terms)
elections: Senate - last held 13-14 and 20-21 November 1998 (next to
be held NA November 2000 - to replace/reelect 20 senators serving
two-year terms); Chamber of Deputies - last held 19-20 June 1998 (next
to be held by NA June 2002)
election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by
party - CSSD 23, ODS 25, KDU-CSL 16, KCSM 4, ODA 7, US 4, DEU 1,
independent 1; Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party - NA;
seats by party - CSSD 74, ODS 63, KDU-CSL 20, US 19, KCSM 24

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, chairman and deputy chairmen are
appointed by the president for life; Constitutional Court, chairman
and deputy chairmen are appointed by the president for life

Political parties and leaders: Assembly for the Republic or SPR-RSC
; Christian Democratic Union-Czechoslovak
People's Party or KDU-CSL ; Civic Democratic
Alliance or ODA ; Civic Democratic Party or
ODS ; Communist Party of Bohemia and Moravia
or KSCM ; Czech Social Democrats or
CSSD ; Democratic Union or DEU [Ratibor
MAJZLIK, chairman]; Freedom Union or US [Karel KUEHUL, acting
chairman]; Quad Coalition  (includes KDU-CSL,
US, ODA, DEU)

Political pressure groups and leaders: "Thanks, Now Go"; Impulse 99;
Czech-Moravian Confederation of Trade Unions

International organization participation: Australia Group, BIS, CCC,
CE, CEI, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, EU (applicant), FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO,
ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA (observer), IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat,
Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS
(observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO,
UNMIK, UNMOP, UNMOT, UNOMIG, UPU, WEU (associate), WFTU, WHO, WIPO,
WMO, WToO, WTrO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Alexsandr VONDRA
chancery: 3900 Spring of Freedom Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone:  (202) 363-6315
FAX:  (202) 966-8540
consulate(s) general: Los Angeles and New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador John SHATTUCK
embassy: Trziste 15, 11801 Prague 1
mailing address: use embassy street address
telephone:  (2) 5753-0663
FAX:  (2) 5753-0583

Flag description: two equal horizontal bands of white (top) and red
with a blue isosceles triangle based on the hoist side (almost
identical to the flag of the former Czechoslovakia)

@Czech Republic:Economy

Economy - overview: Political and financial crises in 1997 shattered
the Czech Republic's image as one of the most stable and prosperous of
post-Communist states. Delays in enterprise restructuring and failure
to develop a well-functioning capital market played major roles in
Czech economic troubles, which culminated in a currency crisis in May.
The currency was forced out of its fluctuation band as investors
worried that the current account deficit, which reached nearly 8% of
GDP in 1996, would become unsustainable. After expending $3 billion in
vain to support the currency, the central bank let it float. The
growing current account imbalance reflected a surge in domestic demand
and poor export performance, as wage increases outpaced productivity.
The government was forced to introduce two austerity packages later in
the spring which cut government spending by 2.5% of GDP. Growth
dropped to 0.3% in 1997, -2.3% in 1998, and -0.5% in 1999. The basic
transition problem continues to be too much direct and indirect
government influence on the privatized economy. The government
established a restructuring agency in 1999 and launched a
revitalization program - to spur the sale of firms to foreign
companies. Key priorities include accelerating legislative convergence
with EU norms, restructuring enterprises, and privatizing banks and
utilities. The economy, fueled by increased export growth and
investment, is expected to recover in 2000.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $120.8 billion (1999 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: -0.5% (1999 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $11,700 (1999 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 5%
industry: 42%
services: 53% (1999 est.)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 4.6%
highest 10%: 23.5% (1993)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.5% (1999 est.)

Labor force: 5.203 million (1999 est.)

Labor force - by occupation: industry 32%, agriculture 5.6%,
construction 8.7%, transport and communications 6.9%, services 46.8%
(1997 est.)

Unemployment rate: 9% (1999 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $16.4 billion
expenditures: $17.3 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1999)

Industries: fuels, ferrous metallurgy, machinery and equipment, coal,
motor vehicles, glass, armaments

Industrial production growth rate: -4% (1999 est.)

Electricity - production: 61.466 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 75.54%
hydro: 2.55%
nuclear: 20.37%
other: 1.54% (1998)

Electricity - consumption: 54.733 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - exports: 10.8 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - imports: 8.37 billion kWh (1998)

Agriculture - products: grains, potatoes, sugar beets, hops, fruit;
pigs, cattle, poultry; forest products

Exports: $26.9 billion (f.o.b., 1999)

Exports - commodities: machinery and transport equipment 41%, other
manufactured goods 40%, chemicals 8%, raw materials and fuel 7% (1998)

Exports - partners: Germany 42%, Slovakia 8%, Austria 6%, Poland 6%,
France 4% (1999)

Imports: $29 billion (f.o.b., 1999)

Imports - commodities: machinery and transport equipment 39%, other
manufactured goods 21%, chemicals 12%, raw materials and fuels 10%,
food 5% (1998)

Imports - partners: Germany 34%, Slovakia 6%, Russia 6%, Austria 6%,
France 5% (1999)

Debt - external: $24.3 billion (1999 est.)

Economic aid - recipient: $351.6 million (1995)

Currency: 1 koruna (Kc) = 100 haleru

Exchange rates: koruny (Kcs) per US$1 - 35.630 (December 1999), 34.569
(1999), 32.281 (1998), 31.698 (1997), 27.145 (1996), 26.541 (1995)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Czech Republic:Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 3,741,492 (1998)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 965,476 (1998)

Telephone system:
domestic: 70% of exchanges now digital; existing copper subscriber
systems now being enhanced with Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line
(ADSL) equipment to accommodate Internet and other digital signals;
trunk systems include fiber-optic cable and microwave radio relay
international: satellite earth stations - 2 Intersputnik (Atlantic and
Indian Ocean regions), 1 Intelsat, 1 Eutelsat

Radio broadcast stations: AM 21, FM 199, shortwave 1 (1999)

Radios: 3,173,856 (December 1999)

Television broadcast stations: 102 (of which 35 are low power
stations), plus about 500 repeaters (1988)

Televisions: 3,428,817 (December 1999)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 35 (1999)

@Czech Republic:Transportation

Railways:
total: 9,435 km
standard gauge: 9,341 km 1.435-m standard gauge (2,946 km electrified
at three voltages; 1,868 km double track)
narrow gauge: 94 km 0.760-m narrow gauge (1998)

Highways:
total: 127,693 km
paved: 127,693 km (including 498 km of expressways)
unpaved: 0 km (1998 est.)

Waterways: 677 km; the Elbe (Labe) is the principal river

Pipelines: natural gas 53,000 km (1998)

Ports and harbors: Decin, Prague, Usti nad Labem

Airports: 114 (1999 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 43
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 10
1,524 to 2,437 m: 14
914 to 1,523 m: 1
under 914 m: 16 (1999 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 71
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 28
under 914 m: 42 (1999 est.)

Heliports: 1 (1999 est.)

@Czech Republic:Military

Military branches: Army, Air and Air Defense Forces, Civil Defense,
Railroad Units

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 2,669,505 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males age 15-49: 2,035,194 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 70,674 (2000 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $1.2 billion (FY99)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 1.9% (FY99)

@Czech Republic:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: Liechtenstein claims restitution for 1,600
sq km of land in the Czech Republic confiscated from its royal family
in 1918; the Czech Republic insists that restitution does not go back
before February 1948, when the communists seized power; individual
Sudeten German claims for restitution of property confiscated in
connection with their expulsion after World War II; agreement with
Slovakia signed 24 November 1998 resolves issues of redistribution of
former Czechoslovak federal land - approval by both parliaments is
expected in 2000

Illicit drugs: major transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin
and minor transit point for Latin American cocaine to Western Europe;
domestic consumption - especially of locally produced synthetic drugs
- on the rise

______________________________________________________________________



DENMARK

@Denmark:Introduction

Background: Once the seat of Viking raiders and later a major north
European power, Denmark has evolved into a modern, prosperous nation
that is participating in the political and economic integration of
Europe. So far, however, the country has opted out of some aspects of
the European Union's Maastricht Treaty, including the new joint
monetary system.

@Denmark:Geography

Location: Northern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea and the North Sea,
on a peninsula north of Germany

Geographic coordinates: 56 00 N, 10 00 E

Map references: Europe

Area:
total: 43,094 sq km
land: 42,394 sq km
water: 700 sq km
note: includes the island of Bornholm in the Baltic Sea and the rest
of metropolitan Denmark, but excludes the Faroe Islands and Greenland

Area - comparative: slightly less than twice the size of Massachusetts

Land boundaries:
total: 68 km
border countries: Germany 68 km

Coastline: 7,314 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 24 nm
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: temperate; humid and overcast; mild, windy winters and cool
summers

Terrain: low and flat to gently rolling plains

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Lammefjord -7 m
highest point: Ejer Bavnehoj 173 m

Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, fish, salt, limestone,
stone, gravel and sand

Land use:
arable land: 60%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 5%
forests and woodland: 10%
other: 25% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 4,350 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: flooding is a threat in some areas of the country
(e.g., parts of Jutland, along the southern coast of the island of
Lolland) that are protected from the sea by a system of dikes

Environment - current issues: air pollution, principally from vehicle
and power plant emissions; nitrogen and phosphorus pollution of the
North Sea; drinking and surface water becoming polluted from animal
wastes and pesticides

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air
Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile
Organic Compounds, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change,
Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification,
Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear
Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83,
Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants,
Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Law
of the Sea

Geography - note: controls Danish Straits (Skagerrak and Kattegat)
linking Baltic and North Seas; about one-quarter of the population
lives in Copenhagen

@Denmark:People

Population: 5,336,394 (July 2000 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 18% (male 505,820; female 479,815)
15-64 years: 67% (male 1,802,665; female 1,755,633)
65 years and over: 15% (male 330,055; female 462,406) (2000 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.31% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 12.16 births/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 11 deaths/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: 1.95 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.71 male(s)/female
total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2000 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 5.11 deaths/1,000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 76.54 years
male: 73.95 years
female: 79.27 years (2000 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.73 children born/woman (2000 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Dane(s)
adjective: Danish

Ethnic groups: Scandinavian, Inuit, Faroese, German

Religions: Evangelical Lutheran 97%, other Protestant and Roman
Catholic, other

Languages: Danish, Faroese, Greenlandic (an Inuit dialect), German
(small minority)
note: English is the predominant second language

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 100%
male: NA%
female: NA%

@Denmark:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Kingdom of Denmark
conventional short form: Denmark
local long form: Kongeriget Danmark
local short form: Danmark

Data code: DA

Government type: constitutional monarchy

Capital: Copenhagen

Administrative divisions: metropolitan Denmark - 14 counties (amter,
singular - amt) and 2 kommunes*; Arhus, Bornholm, Fredericksberg*,
Frederiksborg, Fyn, Kobenhavn, Kobenhavns*, Nordjylland, Ribe,
Ringkobing, Roskilde, Sonderjylland, Storstrom, Vejle, Vestsjalland,
Viborg
note: in addition there are 275 local kommunes not considered
first-order administrative units; see separate entries for the Faroe
Islands and Greenland, which are part of the Kingdom of Denmark and
are self-governing administrative divisions

Independence: first organized as a unified state in 10th century; in
1849 became a constitutional monarchy

National holiday: Birthday of the Queen, 16 April (1940)

Constitution: 1849 was the original constitution; there was a major
overhaul 5 June 1953, allowing for a unicameral legislature and a
female chief of state

Legal system: civil law system; judicial review of legislative acts;
accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: Queen MARGRETHE II (since 14 January 1972); Heir
Apparent Crown Prince FREDERIK, elder son of the monarch (born 26 May
1968)
head of government: Prime Minister Poul Nyrup RASMUSSEN (since 25
January 1993)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the monarch
elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; prime minister appointed
by the monarch

Legislative branch: unicameral Parliament or Folketing (179 seats;
members are elected by popular vote on the basis of proportional
representation to serve four-year terms)
elections: last held 11 March 1998 (next to be held NA 2002)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party -
progovernment parties: Social Democratic Party 65, Socialist People's
Party 13, Radical Liberal Party 7, Unity Party 5; opposition: Liberal
Party 43, Conservative Party 17, Danish People's Party 13, Center
Democratic Party 8, Christian People's Party 4, Progress Party 4

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, judges are appointed by the monarch
for life

Political parties and leaders: Center Democratic Party [Mimi
JAKOBSEN]; Christian People's Party ; Conservative Party
; Conservative People's Party ;
Danish People's Party ; Liberal Party [Anders Fogh
RASMUSSEN]; Progress Party ; Radical Liberal Party
; Social Democratic Party ;
Social Liberal Party ; Socialist People's Party
; Unity Party 

International organization participation: AfDB, AsDB, Australia Group,
BIS, CBSS, CCC, CE, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, EIB, ESA, EU, FAO, G- 9,
IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS,
IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU,
NATO, NC, NEA, NIB, NSG, OECD, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO,
UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNMIBH, UNMIK, UNMOGIP, UNMOP, UNMOT, UNOMIG,
UNTAET, UNTSO, UPU, WEU (observer), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Knud-Erik TYGESEN
chancery: 3200 Whitehaven Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone:  (202) 234-4300
FAX:  (202) 328-1470
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Los Angeles, and New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Edward E. ELSON
embassy: Dag Hammarskjolds Alle 24, 2100 Copenhagen
mailing address: PSC 73, APO AE 09716
telephone:  35 55 31 44
FAX:  35 43 02 23

Flag description: red with a white cross that extends to the edges of
the flag; the vertical part of the cross is shifted to the hoist side,
and that design element of the Dannebrog (Danish flag) was
subsequently adopted by the other Nordic countries of Finland,
Iceland, Norway, and Sweden

@Denmark:Economy

Economy - overview: This thoroughly modern market economy features
high-tech agriculture, up-to-date small-scale and corporate industry,
extensive government welfare measures, comfortable living standards,
and high dependence on foreign trade. Denmark is a net exporter of
food. The center-left coalition government is concentrating on
reducing the unemployment rate and the budget deficit as well as
following the previous government's policies of maintaining low
inflation and a current account surplus. The coalition also vows to
maintain a stable currency. The coalition has lowered marginal income
tax rates while maintaining overall tax revenues; boosted industrial
competitiveness through labor market and tax reforms; increased
research and development funds; and improved welfare services for the
neediest while cutting paperwork and delays. Denmark chose not to join
the 11 other EU members who launched the euro on 1 January 1999.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $127.7 billion (1999 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 1.3% (1999 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $23,800 (1999 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 4%
industry: 27%
services: 69% (1997)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 3.6%
highest 10%: 20.5% (1992)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.5% (1999 est.)

Labor force: 2.896 million

Labor force - by occupation: services 71%, industry 25%, agriculture
4% (1997 est.)

Unemployment rate: 5.7% (1999 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $59.7 billion
expenditures: $57.6 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1997 est.)

Industries: food processing, machinery and equipment, textiles and
clothing, chemical products, electronics, construction, furniture, and
other wood products, shipbuilding

Industrial production growth rate: 1.5% (1999 est.)

Electricity - production: 40.277 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 90.8%
hydro: 0.07%
nuclear: 0%
other: 9.13% (1998)

Electricity - consumption: 33.037 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - exports: 7.1 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - imports: 2.68 billion kWh (1998)

Agriculture - products: grain, potatoes, rape, sugar beets; beef,
dairy products; fish

Exports: $49.5 billion (f.o.b., 1999)

Exports - commodities: machinery and instruments, meat and meat
products, fuels, dairy products, ships, fish, chemicals

Exports - partners: EU 66.6% (Germany 21.4%, Sweden 11.2%, UK 9.2%,
France 5.3%, Netherlands 4.5%), Norway 6.0%, US 4.7% (1998)

Imports: $43.9 billion (f.o.b., 1999)

Imports - commodities: machinery and equipment, petroleum, chemicals,
grain and foodstuffs, textiles, paper

Imports - partners: EU 72.5% (Germany 22.5%, Sweden 12.9%, UK 7.9%,
France 5.9%), Norway 4.6%, US 4.1% (1998)

Debt - external: $44 billion (1996 est.)

Economic aid - donor: ODA, $1.6 billion (1997)

Currency: 1 Danish krone (DKr) = 100 oere

Exchange rates: Danish kroner (DKr) per US$1 - 7.336 (January 2000),
6.976 (1999), 6.701 (1998), 6.604 (1997), 5.799 (1996), 5.602 (1995)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Denmark:Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 3.203 million (1995)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 1.347 million (1999)

Telephone system: excellent telephone and telegraph services
domestic: buried and submarine cables and microwave radio relay form
trunk network, 4 cellular radio communications systems
international: 18 submarine fiber-optic cables linking Denmark with
Norway, Sweden, Russia, Poland, Germany, Netherlands, UK, Faroe
Islands, Iceland, and Canada; satellite earth stations - 6 Intelsat,
10 Eutelsat, 1 Orion, 1 Inmarsat (Blaavand-Atlantic-East); note - the
Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden) share
the Danish earth station and the Eik, Norway, station for world-wide
Inmarsat access

Radio broadcast stations: AM 2, FM 355, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios: 6.02 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 42 (plus 44 repeaters) (September 1995)

Televisions: 3.121 million (1997)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 12 (1999)

@Denmark:Transportation

Railways:
total: 2,859 km (508 km privately owned and operated)
standard gauge: 2,859 km 1.435-m gauge (600 km electrified; 760 km
double track) (1998)

Highways:
total: 71,437 km
paved: 71,437 km (including 843 km of expressways)
unpaved: 0 km (1998 est.)

Waterways: 417 km

Pipelines: crude oil 110 km; petroleum products 578 km; natural gas
700 km

Ports and harbors: Alborg, Arhus, Copenhagen, Esbjerg, Fredericia,
Grena, Koge, Odense, Struer

Merchant marine:
total: 336 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 5,190,227 GRT/6,815,128
DWT
ships by type: bulk 12, cargo 132, chemical tanker 22, container 70,
liquified gas 26, livestock carrier 6, petroleum tanker 24, rail car
carrier 1, refrigerated cargo 13, roll-on/roll-off 19, short-sea
passenger 8, specialized tanker 3 (1999 est.)
note: Denmark has created its own internal register, called the Danish
International Ship register (DIS); DIS ships do not have to meet
Danish manning regulations, and they amount to a flag of convenience
within the Danish register (1998 est.)

Airports: 118 (1999 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 28
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 7
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 13
under 914 m: 3 (1999 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 90
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 7
under 914 m: 82 (1999 est.)

@Denmark:Military

Military branches: Royal Danish Army, Royal Danish Navy, Royal Danish
Air Force, Home Guard

Military manpower - military age: 20 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 1,299,250 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males age 15-49: 1,113,378 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 30,471 (2000 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $2.822 billion (FY98)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 1.7% (FY98)

@Denmark:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: Rockall continental shelf dispute involving
Iceland, Ireland, and the UK (Ireland and the UK have signed a
boundary agreement in the Rockall area)

______________________________________________________________________



DJIBOUTI

@Djibouti:Introduction

Background: The French Territory of the Afars and the Issas became
Djibouti in 1977. A peace accord in 1994 ended a three-year uprising
by Afars rebels.

@Djibouti:Geography

Location: Eastern Africa, bordering the Gulf of Aden and the Red Sea,
between Eritrea and Somalia

Geographic coordinates: 11 30 N, 43 00 E

Map references: Africa

Area:
total: 22,000 sq km
land: 21,980 sq km
water: 20 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Massachusetts

Land boundaries:
total: 508 km
border countries: Eritrea 113 km, Ethiopia 337 km, Somalia 58 km

Coastline: 314 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: desert; torrid, dry

Terrain: coastal plain and plateau separated by central mountains

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Lac Assal -155 m
highest point: Moussa Ali 2,028 m

Natural resources: geothermal areas

Land use:
arable land: 0%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 9%
forests and woodland: 0%
other: 91% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: earthquakes; droughts; occasional cyclonic
disturbances from the Indian Ocean bring heavy rains and flash floods

Environment - current issues: inadequate supplies of potable water;
desertification

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered
Species, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note: strategic location near world's busiest shipping
lanes and close to Arabian oilfields; terminus of rail traffic into
Ethiopia; mostly wasteland

@Djibouti:People

Population: 451,442 (July 2000 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 43% (male 96,482; female 96,025)
15-64 years: 55% (male 130,264; female 116,270)
65 years and over: 2% (male 6,426; female 5,975) (2000 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.45% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 40.98 births/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 14.87 deaths/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: -11.63 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.12 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 1.08 male(s)/female
total population: 1.07 male(s)/female (2000 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 103.32 deaths/1,000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 50.82 years
male: 49.01 years
female: 52.68 years (2000 est.)

Total fertility rate: 5.8 children born/woman (2000 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Djiboutian(s)
adjective: Djiboutian

Ethnic groups: Somali 60%, Afar 35%, French, Arab, Ethiopian, and
Italian 5%

Religions: Muslim 94%, Christian 6%

Languages: French (official), Arabic (official), Somali, Afar

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 46.2%
male: 60.3%
female: 32.7% (1995 est.)

@Djibouti:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Djibouti
conventional short form: Djibouti
former: French Territory of the Afars and Issas, French Somaliland

Data code: DJ

Government type: republic

Capital: Djibouti

Administrative divisions: 5 districts (cercles, singular - cercle);
'Ali Sabih, Dikhil, Djibouti, Obock, Tadjoura

Independence: 27 June 1977 (from France)

National holiday: Independence Day, 27 June (1977)

Constitution: multiparty constitution approved by referendum 4
September 1992

Legal system: based on French civil law system, traditional practices,
and Islamic law

Suffrage: NA years of age; universal adult

Executive branch:
chief of state: President GUELLEH Ismail Omar (since NA 1999);
head of government: Prime Minister BARKAT Gourad Hamadou (since 30
September 1978)
cabinet: Council of Ministers responsible to the president
elections: president elected by popular vote for a six-year term;
election last held 9 April 1999 (next to be held NA 2005); prime
minister appointed by the president
election results: GUELLEH Ismail Omar elected president; percent of
vote - GUELLEH Ismail Omar 74.4%, IDRIS Moussa Ahmed 25.6%

Legislative branch: unicameral Chamber of Deputies or Chambre des
Deputes (65 seats; members elected by popular vote for five-year
terms)
elections: last held 19 December 1997 (next to be held NA 2002)
election results: percent of vote - NA; seats - RPP 65; note - RPP
(the ruling party) dominated the election

Judicial branch: Supreme Court or Cour Supreme

Political parties and leaders: Democratic National Party or PND [ADEN
Robleh Awaleh]; Democratic Renewal Party or PRD ;
People's Progress Assembly or RPP  - the
governing party

Political pressure groups and leaders: Front for the Restoration of
Unity and Democracy or FRUD and affiliates; Movement for Unity and
Democracy or MUD

International organization participation: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, AFESD, AL,
AMF, ECA, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC,
IFRCS, IGAD, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat (nonsignatory user), Interpol,
IOC, ITU, NAM, OAU, OIC, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU,
WHO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Olhaye Oudine ROBLE
chancery: Suite 515, 1156 15th Street NW, Washington, DC 20005
telephone:  (202) 331-0270
FAX:  (202) 331-0302

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Lange SCHERMERHORN
embassy: Plateau du Serpent, Boulevard Marechal Joffre, Djibouti
mailing address: B. P. 185, Djibouti
telephone:  35 39 95
FAX:  35 39 40

Flag description: two equal horizontal bands of light blue (top) and
light green with a white isosceles triangle based on the hoist side
bearing a red five-pointed star in the center

@Djibouti:Economy

Economy - overview: The economy is based on service activities
connected with the country's strategic location and status as a free
trade zone in northeast Africa. Two-thirds of the inhabitants live in
the capital city, the remainder being mostly nomadic herders. Scanty
rainfall limits crop production to fruits and vegetables, and most
food must be imported. Djibouti provides services as both a transit
port for the region and an international transshipment and refueling
center. It has few natural resources and little industry. The nation
is, therefore, heavily dependent on foreign assistance to help support
its balance of payments and to finance development projects. An
unemployment rate of 40% to 50% continues to be a major problem.
Inflation is not a concern, however, because of the fixed tie of the
franc to the US dollar. Per capita consumption dropped an estimated
35% over the last seven years because of recession, civil war, and a
high population growth rate (including immigrants and refugees). Also,
renewed fighting between Ethiopia and Eritrea has disturbed normal
external channels of commerce. Faced with a multitude of economic
difficulties, the government has fallen in arrears on long-term
external debt and has been struggling to meet the stipulations of
foreign aid donors.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $550 million (1999 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 2% (1999 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $1,200 (1999 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 3%
industry: 20%
services: 77% (1996 est.)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 0% (1999 est.)

Labor force: 282,000

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 75%, industry 11%, services
14% (1991 est.)

Unemployment rate: 40%-50% (1996 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $156 million
expenditures: $175 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1997 est.)

Industries: limited to a few small-scale enterprises, such as dairy
products and mineral-water bottling

Industrial production growth rate: 3% (1996 est.)

Electricity - production: 177 million kWh (1998)

Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 100%
hydro: 0%
nuclear: 0%
other: 0% (1998)

Electricity - consumption: 165 million kWh (1998)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1998)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1998)

Agriculture - products: fruits, vegetables; goats, sheep, camels

Exports: $260 million (f.o.b., 1999 est.)

Exports - commodities: reexports, hides and skins, coffee (in transit)

Exports - partners: Somalia 53%, Yemen 23%, Ethiopia 5%, (1998)

Imports: $440 million (f.o.b., 1999 est.)

Imports - commodities: foods, beverages, transport equipment,
chemicals, petroleum products

Imports - partners: France 13%, Ethiopia 12%, Italy 9%, Saudi Arabia
6%, UK 6% (1998)

Debt - external: $350 million (1999 est.)

Economic aid - recipient: $106.3 million (1995)

Currency: 1 Djiboutian franc (DF) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: Djiboutian francs (DF) per US$1 - 177.721 (fixed rate
since 1973)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Djibouti:Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 8,000 (1995)

Telephones - mobile cellular: NA

Telephone system: telephone facilities in the city of Djibouti are
adequate as are the microwave radio relay connections to outlying
areas of the country
domestic: microwave radio relay network
international: submarine cable to Jiddah, Suez, Sicily, Marseilles,
Colombo, and Singapore; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Indian
Ocean) and 1 Arabsat; Medarabtel regional microwave radio relay
telephone network

Radio broadcast stations: AM 2, FM 2, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios: 52,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 1 (plus 5 low-power repeaters) (1998)

Televisions: 28,000 (1997)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): NA

@Djibouti:Transportation

Railways:
total: 100 km (Djibouti segment of the Addis Ababa-Djibouti railroad)
narrow gauge: 100 km 1.000-m gauge
note: Djibouti and Ethiopia plan to revitalize the century-old
railroad that links their capitals by 2003

Highways:
total: 2,890 km
paved: 364 km
unpaved: 2,526 km (1996 est.)

Ports and harbors: Djibouti

Merchant marine:
total: 1 ship (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,369 GRT/3,030 DWT
ships by type: cargo 1 (1999 est.)

Airports: 12 (1999 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 2
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 (1999 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 10
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 5
under 914 m: 3 (1999 est.)

@Djibouti:Military

Military branches: Djibouti National Army (includes Navy and Air
Force)

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 106,287 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males age 15-49: 62,496 (2000 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $23 million (FY97)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 4.5% (FY97)

@Djibouti:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

______________________________________________________________________



DOMINICA

@Dominica:Introduction

Background: Dominica was the last of the Caribbean islands to be
colonized by Europeans, due chiefly to the fierce resistance of the
native Caribs. France ceded possession to Great Britain in 1763, which
made the island a colony in 1805. In 1980, two years after
independence, Dominica's fortunes improved when a corrupt and
tyrannical administration was replaced by that of Mary Eugenia
CHARLES, the first female prime minister in the Caribbean, who
remained in office for 15 years.

@Dominica:Geography

Location: Caribbean, island between the Caribbean Sea and the North
Atlantic Ocean, about one-half of the way from Puerto Rico to Trinidad
and Tobago

Geographic coordinates: 15 25 N, 61 20 W

Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

Area:
total: 754 sq km
land: 754 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly more than four times the size of
Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 148 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; moderated by northeast trade winds; heavy rainfall

Terrain: rugged mountains of volcanic origin

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m
highest point: Morne Diablatins 1,447 m

Natural resources: timber, hydropower, arable land

Land use:
arable land: 9%
permanent crops: 13%
permanent pastures: 3%
forests and woodland: 67%
other: 8% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: flash floods are a constant threat; destructive
hurricanes can be expected during the late summer months

Environment - current issues: NA

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered
Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea,
Ozone Layer Protection, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

@Dominica:People

Population: 71,540 (July 2000 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 29% (male 10,556; female 10,254)
15-64 years: 63% (male 23,151; female 21,984)
65 years and over: 8% (male 2,294; female 3,301) (2000 est.)

Population growth rate: -1.14% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 18.27 births/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 7.3 deaths/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: -22.39 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.69 male(s)/female
total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2000 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 17.13 deaths/1,000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 73.35 years
male: 70.5 years
female: 76.36 years (2000 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.05 children born/woman (2000 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Dominican(s)
adjective: Dominican

Ethnic groups: black, Carib Amerindian

Religions: Roman Catholic 77%, Protestant 15% (Methodist 5%,
Pentecostal 3%, Seventh-Day Adventist 3%, Baptist 2%, other 2%), none
2%, other 6%

Languages: English (official), French patois

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over has ever attended school
total population: 94%
male: 94%
female: 94% (1970 est.)

@Dominica:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Commonwealth of Dominica
conventional short form: Dominica

Data code: DO

Government type: parliamentary democracy; republic within the
Commonwealth

Capital: Roseau

Administrative divisions: 10 parishes; Saint Andrew, Saint David,
Saint George, Saint John, Saint Joseph, Saint Luke, Saint Mark, Saint
Patrick, Saint Paul, Saint Peter

Independence: 3 November 1978 (from UK)

National holiday: Independence Day, 3 November (1978)

Constitution: 3 November 1978

Legal system: based on English common law

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Vernon Lorden SHAW (since 7 October 1998)
head of government: Prime Minister Roosevelt DOUGLAS (since 2 February
2000)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president on the advice of the prime
minister
elections: president elected by the House of Assembly for a five-year
term; election last held 7 October 1998 (next to be held NA October
2003); prime minister appointed by the president
election results: Vernon Lorden SHAW elected president; percent of
legislative vote - NA

Legislative branch: unicameral House of Assembly (30 seats, 9
appointed senators, 21 elected by popular vote representatives;
members serve five-year terms)
elections: last held 31 January 2000 (next to be held by NA 2005)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - LPD
10, UWP 9, DFP 2

Judicial branch: Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court (located in Saint
Lucia), one of the six judges must reside in Dominica and preside over
the Court of Summary Jurisdiction

Political parties and leaders: Dominica Freedom Party or DFP [Charles
SAVARIN]; Labor Party of Dominica or LPD ; United
Workers Party or UWP 

Political pressure groups and leaders: Dominica Liberation Movement or
DLM (a small leftist party)

International organization participation: ACCT, ACP, C, Caricom, CDB,
ECLAC, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF,
IMO, Interpol, IOC, ITU, NAM (observer), OAS, OECS, OPANAL, OPCW, UN,
UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Nicholas J. O. LIVERPOOL (resident in
Dominica)
chancery: 3216 New Mexico Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20016
telephone:  (202) 364-6781
FAX:  (202) 364-6791
consulate(s) general: New York

Diplomatic representation from the US: the US does not have an embassy
in Dominica; US interests are served by the embassy in Bridgetown,
Barbados

Flag description: green, with a centered cross of three equal bands -
the vertical part is yellow (hoist side), black, and white and the
horizontal part is yellow (top), black, and white; superimposed in the
center of the cross is a red disk bearing a sisserou parrot encircled
by 10 green, five-pointed stars edged in yellow; the 10 stars
represent the 10 administrative divisions (parishes)

@Dominica:Economy

Economy - overview: The economy depends on agriculture and is highly
vulnerable to climatic conditions, notably tropical storms.
Agriculture, primarily bananas, accounts for 21% of GDP and employs
40% of the labor force. Development of the tourist industry remains
difficult because of the rugged coastline, lack of beaches, and the
lack of an international airport. Hurricane Luis devastated the
country's banana crop in September 1995; tropical storms had wiped out
one-quarter of the crop in 1994 as well. The economy's recovery
continued in 1998, fueled by increases in construction, soap
production, and tourist arrivals. The government is attempting to
develop an offshore financial industry in order to diversify the
island's production base.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $225 million (1998 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 2% (1998 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $3,400 (1998 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 21%
industry: 16%
services: 63% (1999 est.)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1.1% (1998)

Labor force: 25,000

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 40%, industry and commerce
32%, services 28%

Unemployment rate: 20% (1999 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $72 million
expenditures: $79.9 million, including capital expenditures of $11.5
million (FY97/98)

Industries: soap, coconut oil, tourism, copra, furniture, cement
blocks, shoes

Industrial production growth rate: -10% (1997 est.)

Electricity - production: 40 million kWh (1998)

Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 50%
hydro: 50%
nuclear: 0%
other: 0% (1998)

Electricity - consumption: 37 million kWh (1998)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1998)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1998)

Agriculture - products: bananas, citrus, mangoes, root crops,
coconuts, cocoa; forest and fishery potential not exploited

Exports: $60.8 million (1998)

Exports - commodities: bananas 50%, soap, bay oil, vegetables,
grapefruit, oranges

Exports - partners: Caricom countries 47%, UK 36%, US 7% (1996 est.)

Imports: $120.4 million (1998)

Imports - commodities: manufactured goods, machinery and equipment,
food, chemicals

Imports - partners: US 41%, Caricom countries 25%, UK 13%,
Netherlands, Canada (1996 est.)

Debt - external: $90 million (1998 est.)

Economic aid - recipient: $24.4 million (1995)

Currency: 1 East Caribbean dollar (EC$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: East Caribbean dollars (EC$) per US$1 - 2.7000 (fixed
rate since 1976)

Fiscal year: 1 July - 30 June

@Dominica:Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 18,000 (1995)

Telephones - mobile cellular: NA

Telephone system:
domestic: fully automatic network
international: microwave radio relay and SHF radiotelephone links to
Martinique and Guadeloupe; VHF and UHF radiotelephone links to Saint
Lucia

Radio broadcast stations: AM 3, FM 10, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios: 46,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 0 (however, there is one cable
television company) (1997)

Televisions: 6,000 (1997)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): NA

@Dominica:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways:
total: 780 km
paved: 393 km
unpaved: 387 km (1996 est.)

Ports and harbors: Portsmouth, Roseau

Merchant marine: none (1999 est.)

Airports: 2 (1999 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 2 (1999 est.)

@Dominica:Military

Military branches: Commonwealth of Dominica Police Force (includes
Special Service Unit, Coast Guard)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $NA

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: NA%

@Dominica:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for narcotics bound for the US and
Europe; minor cannabis producer; banking industry is vulnerable to
money laundering

______________________________________________________________________



DOMINICAN REPUBLIC

@Dominican Republic:Introduction

Background: A legacy of unsettled, mostly non-representative, rule for
much of the 20th century was brought to an end in 1996 when free and
open elections ushered in a new government.

@Dominican Republic:Geography

Location: Caribbean, eastern two-thirds of the island of Hispaniola,
between the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, east of Haiti

Geographic coordinates: 19 00 N, 70 40 W

Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

Area:
total: 48,730 sq km
land: 48,380 sq km
water: 350 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly more than twice the size of New Hampshire

Land boundaries:
total: 275 km
border countries: Haiti 275 km

Coastline: 1,288 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 24 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 6 nm

Climate: tropical maritime; little seasonal temperature variation;
seasonal variation in rainfall

Terrain: rugged highlands and mountains with fertile valleys
interspersed

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Lago Enriquillo -46 m
highest point: Pico Duarte 3,175 m

Natural resources: nickel, bauxite, gold, silver

Land use:
arable land: 21%
permanent crops: 9%
permanent pastures: 43%
forests and woodland: 12%
other: 15% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 2,300 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: lies in the middle of the hurricane belt and subject
to severe storms from June to October; occasional flooding; periodic
droughts

Environment - current issues: water shortages; soil eroding into the
sea damages coral reefs; deforestation; Hurricane Georges damage

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered
Species, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban,
Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution
signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea

Geography - note: shares island of Hispaniola with Haiti (eastern
two-thirds is the Dominican Republic, western one-third is Haiti)

@Dominican Republic:People

Population: 8,442,533 (July 2000 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 34% (male 1,486,902; female 1,422,977)
15-64 years: 61% (male 2,609,934; female 2,518,330)
65 years and over: 5% (male 192,254; female 212,136) (2000 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.64% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 25.15 births/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 4.72 deaths/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: -4.04 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.91 male(s)/female
total population: 1.03 male(s)/female (2000 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 35.93 deaths/1,000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 73.2 years
male: 71.12 years
female: 75.38 years (2000 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3 children born/woman (2000 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Dominican(s)
adjective: Dominican

Ethnic groups: white 16%, black 11%, mixed 73%

Religions: Roman Catholic 95%

Languages: Spanish

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 82.1%
male: 82%
female: 82.2% (1995 est.)

@Dominican Republic:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Dominican Republic
conventional short form: none
local long form: Republica Dominicana
local short form: none

Data code: DR

Government type: representative democracy

Capital: Santo Domingo

Administrative divisions: 29 provinces (provincias, singular -
provincia) and 1 district* (distrito); Azua, Baoruco, Barahona,
Dajabon, Distrito Nacional*, Duarte, Elias Pina, El Seibo, Espaillat,
Hato Mayor, Independencia, La Altagracia, La Romana, La Vega, Maria
Trinidad Sanchez, Monsenor Nouel, Monte Cristi, Monte Plata,
Pedernales, Peravia, Puerto Plata, Salcedo, Samana, Sanchez Ramirez,
San Cristobal, San Juan, San Pedro de Macoris, Santiago, Santiago
Rodriguez, Valverde

Independence: 27 February 1844 (from Haiti)

National holiday: Independence Day, 27 February (1844)

Constitution: 28 November 1966

Legal system: based on French civil codes

Suffrage: 18 years of age, universal and compulsory; married persons
regardless of age
note: members of the armed forces and police cannot vote

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Leonel FERNANDEZ Reyna (since 16 August
1996); Vice President Jaime David FERNANDEZ Mirabal (since 16 August
1996); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of
government
head of government: President Leonel FERNANDEZ Reyna (since 16 August
1996); Vice President Jaime David FERNANDEZ Mirabal (since 16 August
1996); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of
government
cabinet: Cabinet nominated by the president
elections: president and vice president elected on the same ticket by
popular vote for four-year term; election last held 16 May 1996,
runoff election held 30 June 1996 (next to be held 16 May 2000)
election results: Leonel FERNANDEZ Reyna elected president; percent of
vote - Leonel FERNANDEZ Reyna (PLD) 51.25%, Jose Francisco PENA Gomez
(PRD) 48.75%

Legislative branch: bicameral National Congress or Congreso Nacional
consists of the Senate or Senado (30 seats; members are elected by
popular vote to serve four-year terms) and the Chamber of Deputies or
Camara de Diputados (149 seats; members are elected by popular vote to
serve four-year terms)
elections: Senate - last held 16 May 1998 (next to be held NA May
2002); Chamber of Deputies - last held 16 May 1998 (next to be held NA
May 2002)
election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by
party - PRD 24, PLD 3, PRSC 3; Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote
by party - NA; seats by party - PRD 83, PLD 49, PRSC 17

Judicial branch: Supreme Court or Corte Suprema, judges are elected by
a Council made up of legislative and executive members with the
president presiding

Political parties and leaders: Alliance for Democracy Party or APD
;
Anti-Imperialist Patriotic Union or UPA ;
Democratic Quisqueyan Party or PQD ; Democratic
Union or UD ; Dominican Communist Party or
PCD ; Dominican Liberation Party or PLD [Jose Tomas
PEREZ]; Dominican Revolutionary Party or PRD ;
Dominican Worker's Party or PTD ; Independent
Revolutionary Party or PRI ; Liberal Party of the Dominican
Republic or PLRD ; National Progressive Force or
FNP ; National Veterans and Civilian Party or PNVC
; Popular Christian Party or PPC [Rogelio
DELGADO Bogaert]; Social Christian Reformist Party or PRSC [Joaquin
BALAGUER Ricardo]
note: in 1983 several leftist parties, including the PCD, joined to
form the Dominican Leftist Front or FID; however, they still retain
individual party structures

Political pressure groups and leaders: Collective of Popular
Organizations or COP

International organization participation: ACP, Caricom (observer),
ECLAC, FAO, G-11, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA,
IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM,
ISO (subscriber), ITU, LAES, LAIA (observer), NAM (observer), OAS,
OPANAL, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO,
WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Roberto Bienvenido SALADIN Selin
chancery: 1715 22nd Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone:  (202) 332-6280
FAX:  (202) 265-8057
consulate(s) general: Boston, Chicago, Mayaguez (Puerto Rico), Miami,
New Orleans, New York, Philadelphia, San Francisco, and San Juan
(Puerto Rico)
consulate(s): Detroit, Houston, Jacksonville, Mobile, and Ponce
(Puerto Rico)

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Charles MANATT
embassy: corner of Calle Cesar Nicolas Penson and Calle Leopoldo
Navarro, Santo Domingo
mailing address: Unit 5500, APO AA 34041-5500
telephone:  (809) 221-2171
FAX:  (809) 686-7437

Flag description: a centered white cross that extends to the edges
divides the flag into four rectangles - the top ones are blue (hoist
side) and red, and the bottom ones are red (hoist side) and blue; a
small coat of arms is at the center of the cross

@Dominican Republic:Economy

Economy - overview: In December 1996, incoming President FERNANDEZ
presented a bold reform package for this Caribbean economy - including
the devaluation of the peso, income tax cuts, a 50% increase in sales
taxes, reduced import tariffs, and increased gasoline prices - in an
attempt to create a market-oriented economy that can compete
internationally. Even though most reforms are stalled in the
legislature - including the intellectual property rights bill, social
security reform, and a new electricity law first submitted in 1993 -
the economy has grown vigorously under FERNANDEZ's administration.
Construction, tourism and telecommunications are leading the advance.
The government is working to increase electric generating capacity, a
key to continued economic growth; the state electricity company was
finally privatized following numerous delays. The continuation of this
vigorous growth in 2000 will depend on the policies adopted by the new
administration.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $43.7 billion (1999 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 8.3% (1999 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $5,400 (1999 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 13.6%
industry: 30.8%
services: 55.6% (1998 est.)

Population below poverty line: 25% (1999 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 1.6%
highest 10%: 39.6% (1989)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 5.1% (1999)

Labor force: 2.3 million to 2.6 million

Labor force - by occupation: services and government 58.7%, industry
24.3%, agriculture 17% (1998 est.)

Unemployment rate: 13.8% (1999 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $2.3 billion
expenditures: $2.9 billion, including capital expenditures of $867
million (1999 est.)

Industries: tourism, sugar processing, ferronickel and gold mining,
textiles, cement, tobacco

Industrial production growth rate: 6.3% (1995 est.)

Electricity - production: 8.476 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 72.04%
hydro: 27.62%
nuclear: 0%
other: 0.34% (1998)

Electricity - consumption: 7.883 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1998)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1998)

Agriculture - products: sugarcane, coffee, cotton, cocoa, tobacco,
rice, beans, potatoes, corn, bananas; cattle, pigs, dairy products,
beef, eggs

Exports: $5.1 billion (f.o.b., 1999)

Exports - commodities: ferronickel, sugar, gold, silver, coffee,
cocoa, tobacco, meats

Exports - partners: US 61.6%, Belgium 11.1%, Asia 5.9%, Canada 2.9%
(1998 est.)

Imports: $8.2 billion (f.o.b., 1999)

Imports - commodities: foodstuffs, petroleum, cotton and fabrics,
chemicals and pharmaceuticals

Imports - partners: US 56%, Venezuela 23%, Mexico 9%, Japan 4% (1999
est.)

Debt - external: $3.7 billion (1999 est.)

Economic aid - recipient: $239.6 million (1995)

Currency: 1 Dominican peso (RD$) = 100 centavos

Exchange rates: Dominican pesos (RD$) per US$1 - 16.161 (January
2000), 16.033 (1999), 15.267 (1998), 14.265 (1997), 13.775 (1996),
13.597 (1995)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Dominican Republic:Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 569,000 (1995)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 33,000 (1995)

Telephone system:
domestic: relatively efficient system based on islandwide microwave
radio relay network
international: 1 coaxial submarine cable; satellite earth station - 1
Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 120, FM 56, shortwave 4 (1998)

Radios: 1.44 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 25 (1997)

Televisions: 770,000 (1997)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 1 (1999)

@Dominican Republic:Transportation

Railways:
total: 757 km
standard gauge: 375 km 1.435-m gauge (Central Romana Railroad)
narrow gauge: 142 km 0.762-m gauge (Dominican Republic Government
Railway); 240 km operated by sugar companies in various gauges
(0.558-m, 0.762-m, 1.067-m gauges) (1995)

Highways:
total: 12,600 km
paved: 6,224 km
unpaved: 6,376 km (1996 est.)

Pipelines: crude oil 96 km; petroleum products 8 km

Ports and harbors: Barahona, La Romana, Puerto Plata, San Pedro de
Macoris, Santo Domingo

Merchant marine:
total: 1 ship (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,587 GRT/1,165 DWT
ships by type: cargo 1 (1999 est.)

Airports: 28 (1999 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 13
over 3,047 m: 3
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
914 to 1,523 m: 3
under 914 m: 2 (1999 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 15
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 4
under 914 m: 9 (1999 est.)

@Dominican Republic:Military

Military branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, National Police

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 2,239,309 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males age 15-49: 1,405,845 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 86,569 (2000 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $180 million (FY98)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 1.1% (FY98)

@Dominican Republic:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for South American drugs destined
for the US and Europe

______________________________________________________________________



ECUADOR

@Ecuador:Introduction

Background: The "Republic of the Equator" was one of three countries
that emerged from the collapse of Gran Colombia in 1830 (the others
being Colombia and Venezuela). Between 1904 and 1942, Ecuador lost
territories in a series of conflicts with its neighbors. A border war
with Peru that flared in 1995 was resolved in 1999.

@Ecuador:Geography

Location: Western South America, bordering the Pacific Ocean at the
Equator, between Colombia and Peru

Geographic coordinates: 2 00 S, 77 30 W

Map references: South America

Area:
total: 283,560 sq km
land: 276,840 sq km
water: 6,720 sq km
note: includes Galapagos Islands

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Nevada

Land boundaries:
total: 2,010 km
border countries: Colombia 590 km, Peru 1,420 km

Coastline: 2,237 km

Maritime claims:
continental shelf: claims continental shelf between mainland and
Galapagos Islands
territorial sea: 200 nm

Climate: tropical along coast, becoming cooler inland at higher
elevations; tropical in Amazonian jungle lowlands

Terrain: coastal plain (costa), inter-Andean central highlands
(sierra), and flat to rolling eastern jungle (oriente)

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
highest point: Chimborazo 6,267 m

Natural resources: petroleum, fish, timber, hydropower

Land use:
arable land: 6%
permanent crops: 5%
permanent pastures: 18%
forests and woodland: 56%
other: 15% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 5,560 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: frequent earthquakes, landslides, volcanic activity;
periodic droughts

Environment - current issues: deforestation; soil erosion;
desertification; water pollution; pollution from oil production wastes

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty,
Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species,
Hazardous Wastes, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship
Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol

Geography - note: Cotopaxi in Andes is highest active volcano in world

@Ecuador:People

Population: 12,920,092 (July 2000 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 36.23% (male 2,379,541; female 2,301,543)
15-64 years: 59.4% (male 3,794,515; female 3,880,367)
65 years and over: 4.37% (male 262,701; female 301,425) (2000 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.04% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 26.51 births/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 5.52 deaths/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.56 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.87 male(s)/female
total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2000 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 35.13 deaths/1,000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 71.06 years
male: 68.26 years
female: 73.99 years (2000 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.18 children born/woman (2000 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Ecuadorian(s)
adjective: Ecuadorian

Ethnic groups: mestizo (mixed Amerindian and Spanish) 65%, Amerindian
25%, Spanish and others 7%, black 3%

Religions: Roman Catholic 95%

Languages: Spanish (official), Amerindian languages (especially
Quechua)

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 90.1%
male: 92%
female: 88.2% (1995 est.)

@Ecuador:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Ecuador
conventional short form: Ecuador
local long form: Republica del Ecuador
local short form: Ecuador

Data code: EC

Government type: republic

Capital: Quito

Administrative divisions: 22 provinces (provincias, singular -
provincia); Azuay, Bolivar, Canar, Carchi, Chimborazo, Cotopaxi, El
Oro, Esmeraldas, Galapagos, Guayas, Imbabura, Loja, Los Rios, Manabi,
Morona-Santiago, Napo, Orellana, Pastaza, Pichincha, Sucumbios,
Tungurahua, Zamora-Chinchipe

Independence: 24 May 1822 (from Spain)

National holiday: Independence Day, 10 August (1809) (independence of
Quito)

Constitution: 10 August 1998

Legal system: based on civil law system; has not accepted compulsory
ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal, compulsory for literate persons
ages 18-65, optional for other eligible voters

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Gustavo NOBOA (since 22 January 2000)
following coup which deposed President MAHUAD; Vice President Pedro
PINTO (since 28 January 2000); note - the president is both the chief
of state and head of government
head of government: President Gustavo NOBOA (since 22 January 2000)
following coup which deposed President MAHUAD; Vice President Pedro
PINTO (since 28 January 2000); note - the president is both the chief
of state and head of government
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
elections: president and vice president elected on the same ticket by
popular vote for four-year term (no reelection); election last held 31
May 1998; runoff election held 12 July 1998 (next to be held NA 2002)
election results: results of the last election prior to the coup were:
Jamil MAHUAD elected president; percent of vote - 51%
note: a military-indigenous coup toppled democratically elected
President Jamil MAHAUD on 21 January 2000; the military quickly handed
power over to Vice President Gustavo NOBOA on 22 January; Congress
then elected a new vice president from a slate of candidates submitted
by NOBOA; the new administration is scheduled to complete the
remainder of MAHAUD's term, due to expire in January 2003

Legislative branch: unicameral National Congress or Congreso Nacional
(121 seats; 79 members are popularly elected at-large nationally to
serve four-year terms; 42 members are popularly elected by province -
two per province - for four-year terms)
elections: last held 31 May 1998 (next to be held NA 2002)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - DP
32, PSC 27, PRE 24, ID 18, P-NP 9, FRA 5, PCE 3, MPD 2, CFP 1; note -
defections by members of National Congress are commonplace, resulting
in frequent changes in the numbers of seats held by the various
parties

Judicial branch: Supreme Court or Corte Suprema, new justices are
elected by the full Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders: Concentration of Popular Forces or CFP
; Democratic Left or ID ;
Ecuadorian Conservative Party or PCE ; Pachakutik-New
Country or P-NP ; Popular Democracy or
DP ; Popular Democratic Movement or MPD [Jaime HURTADO
Gonzalez]; Radical Alfarista Front or FRA ;
Roldosist Party or PRE ; Social
Christian Party or PSC 
note: political blocs include: far left - MPD; populist - CFP and
P-NP; populist left - PRE; center left - ID, DP, and FRA; center right
- PSC and PCE

Political pressure groups and leaders: Confederation of Indigenous
Nationalities of Ecuador or CONAIE 

International organization participation: CAN, ECLAC, FAO, G-11, G-77,
IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO,
ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LAES, LAIA,
NAM, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, PCA, RG, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL,
WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Ivonne A-BAKI
chancery: 2535 15th Street NW, Washington, DC 20009
telephone:  (202) 234-7200
FAX:  (202) 667-3482
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New
Orleans, New York, Newark, Philadelphia, and San Francisco

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Gwen CLARE
embassy: Avenida 12 de Octubre y Avenida Patria, Quito
mailing address: APO AA 34039
telephone:  (2) 562-890
FAX:  (2) 502-052
consulate(s) general: Guayaquil

Flag description: three horizontal bands of yellow (top, double
width), blue, and red with the coat of arms superimposed at the center
of the flag; similar to the flag of Colombia which is shorter and does
not bear a coat of arms

@Ecuador:Economy

Economy - overview: Ecuador has substantial oil resources and rich
agricultural areas. Because the country exports primary products such
as oil, bananas, and shrimp, fluctuations in world market prices can
have a substantial domestic impact. Ecuador joined the World Trade
Organization in 1996, but has failed to comply with many of its
accession commitments. In recent years, growth has been uneven due to
ill-conceived fiscal stabilization measures. The aftermath of El Nino
and depressed oil market of 1997-98 drove Ecuador's economy into a
free-fall in 1999. The beginning of 1999 saw the banking sector
collapse, which helped precipitate an unprecedented default on
external loans later that year. Continued economic instability drove a
70% depreciation of the currency throughout 1999, which eventually
forced a desperate government to dollarize the currency regime in
2000. The move stabilized the currency, but did not stave off the
ouster of the government. The new president, Gustavo NOBOA has yet to
complete negotiations for a long sought IMF accord. He will find it
difficult to push through the reforms necessary to make dollarization
work in the long-run.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $54.5 billion (1999 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: -8% (1999 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $4,300 (1999 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 14%
industry: 36%
services: 50% (1999 est.)

Population below poverty line: 50% (1999 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 2.3%
highest 10%: 37.6% (1994)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 59.9% (1999 est.)

Labor force: 4.2 million

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 30%, industry 25%, services
45% (1999 est.)

Unemployment rate: 12% with widespread underemployment (November 1998
est.)

Budget:
revenues: planned $5.1 billion (not including revenue from potential
privatizations)
expenditures: $5.1 billion including capital expenditures of $NA
(1999)

Industries: petroleum, food processing, textiles, metal work, paper
products, wood products, chemicals, plastics, fishing, lumber

Industrial production growth rate: 2.4% (1997 est.)

Electricity - production: 9.657 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 27.96%
hydro: 72.04%
nuclear: 0%
other: 0% (1998)

Electricity - consumption: 8.981 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1998)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1998)

Agriculture - products: bananas, coffee, cocoa, rice, potatoes, manioc
(tapioca), plantains, sugarcane; cattle, sheep, pigs, beef, pork,
dairy products; balsa wood; fish, shrimp

Exports: $4.1 billion (f.o.b., 1999)

Exports - commodities: petroleum, bananas, shrimp, coffee, cocoa, cut
flowers, fish

Exports - partners: US 39%, Colombia 7%, Italy 6%, Peru 5%, Chile 3%
(1998)

Imports: $2.8 billion (c.i.f., 1999)

Imports - commodities: machinery and equipment, raw materials, fuels;
consumer goods

Imports - partners: US 39%, Colombia 11%, Japan 9%, Venezuela 5%,
Mexico 3% (1998)

Debt - external: $15.3 billion (1999)

Economic aid - recipient: $695.7 million (1995)

Currency: 1 sucre (S/) = 100 centavos

Exchange rates: sucres (S/) per US$1 - 24,860.7 (January 2000),
11,786.8 (1999), 5,446.6 (1998), 3,988.3 (1997), 3,189.5 (1996),
2,564.5 (1995)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Ecuador:Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 748,000 (1995)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 49,776 (1995)

Telephone system:
domestic: facilities generally inadequate and unreliable
international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 392, FM 27, shortwave 29 (1998)

Radios: 4.15 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 15 (including one station on the
Galapagos Islands) (1997)

Televisions: 1.55 million (1997)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 8 (1999)

@Ecuador:Transportation

Railways:
total: 812 km (single track)
narrow gauge: 812 km 1.067-m gauge

Highways:
total: 43,197 km
paved: 8,165 km
unpaved: 35,032 km (1999 est.)

Waterways: 1,500 km

Pipelines: crude oil 800 km; petroleum products 1,358 km

Ports and harbors: Esmeraldas, Guayaquil, La Libertad, Manta, Puerto
Bolivar, San Lorenzo

Merchant marine:
total: 29 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 233,151 GRT/388,750 DWT
ships by type: chemical tanker 2, liquified gas 1, passenger 4,
petroleum tanker 22 (1999 est.)

Airports: 182 (1999 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 57
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 5
1,524 to 2,437 m: 17
914 to 1,523 m: 13
under 914 m: 20 (1999 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 125
914 to 1,523 m: 36
under 914 m: 89 (1999 est.)

Heliports: 1 (1999 est.)

@Ecuador:Military

Military branches: Army (Ejercito Ecuatoriano), Navy (Armada
Ecuatoriana, includes Marines), Air Force (Fuerza Aerea Ecuatoriana),
National Police (Policia Nacional)

Military manpower - military age: 20 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 3,296,678 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males age 15-49: 2,224,033 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 130,869 (2000 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $720 million (FY98)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 3.4% (FY98)

@Ecuador:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: demarcation of the agreed-upon border with
Peru was completed in May 1999

Illicit drugs: significant transit country for cocaine and derivatives
of coca originating in Colombia and Peru; importer of precursor
chemicals used in production of illicit narcotics; important
money-laundering hub; increased activity on frontiers by trafficking
groups and Colombian insurgents

______________________________________________________________________



EGYPT

@Egypt:Introduction

Background: Nominally independent from the UK in 1922, Egypt acquired
full sovereignty following World War II. The completion of the Aswan
High Dam in 1971 and the resultant Lake Nasser have altered the
time-honored place of the Nile River in the agriculture and ecology of
Egypt. A rapidly growing population (the largest in the Arab world)
will continue to stress Egyptian society and overtax resources as the
country enters the new millennium.

@Egypt:Geography

Location: Northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between
Libya and the Gaza Strip

Geographic coordinates: 27 00 N, 30 00 E

Map references: Africa

Area:
total: 1,001,450 sq km
land: 995,450 sq km
water: 6,000 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly more than three times the size of New
Mexico

Land boundaries:
total: 2,689 km
border countries: Gaza Strip 11 km, Israel 255 km, Libya 1,150 km,
Sudan 1,273 km

Coastline: 2,450 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 24 nm
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: desert; hot, dry summers with moderate winters

Terrain: vast desert plateau interrupted by Nile valley and delta

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Qattara Depression -133 m
highest point: Mount Catherine 2,629 m

Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, phosphates,
manganese, limestone, gypsum, talc, asbestos, lead, zinc

Land use:
arable land: 2%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 0%
forests and woodland: 0%
other: 98% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 32,460 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: periodic droughts; frequent earthquakes, flash
floods, landslides, volcanic activity; hot, driving windstorm called
khamsin occurs in spring; dust storms, sandstorms

Environment - current issues: agricultural land being lost to
urbanization and windblown sands; increasing soil salination below
Aswan High Dam; desertification; oil pollution threatening coral
reefs, beaches, and marine habitats; other water pollution from
agricultural pesticides, raw sewage, and industrial effluents; very
limited natural fresh water resources away from the Nile which is the
only perennial water source; rapid growth in population overstraining
natural resources

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered
Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea,
Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship
Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol

Geography - note: controls Sinai Peninsula, only land bridge between
Africa and remainder of Eastern Hemisphere; controls Suez Canal,
shortest sea link between Indian Ocean and Mediterranean Sea; size,
and juxtaposition to Israel, establish its major role in Middle
Eastern geopolitics

@Egypt:People

Population: 68,359,979 (July 2000 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 35% (male 12,260,343; female 11,701,253)
15-64 years: 61% (male 21,111,615; female 20,714,511)
65 years and over: 4% (male 1,131,760; female 1,440,497) (2000 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.72% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 25.38 births/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 7.83 deaths/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.35 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.79 male(s)/female
total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (2000 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 62.32 deaths/1,000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 63.33 years
male: 61.29 years
female: 65.47 years (2000 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.15 children born/woman (2000 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Egyptian(s)
adjective: Egyptian

Ethnic groups: Eastern Hamitic stock (Egyptians, Bedouins, and
Berbers) 99%, Greek, Nubian, Armenian, other European (primarily
Italian and French) 1%

Religions: Muslim (mostly Sunni) 94%, Coptic Christian and other 6%

Languages: Arabic (official), English and French widely understood by
educated classes

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 51.4%
male: 63.6%
female: 38.8% (1995 est.)

@Egypt:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Arab Republic of Egypt
conventional short form: Egypt
local long form: Jumhuriyat Misr al-Arabiyah
local short form: Misr
former: United Arab Republic (with Syria)

Data code: EG

Government type: republic

Capital: Cairo

Administrative divisions: 26 governorates (muhafazat, singular -
muhafazah); Ad Daqahliyah, Al Bahr al Ahmar, Al Buhayrah, Al Fayyum,
Al Gharbiyah, Al Iskandariyah, Al Isma'iliyah, Al Jizah, Al Minufiyah,
Al Minya, Al Qahirah, Al Qalyubiyah, Al Wadi al Jadid, Ash Sharqiyah,
As Suways, Aswan, Asyut, Bani Suwayf, Bur Sa'id, Dumyat, Janub Sina',
Kafr ash Shaykh, Matruh, Qina, Shamal Sina', Suhaj

Independence: 28 February 1922 (from UK)

National holiday: Anniversary of the Revolution, 23 July (1952)

Constitution: 11 September 1971

Legal system: based on English common law, Islamic law, and Napoleonic
codes; judicial review by Supreme Court and Council of State (oversees
validity of administrative decisions); accepts compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction, with reservations

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal and compulsory

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Mohammed Hosni MUBARAK (since 14 October
1981)
head of government: Prime Minister Atef OBEID (since 5 October 1999)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
elections: president nominated by the People's Assembly for a six-year
term, the nomination must then be validated by a national, popular
referendum; national referendum last held 26 September 1999 (next to
be held NA October 2005); prime minister appointed by the president
election results: national referendum validated President MUBARAK's
nomination by the People's Assembly to a fourth term

Legislative branch: bicameral system consists of the People's Assembly
or Majlis al-Sha'b (454 seats; 444 elected by popular vote, 10
appointed by the president; members serve five-year terms) and the
Advisory Council or Majlis al-Shura - which functions only in a
consultative role (264 seats; 176 elected by popular vote, 88
appointed by the president; members serve NA-year terms)
elections: People's Assembly - last held 29 November 1995 (next to be
held NA November 2000); Advisory Council - last held 7 June 1995 (next
to be held NA)
election results: People's Assembly - percent of vote by party - NDP
72%, independents 25%, opposition 3%; seats by party - NDP 317,
independents 114, NWP 6, NPUG 5, Nasserist Arab Democratic Party 1,
LSP 1; Advisory Council - percent of vote by party - NDP 99%,
independents 1%; seats by party - NA

Judicial branch: Supreme Constitutional Court

Political parties and leaders: Democratic Unionist Party [Mohammed
'Abd-al-Mun'im TURK]; Green Party ; Misr al-Fatah Party
(Young Egypt Party) ; Nasserist Arab Democratic Party [Dia'
al-din DAWUD]; National Democratic Party or NDP [President Mohammed
Hosni MUBARAK, leader] - governing party; National Progressive
Unionist Grouping or NPUG ; New Wafd Party or NWP
; Social Justice Party ;
Socialist Labor Party or SLP ; Socialist Liberal Party
or LSP ; Umma Party 
note: formation of political parties must be approved by government

Political pressure groups and leaders: despite a constitutional ban
against religious-based parties, the technically illegal Muslim
Brotherhood constitutes MUBARAK's potentially most significant
political opposition; MUBARAK tolerated limited political activity by
the Brotherhood for his first two terms, but has moved more
aggressively in the past six years to block its influence; trade
unions and professional associations are officially sanctioned

International organization participation: ABEDA, ACC, ACCT
(associate), AfDB, AFESD, AL, AMF, BSEC (observer), CAEU, CCC, EBRD,
ECA, ESCWA, FAO, G-15, G-19, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICRM,
IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat,
Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MINURSO, MONUC, NAM, OAPEC, OAS
(observer), OAU, OIC, OSCE (partner), PCA, UN, UNAMSIL, UNCTAD,
UNESCO, UNIDO, UNITAR, UNMIBH, UNMIK, UNMOP, UNOMIG, UNRWA, UNTAET,
UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Nabil FAHMY
chancery: 3521 International Court NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone:  (202) 895-5400
FAX:  (202) 244-4319, 5131
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, New York, and San Francisco

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Daniel C. KURTZER
embassy: (North Gate) 8, Kamel El-Din Salah Street, Garden City, Cairo
mailing address: Unit 64900, APO AE 09839-4900
telephone:  (2) 3557371
FAX:  (2) 3573200

Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white,
and black with the national emblem (a shield superimposed on a golden
eagle facing the hoist side above a scroll bearing the name of the
country in Arabic) centered in the white band; similar to the flag of
Yemen, which has a plain white band; also similar to the flag of
Syria, which has two green stars, and to the flag of Iraq, which has
three green stars (plus an Arabic inscription) in a horizontal line
centered in the white band

@Egypt:Economy

Economy - overview: A series of IMF arrangements - coupled with
massive external debt relief resulting from Egypt's participation in
the Gulf war coalition - helped Egypt improve its macroeconomic
performance during the 1990s. Through sound fiscal and monetary
policies, Cairo tamed inflation, slashed budget deficits, and built up
foreign reserves. Although the pace of structural reforms - such as
privatization and new business legislation - has been slower than the
IMF envisioned, Egypt's steps toward a more market-oriented economy
have prompted increased foreign investment. Lower combined hard
currency inflows - from tourism, worker remittances, oil revenues, and
Suez Canal tolls - in 1998 and the first half of 1999 resulted in
pressure on the Egyptian pound and sporadic dollar shortages, but
external payments were not in crisis. Despite ample reserves, the
Central Bank did not provide sufficient hard currency to commercial
banks and Cairo restricted imports for a short period; these
developments confirmed to some investors and currency traders that
government financial operations lack sufficient coordination and
openness. Monetary pressures have since eased, however, with the
continued oil price recovery starting in mid-1999 and a moderate
rebound in tourism. Increased gas exports are a major plus factor in
future growth.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $200 billion (1999 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 5% (1999 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $3,000 (1999 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 17%
industry: 32%
services: 51% (1999)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 3.9%
highest 10%: 26.7% (1991)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3.7% (1999)

Labor force: 19 million (1999 est.)

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 40%, services 38%, industry
22% (1990 est.)

Unemployment rate: 11.8% (1999 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $20.7 billion
expenditures: $22.3 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
(FY98/99)

Industries: textiles, food processing, tourism, chemicals, petroleum,
construction, cement, metals

Industrial production growth rate: 5% (1999 est.)

Electricity - production: 57.8 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 78.72%
hydro: 21.28%
nuclear: 0%
other: 0% (1998)

Electricity - consumption: 53.754 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1998)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1998)

Agriculture - products: cotton, rice, corn, wheat, beans, fruits,
vegetables; cattle, water buffalo, sheep, goats; fish

Exports: $4.6 billion (f.o.b., 1999 est.)

Exports - commodities: crude oil and petroleum products, cotton,
textiles, metal products, chemicals

Exports - partners: EU 47%, US 14%, Turkey 8% (1998)

Imports: $15.8 billion (f.o.b., 1999 est.)

Imports - commodities: machinery and equipment, foodstuffs, chemicals,
wood products, fuels

Imports - partners: EU 42%, US 16%, Japan 5% (1998)

Debt - external: $30 billion (1999 est.)

Economic aid - recipient: ODA, $2.25 billion (1999)

Currency: 1 Egyptian pound = 100 piasters

Exchange rates: Egyptian pounds per US$1 - market rate - 3.4050
(January 2000), 3.4050 (1999), 3.3880 (1998), 3.3880 (1997), 3.3880
(1996), 3.3900 (1995)

Fiscal year: 1 July - 30 June

@Egypt:Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 3.168 million (1996)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 380,000 (1999)

Telephone system: large system by Third World standards but inadequate
for present requirements and undergoing extensive upgrading; Internet
access available
domestic: principal centers at Alexandria, Cairo, Al Mansurah,
Ismailia, Suez, and Tanta are connected by coaxial cable and microwave
radio relay
international: satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean
and Indian Ocean), 1 Arabsat, and 1 Inmarsat; 5 coaxial submarine
cables; tropospheric scatter to Sudan; microwave radio relay to
Israel; a participant in Medarabtel and a signatory to Project Oxygen
(a global submarine fiber-optic cable system)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 42 (plus 15 repeater stations), FM 14,
shortwave 3 (1999)

Radios: 20.5 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 51 (September 1995)

Televisions: 7.7 million (1997)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 31 (1999)

@Egypt:Transportation

Railways:
total: 4,955 km
standard gauge: 4,955 km 1,435-m gauge (42 km electrified; 1,560 km
double track)

Highways:
total: 64,000 km
paved: 49,984 km
unpaved: 14,016 km (1996 est.)

Waterways: 3,500 km (including the Nile, Lake Nasser, Alexandria-Cairo
Waterway, and numerous smaller canals in the delta); Suez Canal, 193.5
km (including approaches), used by oceangoing vessels drawing up to
16.1 m of water

Pipelines: crude oil 1,171 km; petroleum products 596 km; natural gas
460 km

Ports and harbors: Alexandria, Al Ghardaqah, Aswan, Asyut, Bur
Safajah, Damietta, Marsa Matruh, Port Said, Suez

Merchant marine:
total: 180 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,348,148 GRT/2,014,483
DWT
ships by type: bulk 25, cargo 63, container 1, liquified gas 1,
passenger 57, petroleum tanker 14, roll-on/roll-off 16, short-sea
passenger 3 (1999 est.)

Airports: 90 (1999 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 71
over 3,047 m: 12
2,438 to 3,047 m: 36
1,524 to 2,437 m: 16
914 to 1,523 m: 3
under 914 m: 4 (1999 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 19
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 6
under 914 m: 9 (1999 est.)

Heliports: 2 (1999 est.)

@Egypt:Military

Military branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, Air Defense Command

Military manpower - military age: 20 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 18,164,353 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males age 15-49: 11,766,949 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 704,373 (2000 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $3.28 billion (FY95/96)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 8.2% (FY95/96)

@Egypt:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: Egypt asserts its claim to the "Hala'ib
Triangle," a barren area of 20,580 sq km under partial Sudanese
administration that is defined by an administrative boundary which
supersedes the treaty boundary of 1899

Illicit drugs: a transit point for Southwest Asian and Southeast Asian
heroin and opium moving to Europe, Africa, and the US; popular transit
stop for Nigerian couriers

______________________________________________________________________



EL SALVADOR

@El Salvador:Introduction

Background: El Salvador achieved independence from Spain in 1821 and
from the Central American Federation in 1839. A 12-year civil war,
which cost the lives of some 75,000 people, was brought to a close in
1992 when the government and leftist rebels signed a treaty that
provided for military and political reforms.

@El Salvador:Geography

Location: Middle America, bordering the North Pacific Ocean, between
Guatemala and Honduras

Geographic coordinates: 13 50 N, 88 55 W

Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

Area:
total: 21,040 sq km
land: 20,720 sq km
water: 320 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Massachusetts

Land boundaries:
total: 545 km
border countries: Guatemala 203 km, Honduras 342 km

Coastline: 307 km

Maritime claims:
territorial sea: 200 nm

Climate: tropical; rainy season (May to October); dry season (November
to April); tropical on coast; temperate in uplands

Terrain: mostly mountains with narrow coastal belt and central plateau

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
highest point: Cerro El Pital 2,730 m

Natural resources: hydropower, geothermal power, petroleum, arable
land

Land use:
arable land: 27%
permanent crops: 8%
permanent pastures: 29%
forests and woodland: 5%
other: 31% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 1,200 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: known as the Land of Volcanoes; frequent and
sometimes very destructive earthquakes and volcanic activity

Environment - current issues: deforestation; soil erosion; water
pollution; contamination of soils from disposal of toxic wastes;
Hurricane Mitch damage

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol,
Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Nuclear Test
Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea

Geography - note: smallest Central American country and only one
without a coastline on Caribbean Sea

@El Salvador:People

Population: 6,122,515 (July 2000 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 38% (male 1,186,328; female 1,141,245)
15-64 years: 57% (male 1,652,083; female 1,833,998)
65 years and over: 5% (male 139,919; female 168,942) (2000 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.87% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 29.02 births/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 6.27 deaths/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: -4.02 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.9 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.83 male(s)/female
total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2000 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 29.22 deaths/1,000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 69.74 years
male: 66.14 years
female: 73.52 years (2000 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.38 children born/woman (2000 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Salvadoran(s)
adjective: Salvadoran

Ethnic groups: mestizo 90%, Amerindian 1%, white 9%

Religions: Roman Catholic 86%
note: there is extensive activity by Protestant groups throughout the
country; by the end of 1992, there were an estimated 1 million
Protestant evangelicals in El Salvador

Languages: Spanish, Nahua (among some Amerindians)

Literacy:
definition: age 10 and over can read and write
total population: 71.5%
male: 73.5%
female: 69.8% (1995 est.)

@El Salvador:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of El Salvador
conventional short form: El Salvador
local long form: Republica de El Salvador
local short form: El Salvador

Data code: ES

Government type: republic

Capital: San Salvador

Administrative divisions: 14 departments (departamentos, singular -
departamento); Ahuachapan, Cabanas, Chalatenango, Cuscatlan, La
Libertad, La Paz, La Union, Morazan, San Miguel, San Salvador, Santa
Ana, San Vicente, Sonsonate, Usulutan

Independence: 15 September 1821 (from Spain)

National holiday: Independence Day, 15 September (1821)

Constitution: 23 December 1983

Legal system: based on civil and Roman law, with traces of common law;
judicial review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court; accepts
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations
note: Legislative Assembly passed landmark judicial reforms in 1996

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Francisco FLORES Perez (since 1 June 1999);
Vice President Carlos QUINTANILLA Schmidt (since 1 June 1999); note -
the president is both the chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Francisco FLORES Perez (since 1 June
1999); Vice President Carlos QUINTANILLA Schmidt (since 1 June 1999);
note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
cabinet: Council of Ministers
elections: president and vice president elected on the same ticket by
popular vote for five-year terms; election last held 7 March 1999
(next to be held NA March 2004)
election results: Francisco FLORES Perez elected president; percent of
vote - Francisco FLORES (ARENA) 52%, Facundo GUARDADO (FMLN) 29%,
Ruben ZAMORA (CDU) 7.5%, other (no individual above 3%) 11.5%

Legislative branch: unicameral Legislative Assembly or Asamblea
Legislativa (84 seats; members are elected by direct popular vote to
serve three-year terms)
elections: last held 16 March 1997 (next to be held 12 March 2000)
election results: percent of vote by party - ARENA 35.4%, FMLN 34.3%,
PCN 8.1%, PDC 7.9%, CD 3.8%, PRSC 3.4%, PLD 3.2%, MU 2.1%, PD 1.0%,
other 0.8%; seats by party - ARENA 28, FMLN 27, PCN 9, PDC 8, PRSC 3,
CD 2, PLD 2, MU 1, PD 1, independent 3

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Corte Suprema), judges are selected by
the Legislative Assembly

Political parties and leaders: Christian Democratic Party or PDC [Rene
AGUILUZ, secretary general]; Democratic Convergence or CD [Ruben
ZAMORA, secretary general]; Farabundo Marti National Liberation Front
or FMLN ; Liberal Democratic Party or PLD [Kirio
Waldo SALGADO, president]; National Conciliation Party or PCN [Ciro
CRUZ Zepeda, secretary general]; National Republican Alliance or ARENA
; Popular Labor Party or PPL [Ernesto VILANOVA,
secretary general]; Social Christian Union or USC [Abraham RODRIGUEZ,
president]; Social Democratic Party or PD [Jorge MELENDEZ and Juan
MEDRANO]; United Democratic Center or CDU , bloc
includes CD and PD formed by merger of Christian Social Renewal Party
or PRSC, National Solidarity Movement or MSN, and the Unity Movement
or MU

Political pressure groups and leaders:
labor organizations: Association of Agricultural Producers or APROAS;
Electrical Industry Union of El Salvador or SIES; Federation of the
Construction Industry, Similar Transport and other activities, or
FESINCONTRANS; National Confederation of Salvadoran Workers or CNTS;
National Union of Salvadoran Workers or UNTS; Port Industry Union of
El Salvador or SIPES; Salvadoran Workers Central or CTS; Workers Union
of Electrical Corporation or STCEL
business organizations: National Association of Small Enterprise or
ANEP; Salvadoran Assembly Industry Association or ASIC; Salvadoran
Industrial Association or ASI

International organization participation: BCIE, CACM, ECLAC, FAO,
G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO,
IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO (correspondent), ITU,
LAES, LAIA (observer), MINURSO, NAM (observer), OAS, OPANAL, OPCW,
PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO,
WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Rene Antonio LEON Rodriguez
chancery: 2308 California Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone:  (202) 265-9671
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Dallas, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami,
New Orleans, New York, and San Francisco
consulate(s): Boston

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Anne W. PATTERSON
embassy: Final Boulevard Santa Elena, Antiguo Cuscatlan, San Salvador
mailing address: Unit 3116, APO AA 34023
telephone:  278-4444
FAX:  278-6011

Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of blue (top), white,
and blue with the national coat of arms centered in the white band;
the coat of arms features a round emblem encircled by the words
REPUBLICA DE EL SALVADOR EN LA AMERICA CENTRAL; similar to the flag of
Nicaragua, which has a different coat of arms centered in the white
band - it features a triangle encircled by the words REPUBLICA DE
NICARAGUA on top and AMERICA CENTRAL on the bottom; also similar to
the flag of Honduras, which has five blue stars arranged in an X
pattern centered in the white band

@El Salvador:Economy

Economy - overview: El Salvador is a poor Central American economy
which has been suffering from a weak tax collection system, factory
closings, the aftermath of Hurricane Mitch, and weak world coffee
prices. On the bright side, in recent years inflation has fallen to
single digit levels, and total exports have grown substantially. The
substantial trade deficit has been offset by remittances from the
large number of Salvadorans living abroad and from external aid.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $18.1 billion (1999 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 2.2% (1999 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $3,100 (1999 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 12%
industry: 22%
services: 66% (1999 est.)

Population below poverty line: 48% (1999 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 1.2%
highest 10%: 38.3% (1995)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1.3% (1999 est.)

Labor force: 2.35 million (1999)

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 30%, industry 15%, services
55% (1999 est.)

Unemployment rate: 7.7% (1997 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $1.5 billion
expenditures: $1.73 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1999)

Industries: food processing, beverages, petroleum, chemicals,
fertilizer, textiles, furniture, light metals

Industrial production growth rate: 3.5% (1999 est.)

Electricity - production: 4.1 billion kWh (1999 est.)

Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 49.32%
hydro: 36.46%
nuclear: 0%
other: 14.22% (1998)

Electricity - consumption: 4.17 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity - exports: 30 million kWh (1999)

Electricity - imports: 65 million kWh (1999)

Agriculture - products: coffee, sugarcane, corn, rice, beans, oilseed,
cotton, sorghum; beef, dairy products; shrimp

Exports: $2.5 billion (f.o.b., 1999)

Exports - commodities: offshore assembly exports, coffee, sugar,
shrimp, textiles, chemicals, electricity

Exports - partners: US 59%, Guatemala 12%, Germany 6%, Costa Rica 4%,
Honduras (1998)

Imports: $4.15 billion (c.i.f., 1999)

Imports - commodities: raw materials, consumer goods, capital goods,
fuels, foodstuffs, petroleum, electricity

Imports - partners: US 51%, Guatemala 9%, Mexico 6%, Japan 3%, Costa
Rica (1999)

Debt - external: $3.3 billion (1999 est.)

Economic aid - recipient: total $252 million; $57 million from US
(1999 est.)

Currency: 1 Salvadoran colon (C) = 100 centavos

Exchange rates: Salvadoran colones (C) per US$1 (end of period) -
8.755 fixed rate since 1993

Fiscal year: calendar year

@El Salvador:Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 380,000 (1998)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 13,475 (1995)

Telephone system:
domestic: nationwide microwave radio relay system
international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean);
connected to Central American Microwave System

Radio broadcast stations: AM 61 (plus 24 repeaters), FM 30, shortwave
0 (1998)

Radios: 2.75 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 5 (1997)

Televisions: 600,000 (1990)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 2 (1999)

@El Salvador:Transportation

Railways:
total: 602 km (single track; note - some sections abandoned, unusable,
or operating at reduced capacity)
narrow gauge: 602 km 0.914-m gauge

Highways:
total: 10,029 km
paved: 1,986 km (including 327 km of expressways)
unpaved: 8,043 km (1997 est.)

Waterways: Rio Lempa partially navigable

Ports and harbors: Acajutla, Puerto Cutuco, La Libertad, La Union,
Puerto El Triunfo

Merchant marine: none (1999 est.)

Airports: 85 (1999 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 4
over 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 2 (1999 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 81
914 to 1,523 m: 17
under 914 m: 64 (1999 est.)

Heliports: 1 (1999 est.)

@El Salvador:Military

Military branches: Army, Navy, Air Force

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 1,428,974 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males age 15-49: 906,656 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 67,181 (2000 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $105 million (FY98)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 0.9% (FY98)

@El Salvador:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: the Honduras-El Salvador Border Protocol
ratified by Honduras in May 1999 established a framework for a
long-delayed border demarcation, which is currently underway; with
respect to the maritime boundary in the Golfo de Fonseca, the ICJ
referred to the line determined by the 1900 Honduras-Nicaragua Mixed
Boundary Commission and advised that some tripartite resolution among
El Salvador, Honduras and Nicaragua likely would be required

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for cocaine; marijuana produced for
local consumption; domestic drug abuse on the rise

______________________________________________________________________



EQUATORIAL GUINEA

@Equatorial Guinea:Introduction

Background: Composed of a mainland portion and five inhabited islands,
Equatorial Guinea has been ruled by ruthless leaders who have badly
mismanaged the economy since independence from 190 years of Spanish
rule in 1968. Although nominally a constitutional democracy since
1991, the 1996 presidential and 1999 legislative elections were widely
seen as being flawed.

@Equatorial Guinea:Geography

Location: Western Africa, bordering the Bight of Biafra, between
Cameroon and Gabon

Geographic coordinates: 2 00 N, 10 00 E

Map references: Africa

Area:
total: 28,051 sq km
land: 28,051 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Maryland

Land boundaries:
total: 539 km
border countries: Cameroon 189 km, Gabon 350 km

Coastline: 296 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; always hot, humid

Terrain: coastal plains rise to interior hills; islands are volcanic

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Pico Basile 3,008 m

Natural resources: oil, petroleum, timber, small unexploited deposits
of gold, manganese, uranium

Land use:
arable land: 5%
permanent crops: 4%
permanent pastures: 4%
forests and woodland: 46%
other: 41% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: violent windstorms, flash floods

Environment - current issues: tap water is not potable;
desertification

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Desertification, Endangered Species, Law of
the Sea, Ship Pollution
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note: insular and continental regions rather widely
separated

@Equatorial Guinea:People

Population: 474,214 (July 2000 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 43% (male 101,724; female 100,787)
15-64 years: 54% (male 121,290; female 132,581)
65 years and over: 3% (male 7,960; female 9,872) (2000 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.47% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 38.13 births/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 13.4 deaths/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.91 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.81 male(s)/female
total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2000 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 94.83 deaths/1,000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 53.56 years
male: 51.53 years
female: 55.65 years (2000 est.)

Total fertility rate: 4.94 children born/woman (2000 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Equatorial Guinean(s) or Equatoguinean(s)
adjective: Equatorial Guinean or Equatoguinean

Ethnic groups: Bioko (primarily Bubi, some Fernandinos), Rio Muni
(primarily Fang), Europeans less than 1,000, mostly Spanish

Religions: nominally Christian and predominantly Roman Catholic, pagan
practices

Languages: Spanish (official), French (official), pidgin English,
Fang, Bubi, Ibo

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 78.5%
male: 89.6%
female: 68.1% (1995 est.)

@Equatorial Guinea:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Equatorial Guinea
conventional short form: Equatorial Guinea
local long form: Republica de Guinea Ecuatorial
local short form: Guinea Ecuatorial
former: Spanish Guinea

Data code: EK

Government type: republic

Capital: Malabo

Administrative divisions: 7 provinces (provincias, singular -
provincia); Annobon, Bioko Norte, Bioko Sur, Centro Sur, Kie-Ntem,
Litoral, Wele-Nzas

Independence: 12 October 1968 (from Spain)

National holiday: Independence Day, 12 October (1968)

Constitution: approved by national referendum 17 November 1991;
amended January 1995

Legal system: partly based on Spanish civil law and tribal custom

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal adult

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Brig. Gen. (Ret.) Teodoro OBIANG NGUEMA
MBASOGO (since 3 August 1979 when he seized power in a military coup)
head of government: Prime Minister Serafin Seriche DOUGAN (since NA
April 1996); First Vice Prime Minister and Agriculture Minister Miguel
OYONO NDONG (since NA January 1998); Second Vice Prime Minister for
Internal Affairs Demetrio Elo NDONG NZE FUMU (since NA January 1998)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
elections: president elected by popular vote to a seven-year term;
election last held 25 February 1996 (next to be held NA February
2003); prime minister and vice prime ministers appointed by the
president
election results: President Teodoro OBIANG NGUEMA MBASOGO reelected
with 98% of popular vote in elections marred by widespread fraud

Legislative branch: unicameral House of People's Representatives or
Camara de Representantes del Pueblo (80 seats; members directly
elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: last held 7 March 1999 (next to be held NA 2004)
election results: percent of vote by party - PDGE 80%, UP 6%, CPDS 5%;
seats by party - PDGE 75, UP 4 and CPDS 1
note: opposition parties have refused to take up their seats in the
House to protest widespread irregularities in the 1999 legislative
elections

Judicial branch: Supreme Tribunal

Political parties and leaders: Convergence Party for Social Democracy
or CPDS ; Democratic Party for Equatorial Guinea
or PDGE (ruling party) ; Party for Progress of
Equatorial Guinea or PPGE ; Popular Action of Equatorial
Guinea or APGE ; Popular Union or UP [Fabian MUSA,
general secretary]; Progressive Democratic Alliance or ADP [Victorino
Bolekia BONAY, mayor of Malabo]

International organization participation: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, BDEAC,
CEEAC, ECA, FAO, FZ, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS,
ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ITU, NAM, OAS (observer), OAU,
OPCW, UDEAC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WToO, WTrO
(applicant)

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Pastor Micha ONDO BILE
chancery: 1712 I Street NW, Suite 410, Washington, DC 20006
telephone:  (202) 296-4174
FAX:  (202) 296-4195

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador John M. YATES
note: the US does not have an embassy in Equatorial Guinea (embassy
closed September 1995); US relations with Equatorial Guinea are
handled through the US Embassy in Yaounde, Cameroon; the US State
Department is considering opening a Consulate Agency in Malabo

Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of green (top), white,
and red with a blue isosceles triangle based on the hoist side and the
coat of arms centered in the white band; the coat of arms has six
yellow six-pointed stars (representing the mainland and five offshore
islands) above a gray shield bearing a silk-cotton tree and below
which is a scroll with the motto UNIDAD, PAZ, JUSTICIA (Unity, Peace,
Justice)

@Equatorial Guinea:Economy

Economy - overview: The discovery and exploitation of large oil
reserves have contributed to dramatic economic growth in recent years.
Forestry, farming, and fishing are also major components of GDP.
Subsistence farming predominates. Although pre-independence Equatorial
Guinea counted on cocoa production for hard currency earnings, the
deterioration of the rural economy under successive brutal regimes has
diminished potential for agriculture-led growth. A number of aid
programs sponsored by the World Bank and the IMF have been cut off
since 1993 because of the government's gross corruption and
mismanagement. Businesses, for the most part, are owned by government
officials and their family members. Undeveloped natural resources
include titanium, iron ore, manganese, uranium, and alluvial gold. The
country responded favorably to the devaluation of the CFA franc in
January 1994. Boosts in production, along with high world oil prices,
should further stimulate growth in 2000-2001.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $960 million (1999 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 15% (1999 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $2,000 (1999 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 20%
industry: 60%
services: 20% (1998 est.)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 6% (1999 est.)

Labor force: NA

Unemployment rate: 30% (1998 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $47 million
expenditures: $43 million, including capital expenditures of $7
million (1996 est.)

Industries: petroleum, fishing, sawmilling, natural gas

Industrial production growth rate: 7.4% (1994 est.)

Electricity - production: 21 million kWh (1998)

Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 85.71%
hydro: 14.29%
nuclear: 0%
other: 0% (1998)

Electricity - consumption: 20 million kWh (1998)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1998)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1998)

Agriculture - products: coffee, cocoa, rice, yams, cassava (tapioca),
bananas, palm oil nuts; livestock; timber

Exports: $555 million (f.o.b., 1999)

Exports - commodities: petroleum, timber, cocoa

Exports - partners: US 62%, Spain 17%, China 9%, France 3%, Japan 3%,
(1997)

Imports: $300 million (f.o.b., 1999)

Imports - commodities: petroleum, manufactured goods and equipment

Imports - partners: US 35%, France 15%, Spain 10%, Cameroon 10%, UK 6%
(1997)

Debt - external: $290 million (1999 est.)

Economic aid - recipient: $33.8 million (1995)

Currency: 1 Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (CFAF) = 100
centimes

Exchange rates: Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (CFAF) per US$1
- 647.25 (January 2000), 615.70 (1999), 589.95 (1998), 583.67 (1997),
511.55 (1996), 499.15 (1995)
note: since 1 January 1999, the CFAF is pegged to the euro at a rate
of 655.957 CFA francs per euro

Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March

@Equatorial Guinea:Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 3,000 (1995)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 0 (1995)

Telephone system: poor system with adequate government services
domestic: NA
international: international communications from Bata and Malabo to
African and European countries; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat
(Indian Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 0, FM 2, shortwave 4 (1998)

Radios: 180,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 1 (1997)

Televisions: 4,000 (1997)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): NA

@Equatorial Guinea:Transportation

Railways:
total: 0 km

Highways:
total: 2,880 km
paved: 0 km
unpaved: 2,880 km (1996 est.)

Ports and harbors: Bata, Luba, Malabo

Merchant marine:
total: 11 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 25,907 GRT/26,812 DWT
ships by type: cargo 8, passenger 2, passenger/cargo 1 (1999 est.)

Airports: 3 (1999 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (1999 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 1
under 914 m: 1 (1999 est.)

@Equatorial Guinea:Military

Military branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, Rapid Intervention Force,
National Police

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 105,420 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males age 15-49: 53,564 (2000 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $3 million (FY97/98)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 0.6% (FY97/98)

@Equatorial Guinea:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: exclusive maritime economic zone boundary
dispute with Cameroon is presently before the ICJ; maritime boundary
dispute with Gabon because of disputed sovereignty over islands in
Corisco Bay; maritime boundary dispute with Nigeria and Cameroon
because of disputed jurisdiction over oil-rich areas in the Gulf of
Guinea

______________________________________________________________________



ERITREA

@Eritrea:Introduction

Background: Eritrea was awarded to Ethiopia in 1952 as part of a
federation. Ethiopia's annexation of Eritrea as a province 10 years
later sparked a 30-year struggle for independence that ended in 1991
with Eritrean rebels defeating governmental forces; independence was
overwhelmingly approved in a 1993 referendum. A border war with
Ethiopia that erupted in 1998 remains unresolved.

@Eritrea:Geography

Location: Eastern Africa, bordering the Red Sea, between Djibouti and
Sudan

Geographic coordinates: 15 00 N, 39 00 E

Map references: Africa

Area:
total: 121,320 sq km
land: 121,320 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly larger than Pennsylvania

Land boundaries:
total: 1,630 km
border countries: Djibouti 113 km, Ethiopia 912 km, Sudan 605 km

Coastline: 2,234 km total; mainland on Red Sea 1,151 km, islands in
Red Sea 1,083 km

Maritime claims: NA

Climate: hot, dry desert strip along Red Sea coast; cooler and wetter
in the central highlands (up to 61 cm of rainfall annually); semiarid
in western hills and lowlands; rainfall heaviest during June-September
except in coastal desert

Terrain: dominated by extension of Ethiopian north-south trending
highlands, descending on the east to a coastal desert plain, on the
northwest to hilly terrain and on the southwest to flat-to-rolling
plains

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: near Kulul within the Denakil depression -75 m
highest point: Soira 3,018 m

Natural resources: gold, potash, zinc, copper, salt, possibly oil and
natural gas, fish

Land use:
arable land: 12%
permanent crops: 1%
permanent pastures: 49%
forests and woodland: 6%
other: 32% (1998 est.)

Irrigated land: 280 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: frequent droughts and locust storms

Environment - current issues: deforestation; desertification; soil
erosion; overgrazing; loss of infrastructure from civil warfare

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered
Species
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note: strategic geopolitical position along world's
busiest shipping lanes; Eritrea retained the entire coastline of
Ethiopia along the Red Sea upon de jure independence from Ethiopia on
24 May 1993

@Eritrea:People

Population: 4,135,933 (July 2000 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 43% (male 888,573; female 883,939)
15-64 years: 54% (male 1,104,082; female 1,122,683)
65 years and over: 3% (male 69,518; female 67,138) (2000 est.)

Population growth rate: 3.86% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 42.71 births/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 12.3 deaths/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: 8.22 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2000 est.)
note: according to the UNHCR, about 150,000 Eritrean refugees in Sudan
have registered for voluntary repatriation, following the restoration
of diplomatic relations between Eritrea and Sudan in January 2000

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 1.04 male(s)/female
total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2000 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 76.66 deaths/1,000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 55.79 years
male: 53.36 years
female: 58.29 years (2000 est.)

Total fertility rate: 5.93 children born/woman (2000 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Eritrean(s)
adjective: Eritrean

Ethnic groups: ethnic Tigrinya 50%, Tigre and Kunama 40%, Afar 4%,
Saho (Red Sea coast dwellers) 3%

Religions: Muslim, Coptic Christian, Roman Catholic, Protestant

Languages: Afar, Amharic, Arabic, Tigre and Kunama, Tigrinya, other
Cushitic languages

Literacy:
definition: NA
total population: 25%
male: NA%
female: NA%

@Eritrea:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: State of Eritrea
conventional short form: Eritrea
local long form: Hagere Ertra
local short form: Ertra
former: Eritrea Autonomous Region in Ethiopia

Data code: ER

Government type: transitional government
note: following a successful referendum on independence for the
Autonomous Region of Eritrea on 23-25 April 1993, a National Assembly,
composed entirely of the People's Front for Democracy and Justice or
PFDJ, was established as a transitional legislature; a Constitutional
Commission was also established to draft a constitution; ISAIAS
Afworki was elected president by the transitional legislature; the
constitution, ratified in August 1997, did not enter into effect,
pending parliamentary and presidential elections; those elections have
been postponed indefinitely following the start of the border conflict
with Ethiopia

Capital: Asmara (formerly Asmera)

Administrative divisions: 8 provinces (singular - awraja); Akale
Guzay, Barka, Denkel, Hamasen, Sahil, Semhar, Senhit, Seraye
note: in May 1995 the National Assembly adopted a resolution stating
that the administrative structure of Eritrea, which had been
established by former colonial powers, would consist of only six
provinces when the new constitution, then being drafted, became
effective in 1997; the new provinces, the names of which had not been
recommended by the US Board on Geographic Names for recognition by the
US Government, pending acceptable definition of the boundaries, were:
Anseba, Debub, Debubawi Keyih Bahri, Gash-Barka, Maakel, and Semanawi
Keyih Bahri; more recently, it has been reported that these provinces
have been redesignated regions and renamed Southern Red Sea, Northern
Red Sea, Anseba, Gash-Barka, Southern, and Central

Independence: 23-25 April 1993 referendum was held with vote for
independence as the outcome; 24 May 1993 (from Ethiopia; formerly the
Eritrea Autonomous Region)

National holiday: National Day (independence from Ethiopia), 24 May
(1993)

Constitution: the transitional constitution, decreed on 19 May 1993,
was replaced by a new constitution adopted on 23 May 1997, but not yet
implemented

Legal system: operates on the basis of transitional laws that
incorporate pre-independence statutes of the Eritrean People's
Liberation Front, revised Ethiopian laws, customary laws, and post
independence enacted laws

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President ISAIAS Afworki (since 8 June 1993); note -
the president is both the chief of state and head of government
head of government: President ISAIAS Afworki (since 8 June 1993); note
- the president is both the chief of state and head of government
cabinet: State Council is the collective executive authority
note: the president is head of the State Council and National Assembly
elections: president elected by the National Assembly; election last
held 8 June 1993 (next to be held NA)
election results: ISAIAS Afworki elected president; percent of
National Assembly vote - ISAIAS Afworki 95%

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly (150 seats; term
limits not established)
elections: in May 1997, following the adoption of the new
constitution, 75 members of the PFDJ Central Committee (the old
Central Committee of the EPLF), 60 members of the 527-member
Constituent Assembly which had been established in 1997 to discuss and
ratify the new constitution, and 15 representatives of Eritreans
living abroad were formed into a Transitional National Assembly to
serve as the country's legislative body until country-wide elections
to a National Assembly are held; only 75 members will be elected to
the National Assembly - the other 75 will be members of the Central
Committee of the PFDJ

Judicial branch: Supreme Court; 10 provincial courts; 29 district
courts

Political parties and leaders: People's Front for Democracy and
Justice or PFDJ, the only party recognized by the government [ISAIAS
Afworki, PETROS Solomon]

Political pressure groups and leaders: Eritrean Islamic Jihad or EIJ;
Eritrean Liberation Front or ELF ; Eritrean
Liberation Front-Revolutionary Council or ELF-RC ;
Eritrean Liberation Front-United Organization or ELF-UO [Mohammed Said
NAWD]

International organization participation: ACP, AfDB, CCC, ECA, FAO,
G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IGAD, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat
(nonsignatory user), IOC, ITU, NAM, OAU, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO,
UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador SEMERE Russom
chancery: 1708 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20009
telephone:  (202) 319-1991
FAX:  (202) 319-1304

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador William D. CLARKE
embassy: Franklin D. Roosevelt Street, Asmara
mailing address: P. O. Box 211, Asmara
telephone:  (1) 120004
FAX:  (1) 127584

Flag description: red isosceles triangle (based on the hoist side)
dividing the flag into two right triangles; the upper triangle is
green, the lower one is blue; a gold wreath encircling a gold olive
branch is centered on the hoist side of the red triangle

@Eritrea:Economy

Economy - overview: With independence from Ethiopia on 24 May 1993,
Eritrea faced the economic problems of a small, desperately poor
country. The economy is largely based on subsistence agriculture, with
80% of the population involved in farming and herding. The small
industrial sector consists mainly of light industries with outmoded
technologies. Domestic output (GDP) is substantially augmented by
worker remittances from abroad. Government revenues come from custom
duties and taxes on income and sales. Road construction is a top
domestic priority. In the long term, Eritrea may benefit from the
development of offshore oil, offshore fishing, and tourism. Eritrea's
economic future depends on its ability to master fundamental social
and economic problems, e.g., by reducing illiteracy, promoting job
creation, expanding technical training, attracting foreign investment,
and streamlining the bureaucracy. The most immediate threat to the
economy, however, is the possible expansion of the border conflict
with Ethiopia, which broke out in May 1998. The hostilities have
drained away substantial resources vital to Eritrea's economic
development.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $2.9 billion (1999 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 3% (1999 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $750 (1999 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 18%
industry: 20%
services: 62% (1995 est.)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 9% (1998 est.)

Labor force: NA

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 80%, industry and commerce
20%

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
revenues: $283.9 million
expenditures: $351.6 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1997 est.)

Industries: food processing, beverages, clothing and textiles

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - production: 177.6 million kWh (1997 est.)

Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 100%
hydro: 0%
nuclear: 0%
other: 0% (1997 est.)

Electricity - consumption: 177.6 million kWh (1997 est.)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1997)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1997)

Agriculture - products: sorghum, lentils, vegetables, corn, cotton,
tobacco, coffee, sisal; livestock, goats; fish

Exports: $52.9 million (f.o.b., 1997)

Exports - commodities: livestock, sorghum, textiles, food, small
manufactures

Exports - partners: Ethiopia 64%, Sudan 17%, Italy 5%, Saudi Arabia
2%, US, Yemen (1997)

Imports: $489.4 million (c.i.f., 1997)

Imports - commodities: processed goods, machinery, petroleum products

Imports - partners: Saudi Arabia 16%, Italy 14%, UAE 13%, Ethiopia 9%,
Germany 6% (1997)

Debt - external: $76 million (1997 est.)

Economic aid - recipient: $123.1 million (1997)

Currency: 1 nafka = 100 cents

Exchange rates: nakfa per US$1 = 9.5 (January 2000), 7.6 (January
1999), 7.2 (March 1998 est.)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Eritrea:Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 23,578 (2000)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 0 (1995)

Telephone system:
domestic: very inadequate; most telephones are in Asmara; government
is seeking international tenders to improve the system
international: NA

Radio broadcast stations: AM 2, FM 1, shortwave 2 (2000)

Radios: 345,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 1 (2000)

Televisions: 1,000 (1997)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 1 (1999)

@Eritrea:Transportation

Railways:
total: 317 km
narrow gauge: 317 km 0.950-m gauge (1999)
note: links Ak'ordat and Asmara with the port of Massawa;
nonoperational since 1978 except for about a 5 km stretch that was
reopened in Massawa in 1994; rehabilitation of the remainder and of
the rolling stock is under way

Highways:
total: 4,010 km
paved: 874 km
unpaved: 3,136 km (1996 est.)

Ports and harbors: Assab (Aseb), Massawa (Mits'iwa)

Merchant marine:
total: 5 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 16,069 GRT/19,549 DWT
ships by type: bulk 1, cargo 1, liquified gas 1, petroleum tanker 1,
roll-on/roll-off 1 (1999 est.)

Airports: 21 (1999 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 3
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 (1999 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 18
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 6
914 to 1,523 m: 6
under 914 m: 2 (1999 est.)

@Eritrea:Military

Military branches: Army, Navy, Air Force

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $196 million (FY97)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 28.6% (FY97)

@Eritrea:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: dispute over alignment of boundary with
Ethiopia led to armed conflict in 1998, which is still unresolved
despite arbitration efforts

______________________________________________________________________



ESTONIA

@Estonia:Introduction

Background: After centuries of Swedish and Russian rule, Estonia
attained independence in 1918. Forcibly incorporated into the USSR in
1940, it regained its freedom in 1991 with the collapse of the Soviet
Union. Since the last Russian troops left in 1994, Estonia has been
free to promote economic and political ties with Western Europe.

@Estonia:Geography

Location: Eastern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea and Gulf of
Finland, between Latvia and Russia

Geographic coordinates: 59 00 N, 26 00 E

Map references: Europe

Area:
total: 45,226 sq km
land: 43,211 sq km
water: 2,015 sq km
note: includes 1,520 islands in the Baltic Sea

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than New Hampshire and Vermont
combined

Land boundaries:
total: 633 km
border countries: Latvia 339 km, Russia 294 km

Coastline: 3,794 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone: limits fixed in coordination with neighboring
states
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: maritime, wet, moderate winters, cool summers

Terrain: marshy, lowlands

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Baltic Sea 0 m
highest point: Suur Munamagi 318 m

Natural resources: shale oil (kukersite), peat, phosphorite, amber,
cambrian blue clay, limestone, dolomite, arable land

Land use:
arable land: 25%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 11%
forests and woodland: 44%
other: 20% (1996 est.)

Irrigated land: 110 sq km (1996 est.)

Natural hazards: flooding occurs frequently in the spring

Environment - current issues: air heavily polluted with sulfur dioxide
from oil-shale burning power plants in northeast; contamination of
soil and groundwater with petroleum products, chemicals at former
Soviet military bases; Estonia has more than 1,400 natural and manmade
lakes, the smaller of which in agricultural areas are heavily affected
by organic waste; coastal sea water is polluted in many locations

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Hazardous
Wastes, Ship Pollution, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol

@Estonia:People

Population: 1,431,471 (July 2000 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 18% (male 129,204; female 124,269)
15-64 years: 68% (male 466,960; female 503,233)
65 years and over: 14% (male 67,781; female 140,024) (2000 est.)

Population growth rate: -0.59% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 8.45 births/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 13.55 deaths/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.79 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.93 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.48 male(s)/female
total population: 0.87 male(s)/female (2000 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 12.92 deaths/1,000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 69.45 years
male: 63.4 years
female: 75.79 years (2000 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.19 children born/woman (2000 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Estonian(s)
adjective: Estonian

Ethnic groups: Estonian 65.1%, Russian 28.1%, Ukrainian 2.5%,
Byelorussian 1.5%, Finn 1%, other 1.8% (1998)

Religions: Evangelical Lutheran, Russian Orthodox, Estonian Orthodox,
Baptist, Methodist, Seventh-Day Adventist, Roman Catholic,
Pentecostal, Word of Life, Jewish

Languages: Estonian (official), Russian, Ukrainian, English, Finnish,
other

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 100%
male: 100%
female: 100% (1998 est.)

@Estonia:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Estonia
conventional short form: Estonia
local long form: Eesti Vabariik
local short form: Eesti
former: Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic

Data code: EN

Government type: parliamentary democracy

Capital: Tallinn

Administrative divisions: 15 counties (maakonnad, singular - maakond):
Harjumaa (Tallinn), Hiiumaa (Kardla), Ida-Virumaa (Johvi), Jarvamaa
(Paide), Jogevamaa (Jogeva), Laanemaa (Haapsalu), Laane-Virumaa
(Rakvere), Parnumaa (Parnu), Polvamaa (Polva), Raplamaa (Rapla),
Saaremaa (Kuessaare), Tartumaa (Tartu), Valgamaa (Valga), Viljandimaa
(Viljandi), Vorumaa (Voru)
note: counties have the administrative center name following in
parentheses

Independence: 6 September 1991 (from Soviet Union)

National holiday: Independence Day, 24 February (1918)

Constitution: adopted 28 June 1992

Legal system: based on civil law system; no judicial review of
legislative acts

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal for all Estonian citizens

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Lennart MERI (since 5 October 1992)
head of government: Prime Minister Mart LAAR (since 29 March 1999)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister,
approved by Parliament
elections: president elected by Parliament for a five-year term; if he
or she does not secure two-thirds of the votes after three rounds of
balloting, then an electoral assembly (made up of Parliament plus
members of local governments) elects the president, choosing between
the two candidates with the largest percentage of votes; election last
held August-September 1996 (next to be held fall 2001); prime minister
nominated by the president and approved by Parliament
election results: Lennart MERI reelected president by an electoral
assembly after Parliament was unable to break a deadlock between MERI
and RUUTEL; percent of electoral assembly vote - Lennart MERI 61%,
Arnold RUUTEL 39%

Legislative branch: unicameral Parliament or Riigikogu (101 seats;
members are elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)
elections: last held 7 March 1999 (next to be held NA March 2003)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party -
Center Party 28, Union of Pro Patria (Fatherland League) 18, Reform
Party 18, Moderates 17, Country People's Party (Agrarians) 7,
Coalition Party 7, UPPE 6,

Judicial branch: National Court, chairman appointed by Parliament for
life

Political parties and leaders: Center Party or K [Edgar SAVISAAR,
chairman]; Coalition Party and Rural Union or KMU [Andrus OOVEL,
chairman]; Country People's Party ; Moderates or M
; Reform Party or RE ; Union of
Pro Patria or Fatherland League (Isamaaliit) ;
United People's Party or UPPE 

International organization participation: BIS, CBSS, CCC, CE, EAPC,
EBRD, ECE, EU (applicant), FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IFC,
IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO
(correspondent), ITU, OPCW, OSCE, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNMIBH,
UNMIK, UNTSO, UPU, WEU (associate partner), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Sven JURGENSON
chancery: 2131 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone:  (202) 588-0101
FAX:  (202) 588-0108
consulate(s) general: New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Melissa WELLS
embassy: Kentmanni 20, Tallinn EE 0001
mailing address: use embassy street address
telephone:  (6) 312-021
FAX:  (6) 312-025

Flag description: pre-1940 flag restored by Supreme Soviet in May 1990
- three equal horizontal bands of blue (top), black, and white

@Estonia:Economy

Economy - overview: In 1999, Estonia experienced its worst year
economically since it regained independence in 1991 largely because of
the impact of the August 1998 Russian financial crisis. Estonia joined
the WTO in November 1999 - the second Baltic state to join - and
continued its EU accession talks. GDP is forecast to grow 4% in 2000.
Privatization of energy, telecommunications, railways, and other
state-owned companies will continue in 2000. Estonia expects to
complete its preparations for EU membership by the end of 2002.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $7.9 billion (1999 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: -0.5% (1999 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $5,600 (1999 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 3.6%
industry: 30.7%
services: 65.7% (1999)

Population below poverty line: 6.3% (1994 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 3.2%
highest 10%: 28.5% (1996)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3.7% (1999 est.)

Labor force: 785,500 (1999 est.)

Labor force - by occupation: industry 20%, agriculture and forestry
11%, services 69% (1999 est.)

Unemployment rate: 11.7% (1999 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $1.37 billion
expenditures: $1.37 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1997 est.)

Industries: oil shale, shipbuilding, phosphates, electric motors,
excavators, cement, furniture, clothing, textiles, paper, shoes,
apparel

Industrial production growth rate: 3% (1996 est.)

Electricity - production: 8.742 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 99.98%
hydro: 0.02%
nuclear: 0%
other: 0% (1998)

Electricity - consumption: 7.58 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - exports: 700 million kWh (1998)

Electricity - imports: 150 million kWh (1998)

Agriculture - products: potatoes, fruits, vegetables; livestock and
dairy products; fish

Exports: $2.5 billion (f.o.b., 1999)

Exports - commodities: machinery and appliances 19%, wood products
15%, textiles 13%, food products 12%, metals 10%, chemical products 8%
(1999)

Exports - partners: Sweden 19.3%, Finland 18.8%, Russia 8.8%, Latvia
8.8%, Germany 7.3%, US 2.5% (1999)

Imports: $3.4 billion (f.o.b., 1999)

Imports - commodities: machinery and appliances 26%, foodstuffs 15%,
chemical products 10%, metal products 9%, textiles 8% (1999)

Imports - partners: Finland 23%, Russia 13.2%, Sweden 10%, Germany
9.1%, US 4.7 (1999)

Debt - external: $270 million (January 1996)

Economic aid - recipient: $137.3 million (1995)

Currency: 1 Estonian kroon (EEK) = 100 sents

Exchange rates: krooni (EEK) per US$1 - 15.417 (January 2000), 4.678
(1999), 14.075 (1998), 13.882 (1997), 12.034 (1996), 11.465 (1995);
note - krooni are tied to the German deutsche mark at a fixed rate of
8 to 1

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Estonia:Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 476,078 (yearend 1998)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 246,000 (yearend 1998)

Telephone system: foreign investment in the form of joint business
ventures greatly improved telephone service; Internet services
available throughout most of the country; about 150,000 unfilled
subscriber requests
domestic: local - the Ministry of Transport and Communications is
expanding cellular telephone services to form rural networks;
intercity - highly developed fiber-optic backbone (double loop) system
presently serving at least 16 major cities (1998)
international: fiber-optic cables to Finland, Sweden, Latvia, and
Russia provide worldwide packet switched service; two international
switches are located in Tallinn

Radio broadcast stations: AM 3 (all AM stations inactive since July
1998), FM 82, shortwave 1 (1998)

Radios: 1.01 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 31 (plus five repeaters) (September
1995)

Televisions: 605,000 (1997)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 6 (1999)

@Estonia:Transportation

Railways:
total: 1,018 km common carrier lines only; does not include dedicated
industrial lines
broad gauge: 1,018 km 1.520-m gauge (132 km electrified) (1995)

Highways:
total: 49,480 km
paved: 10,935 km (including 75 km of expressways)
unpaved: 38,545 km (1998 est.)

Waterways: 320 km perennially navigable

Pipelines: natural gas 420 km (1992)

Ports and harbors: Haapsalu, Kunda, Muuga, Paldiski, Parnu, Tallinn

Merchant marine:
total: 50 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 306,264 GRT/293,083 DWT
ships by type: bulk 3, cargo 20, combination bulk 1, container 5,
petroleum tanker 2, roll-on/roll-off 13, short-sea passenger 6 (1999
est.)

Airports: 5 (1997 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 5
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 3 (1997 est.)

@Estonia:Military

Military branches: Ground Forces, Navy/Coast Guard, Air and Air
Defense Force (not officially sanctioned), Maritime Border Guard,
Volunteer Defense League (Kaitseliit), Security Forces (internal and
border troops)

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 359,764 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males age 15-49: 282,456 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 10,965 (2000 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $70 million (FY99)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 1.2% (FY99)

@Estonia:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: Estonian and Russian negotiators reached a
technical border agreement in December 1996 which has not been signed
or ratified as of 1 January 2000

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for opiates and cannabis from
Southwest Asia and the Caucasus via Russia, cocaine from Latin America
to Western Europe and Scandinavia, and synthetic drugs from Western
Europe to Scandinavia; possible precursor manufacturing and/or
trafficking

______________________________________________________________________



ETHIOPIA

@Ethiopia:Introduction

Background: Unique among African countries, the ancient Ethiopian
monarchy maintained its freedom from colonial rule, one exception
being the Italian occupation of 1936-41. In 1974 a military junta, the
Derg, deposed Emperor Haile SALASSIE (who had ruled since 1930) and
established a socialist state. Torn by bloody coups, uprisings,
wide-scale drought, and massive refugee problems, the regime was
finally toppled by a coalition of rebel forces, the Ethiopian People's
Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF), in 1991. A constitution was
adopted in 1994 and Ethiopia's first multiparty elections were held in
1995. A border war with Eritrea that erupted in May 1998 has
strengthened the ruling coalition, but has hurt the nation's economy.

@Ethiopia:Geography

Location: Eastern Africa, west of Somalia

Geographic coordinates: 8 00 N, 38 00 E

Map references: Africa

Area:
total: 1,127,127 sq km
land: 1,119,683 sq km
water: 7,444 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly less than twice the size of Texas

Land boundaries:
total: 5,311 km
border countries: Djibouti 337 km, Eritrea 912 km, Kenya 830 km,
Somalia 1,626 km, Sudan 1,606 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: tropical monsoon with wide topographic-induced variation

Terrain: high plateau with central mountain range divided by Great
Rift Valley

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Denakil -125 m
highest point: Ras Dashen Terara 4,620 m

Natural resources: small reserves of gold, platinum, copper, potash,
natural gas, hydropower

Land use:
arable land: 12%
permanent crops: 1%
permanent pastures: 40%
forests and woodland: 25%
other: 22% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 1,900 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: geologically active Great Rift Valley susceptible to
earthquakes, volcanic eruptions; frequent droughts

Environment - current issues: deforestation; overgrazing; soil
erosion; desertification

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered
Species, Ozone Layer Protection
signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification, Law of the Sea,
Nuclear Test Ban

Geography - note: landlocked - entire coastline along the Red Sea was
lost with the de jure independence of Eritrea on 24 May 1993

@Ethiopia:People

Population: 64,117,452
note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the
effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life
expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population
and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age
and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2000 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 47% (male 15,167,395; female 14,977,346)
15-64 years: 50% (male 16,195,637; female 15,987,089)
65 years and over: 3% (male 816,011; female 973,974) (2000 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.76% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 45.13 births/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 17.63 deaths/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: 0.14 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2000 est.)
note: repatriation of Ethiopians who fled to Sudan for refuge from war
and famine in earlier years is expected to continue for several years;
small numbers of Sudanese and Somali refugees, who fled to Ethiopia
from the fighting or famine in their own countries, continue to return
to their homes

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.84 male(s)/female
total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2000 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 101.29 deaths/1,000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 45.17 years
male: 44.41 years
female: 45.94 years (2000 est.)

Total fertility rate: 7.07 children born/woman (2000 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Ethiopian(s)
adjective: Ethiopian

Ethnic groups: Oromo 40%, Amhara and Tigre 32%, Sidamo 9%, Shankella
6%, Somali 6%, Afar 4%, Gurage 2%, other 1%

Religions: Muslim 45%-50%, Ethiopian Orthodox 35%-40%, animist 12%,
other 3%-8%

Languages: Amharic, Tigrinya, Orominga, Guaraginga, Somali, Arabic,
other local languages, English (major foreign language taught in
schools)

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 35.5%
male: 45.5%
female: 25.3% (1995 est.)

@Ethiopia:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia
conventional short form: Ethiopia
local long form: Ityop'iya Federalawi Demokrasiyawi Ripeblik
local short form: Ityop'iya
abbreviation: FDRE

Data code: ET

Government type: federal republic

Capital: Addis Ababa

Administrative divisions: 9 ethnically-based administrative regions
(astedader akababiwach, singular - astedader akabibi) and 2 chartered
cities*: Addis Ababa*; Afar; Amhara, Benishangul/Gumaz; Dire Dawa*;
Gambela; Harar; Oromia; Somali; Southern Nations, Nationalities, and
Peoples Region; Tigray

Independence: oldest independent country in Africa and one of the
oldest in the world - at least 2,000 years

National holiday: National Day, 28 May (1991) (defeat of MENGISTU
regime)

Constitution: ratified December 1994; effective 22 August 1995

Legal system: currently transitional mix of national and regional
courts

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President NEGASSO Gidada (since 22 August 1995)
head of government: Prime Minister MELES Zenawi (since NA August 1995)
cabinet: Council of Ministers as provided for in the December 1994
constitution; ministers are selected by the prime minister and
approved by the House of People's Representatives
elections: president elected by the House of People's Representatives
for a six-year term; election last held NA June 1995 (next to be held
NA May 2001); prime minister designated by the party in power
following legislative elections
election results: NEGASSO Gidada elected president; percent of vote by
the House of People's Representatives - NA

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament consists of the House of
Federation or upper chamber (117 seats; members are chosen by state
assemblies to serve five-year terms) and the House of People's
Representatives or lower chamber (548 seats; members are directly
elected by popular vote from single-member districts to serve
five-year terms)
elections: regional and national popular elections were held in May
and June 1995 (next to be held NA May 2000)
election results: percent of vote - NA; seats - EPRDF 483, regional
political groupings 46, independents 8; note - 11 seats unconfirmed
note: many opposition groups, including the Oromo Liberation Front,
boycotted the election

Judicial branch: Federal Supreme Court; the president and vice
president of the Federal Supreme Court are recommended by the prime
minister and appointed by the House of People's Representatives; for
other federal judges, the prime minister submits candidates selected
by the Federal Judicial Administrative Council to the House of
People's Representatives for appointment

Political parties and leaders: All-Amhara People's Organization or
AAPO ; Coalition of Alternative Forces for Peace
and Democracy or CAFPD ; Ethiopian Democratic Union or EDU
; Ethiopian Movement for Democracy, Peace, and Unity or
EMDPU ; Ethiopian National Democratic Party or ENDP
; Ethiopian People's Revolutionary
Democratic Front or EPRDF ; Oromo Liberation Front or
OLF ; dozens of small parties

Political pressure groups and leaders: Southern Ethiopia People's
Democratic Coalition; numerous small, ethnically based groups have
formed since the defeat of the former MENGISTU regime in 1991,
including several Islamic militant groups

International organization participation: ACP, AfDB, CCC, ECA, FAO,
G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD, ILO,
IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, NAM, OAU,
OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNU, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO,
WMO, WToO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador BERHANE Gebre-Christos
chancery: 2134 Kalorama Road NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone:  (202) 234-2281
FAX:  (202) 328-7950

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Tibor P. NAGY
embassy: Entoto Street, Addis Ababa
mailing address: P. O. Box 1014, Addis Ababa
telephone:  (1) 550666
FAX:  (1) 551328

Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of green (top), yellow,
and red with a yellow pentagram and single yellow rays emanating from
the angles between the points on a light blue disk centered on the
three bands; Ethiopia is the oldest independent country in Africa, and
the colors of her flag were so often adopted by other African
countries upon independence that they became known as the pan-African
colors

@Ethiopia:Economy

Economy - overview: Ethiopia's economy is based on agriculture, which
accounts for half of GDP, 90% of exports, and 80% of total employment.
The agricultural sector suffers from frequent periods of drought and
poor cultivation practices, and as many as 4.6 million people need
food assistance annually. Coffee is critical to the Ethiopian economy,
and Ethiopia earned $267 million in 1999 by exporting 105,000 metric
tons. According to current estimates, coffee contributes 10% of
Ethiopia's GDP. More than 15 million people (25% of the population)
derive their livelihood from the coffee sector. Other exports include
live animals, hides, gold, and qat. In December 1999, Ethiopia signed
a $1.4 billion joint venture deal to develop a huge natural gas field
in the Somali Regional State. The war with Eritrea has forced the
government to spend scarce resources on the military and forced the
government to scale back ambitious development plans. Foreign
investment has declined significantly. Government taxes imposed in
late 1999 to raise money for the war will depress an already weak
economy. The war has forced the government to improve roads and other
parts of the previously neglected infrastructure, but only certain
regions of the nation have benefited.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $33.3 billion (1999 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 0% (1999 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $560 (1999 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 46%
industry: 12%
services: 42% (1998 est.)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 4% (1999 est.)

Labor force: NA

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture and animal husbandry 80%,
government and services 12%, industry and construction 8% (1985)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
revenues: $1 billion
expenditures: $1.48 billion, including capital expenditures of $415
million (FY96/97)

Industries: food processing, beverages, textiles, chemicals, metals
processing, cement

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - production: 1.36 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 7.35%
hydro: 89.34%
nuclear: 0%
other: 3.31% (1998)

Electricity - consumption: 1.265 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1998)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1998)

Agriculture - products: cereals, pulses, coffee, oilseed, sugarcane,
potatoes; hides, cattle, sheep, goats

Exports: $420 million (f.o.b., 1998)

Exports - commodities: coffee, gold, leather products, oilseeds

Exports - partners: Germany 22%, Japan 12%, Italy 9%, UK 5% (1997
est.)

Imports: $1.25 billion (f.o.b., 1998 est.)

Imports - commodities: food and live animals, petroleum and petroleum
products, chemicals, machinery, motor vehicles

Imports - partners: Italy 10%, US 9%, Japan 8%, Jordan 5% (1997 est.)

Debt - external: $10 billion (1997)

Economic aid - recipient: $367 million (FY95/96)

Currency: 1 birr (Br) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: birr (Br) per US$1 (end of period) - 8.2 (January
2000), 7.5030 (1998), 6.8640 (1997), 6.4260 (1996), 6.3200 (1995)
note: since May 1993, the birr market rate has been determined in an
interbank market supported by weekly wholesale auction; prior to that
date, the official rate was pegged to US$1 = 5.000 birr

Fiscal year: 8 July - 7 July

@Ethiopia:Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 365,000 (1999)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 4,000 (1999)

Telephone system: open wire and microwave radio relay system adequate
for government use
domestic: open wire; microwave radio relay; radio communication in the
HF, VHF, and UHF frequencies; two domestic satellites provide the
national trunk service
international: open wire to Sudan and Djibouti; microwave radio relay
to Kenya and Djibouti; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (1
Atlantic Ocean and 2 Pacific Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 5, FM 0, shortwave 2 (1999)

Radios: 11.75 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 25 (1999)

Televisions: 320,000 (1997)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 1 (1999)

@Ethiopia:Transportation

Railways:
total: 681 km (Ethiopian segment of the Addis Ababa-Djibouti railroad)
narrow gauge: 681 km 1.000-m gauge
note: in April 1998, Djibouti and Ethiopia announced plans to
revitalize the century-old railroad that links their capitals; since
May 1998 Ethiopia has expended considerable effort to repair and
maintain the lines

Highways:
total: 28,500 km
paved: 4,275 km
unpaved: 24,225 km (1996 est.)

Ports and harbors: none; Ethiopia is landlocked and was by agreement
with Eritrea using the ports of Assab and Massawa; since the border
dispute with Eritrea flared, Ethiopia has used the port of Djibouti
for nearly all of its imports

Merchant marine:
total: 12 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 84,915 GRT/112,634 DWT
ships by type: cargo 7, container 1, petroleum tanker 1,
roll-on/roll-off 3 (1999 est.)

Airports: 85 (1999 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 11
over 3,047 m: 3
2,438 to 3,047 m: 6
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2 (1999 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 74
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 7
1,524 to 2,437 m: 11
914 to 1,523 m: 35
under 914 m: 19 (1999 est.)

@Ethiopia:Military

Military branches: Ground Forces, Air Force, Police, Militia
note: Ethiopia is landlocked and has no navy; following the
independence of Eritrea, Ethiopian naval facilities remained in
Eritrean possession and ships which belonged to the former Ethiopian
Navy and based at Djibouti have been sold

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 14,184,072 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males age 15-49: 7,392,677 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 686,801 (2000 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $138 million (FY98/99)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 2.5% (FY98/99)

@Ethiopia:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: most of the southern half of the boundary
with Somalia is a Provisional Administrative Line; territorial dispute
with Somalia over the Ogaden; dispute over alignment of boundary with
Eritrea led to armed conflict in 1998, which is still unresolved
despite arbitration efforts

Illicit drugs: transit hub for heroin originating in Southwest and
Southeast Asia and destined for Europe and North America as well as
cocaine destined for markets in southern Africa; cultivates qat (chat)
for local use and regional export, principally to Djibouti and Somalia

______________________________________________________________________



EUROPA ISLAND

@Europa Island:Geography

Location: Southern Africa, island in the Mozambique Channel, about
one-half of the way from southern Madagascar to southern Mozambique

Geographic coordinates: 22 20 S, 40 22 E

Map references: Africa

Area:
total: 28 sq km
land: 28 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: about 0.16 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 22.2 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical

Terrain: low and flat

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point: unnamed location 24 m

Natural resources: NEGL

Land use:
arable land: NA%
permanent crops: NA%
permanent pastures: NA%
forests and woodland: NA%
other: NA%

Irrigated land: 0 sq km (1993)

Natural hazards: NA

Environment - current issues: NA

Geography - note: wildlife sanctuary

@Europa Island:People

Population: no indigenous inhabitants
note: there is a small French military garrison (July 2000 est.)

@Europa Island:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Europa Island
local long form: none
local short form: Ile Europa

Data code: EU

Dependency status: possession of France; administered by a high
commissioner of the Republic, resident in Reunion

Flag description: the flag of France is used

@Europa Island:Economy

Economy - overview: no economic activity

@Europa Island:Communications

Communications - note: 1 meteorological station

@Europa Island:Transportation

Ports and harbors: none; offshore anchorage only

Airports: 1 (1999 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (1999 est.)

@Europa Island:Military

Military - note: defense is the responsibility of France

@Europa Island:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: claimed by Madagascar

______________________________________________________________________



FALKLAND ISLANDS

______________________________________________________________________



FAROE ISLANDS

@Faroe Islands:Introduction

Background: The population of the Faroe Islands is largely descended
from Viking settlers who arrived in the 9th century. The islands have
been connected politically to Denmark since the 14th century. A high
degree of self-government was attained in 1948.

@Faroe Islands:Geography

Location: Northern Europe, island group between the Norwegian Sea and
the north Atlantic Ocean, about one-half of the way from Iceland to
Norway

Geographic coordinates: 62 00 N, 7 00 W

Map references: Europe

Area:
total: 1,399 sq km
land: 1,399 sq km
water: 0 sq km (some lakes and streams)

Area - comparative: eight times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 1,117 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 3 nm

Climate: mild winters, cool summers; usually overcast; foggy, windy

Terrain: rugged, rocky, some low peaks; cliffs along most of coast

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Slaettaratindur 882 m

Natural resources: fish, whales, hydropower

Land use:
arable land: 6%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 0%
forests and woodland: 0%
other: 94% (1996)

Irrigated land: 0 sq km

Natural hazards: NA

Environment - current issues: NA

Geography - note: archipelago of 17 inhabited islands and one
uninhabited island, and a few uninhabited islets; strategically
located along important sea lanes in northeastern Atlantic;
precipitous terrain limits habitation to small coastal lowlands

@Faroe Islands:People

Population: 45,296 (July 2000 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 23% (male 5,233; female 5,163)
15-64 years: 63% (male 15,270; female 13,382)
65 years and over: 14% (male 2,788; female 3,460) (2000 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.83% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 13.58 births/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 8.7 deaths/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: 3.38 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.14 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.81 male(s)/female
total population: 1.06 male(s)/female (2000 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 6.94 deaths/1,000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 78.43 years
male: 74.96 years
female: 81.92 years (2000 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.32 children born/woman (2000 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Faroese (singular and plural)
adjective: Faroese

Ethnic groups: Scandinavian

Religions: Evangelical Lutheran

Languages: Faroese (derived from Old Norse), Danish

Literacy:
definition: NA
total population: NA%
male: NA%
female: NA%
note: similar to Denmark proper

@Faroe Islands:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Faroe Islands
local long form: none
local short form: Foroyar

Data code: FO

Dependency status: part of the Kingdom of Denmark; self-governing
overseas administrative division of Denmark since 1948

Government type: NA

Capital: Torshavn

Administrative divisions: none (part of the Kingdom of Denmark;
self-governing overseas administrative division of Denmark)

Independence: none (part of the Kingdom of Denmark; self-governing
overseas administrative division of Denmark)

National holiday: Birthday of the Queen, 16 April (1940)

Constitution: 5 June 1953 (Danish constitution)

Legal system: Danish

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: Queen MARGRETHE II of Denmark (since 14 January 1972),
represented by High Commissioner Bente KLINTE, chief administrative
officer (since NA)
head of government: Prime Minister Anfinn KALLSBERG (since 9 May 1998)
cabinet: Landsstyri elected by the Faroese Parliament
elections: the monarch is hereditary; high commissioner appointed by
the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the party
that wins the most seats is usually elected prime minister by the
Faroese Parliament; election last held 30 April 1998 (next to be held
NA 2002)
election results: Anfinn KALLSBERG elected prime minister; percent of
parliamentary vote - NA

Legislative branch: unicameral Faroese Parliament or Logting (32
seats; members are elected by popular vote on a proportional basis
from the seven constituencies to serve four-year terms)
elections: last held 30 April 1998 (next to be held by NA July 2002)
election results: percent of vote by party - Republican Party 23.8%,
People's Party 21.3%, Social Democratic Party 21.9%, Coalition Party
(Union Party, Labor Front, Home Rule Party) 18%; seats by party -
Republican Party 8, People's Party 8, Social Democratic Party 7,
Coalition Party 6, other parties 3
note: election of 2 seats to the Danish Parliament was last held on 11
March 1998 (next to be held by NA 2002); results - percent of vote by
party - NA; seats by party - Social Democratic Party 1, People's Party
1

Judicial branch: none

Political parties and leaders: Center Party ;
Christian People's Party ; Home Rule Party
; Labor Front ; People's Party [Oli
BRECKMANN]; Republican Party ; Social Democratic
Party ; The Faroese Party ;
Union Party 

International organization participation: NC, NIB

Diplomatic representation in the US: none (self-governing overseas
administrative division of Denmark)

Diplomatic representation from the US: none (self-governing overseas
administrative division of Denmark)

Flag description: white with a red cross outlined in blue that extends
to the edges of the flag; the vertical part of the cross is shifted to
the hoist side in the style of the Dannebrog (Danish flag)

@Faroe Islands:Economy

Economy - overview: After the severe economic troubles of the early
1990s, brought on by a drop in the vital fish catch, the Faroe Islands
have come back in the last few years, with unemployment down to 5% in
mid-1998. Nevertheless, the almost total dependence on fishing means
the economy remains extremely vulnerable. The Faroese hope to broaden
their economic base by building new fish-processing plants. Oil finds
close to the Faroese area give hope for deposits in the immediate
area, which may lay the basis to sustained economic prosperity. The
Faroese are supported by a substantial annual subsidy from Denmark.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $700 million (1996 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 6% (1996 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $16,000 (1996 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 20%
industry: 16%
services: 64% (1996 est.)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.8% (1996 est.)

Labor force: 20,500 (1996 est.)

Labor force - by occupation: largely engaged in fishing,
manufacturing, transportation, commerce

Unemployment rate: 5% (1998 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $467 million
expenditures: $468 million, including capital expenditures of $11
million (1996 est.)

Industries: fishing, shipbuilding, construction, handicrafts

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - production: 186 million kWh (1998)

Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 53.76%
hydro: 45.7%
nuclear: 0%
other: 0.54% (1998)

Electricity - consumption: 173 million kWh (1998)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1998)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1998)

Agriculture - products: milk, potatoes, vegetables; sheep; salmon,
other fish

Exports: $362 million (f.o.b., 1995)

Exports - commodities: fish and fish products 92%, animal feedstuffs,
transport equipment (ships)

Exports - partners: Denmark 31%, UK 25%, Germany 9%, France 7%, Spain
6%, US 2% (1996)

Imports: $315.6 million (c.i.f., 1995)

Imports - commodities: machinery and transport equipment 17.0%,
consumer goods 33%, raw materials and semi-manufactures 26.9%, fuels
11.4%, fish and salt 6.7%

Imports - partners: Denmark 33%, Norway 18%, UK 8% Germany 9%, Sweden
5%, US 2% (1996)

Debt - external: $767 million (1995 est.)

Economic aid - recipient: $150 million (annual subsidy from Denmark)
(1995)

Currency: 1 Danish krone (DKr) = 100 oere

Exchange rates: Danish kroner (DKr) per US$1 - 7.336 (January 2000),
6.976 (1999), 6.701 (1998), 6.604 (1997), 5.799 (1966), 5.602 (1995)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Faroe Islands:Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 22,000 (1995)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 2,558 (1995)

Telephone system: good international communications; good domestic
facilities
domestic: digitalization was to have been completed in 1998
international: satellite earth stations - 1 Orion; 1 fiber-optic
submarine cable linking the Faroe Islands with Denmark and Iceland

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 13, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios: 26,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 7 (plus 51 low-power repeaters)
(September 1995)

Televisions: 15,000 (1997)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): NA

@Faroe Islands:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways:
total: 458 km
paved: 450 km
unpaved: 8 km (1995 est.)

Ports and harbors: Torshavn, Klaksvik, Tvoroyri, Runavik, Fuglafjorour

Merchant marine:
total: 6 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 22,853 GRT/13,481 DWT
ships by type: cargo 2, petroleum tanker 1, refrigerated cargo 1,
roll-on/roll-off 1, short-sea passenger 1 (1999 est.)

Airports: 1 (1999 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (1999 est.)

@Faroe Islands:Military

Military branches: no organized native military forces; only a small
Police Force and Coast Guard are maintained

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $NA

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: NA%

Military - note: defense is the responsibility of Denmark

@Faroe Islands:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

______________________________________________________________________



FIJI

@Fiji:Introduction

Background: Fiji became independent in 1970, after nearly a century as
a British colony. Democratic rule was interrupted by two military
coups in 1987, caused by concern over a government perceived as
dominated by the Indian community (descendants of contract laborers
brought to the islands by the British in the 19th century). A 1990
constitution favored native Melanesian control of Fiji, but led to
heavy Indian emigration; the population loss resulted in economic
difficulties, but ensured that Melanesians became the majority.
Amendments enacted in 1997 made the constitution more equitable. Free
and peaceful elections in 1999 resulted in a government led by an
Indo-Fijian. Fiji has been a major contributor to UN peacekeeping
missions in various parts of the world.

@Fiji:Geography

Location: Oceania, island group in the South Pacific Ocean, about
two-thirds of the way from Hawaii to New Zealand

Geographic coordinates: 18 00 S, 175 00 E

Map references: Oceania

Area:
total: 18,270 sq km
land: 18,270 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than New Jersey

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 1,129 km

Maritime claims: measured from claimed archipelagic baselines
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation;
rectilinear shelf claim added
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical marine; only slight seasonal temperature variation

Terrain: mostly mountains of volcanic origin

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
highest point: Tomanivi 1,324 m

Natural resources: timber, fish, gold, copper, offshore oil potential,
hydropower

Land use:
arable land: 10%
permanent crops: 4%
permanent pastures: 10%
forests and woodland: 65%
other: 11% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 10 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: cyclonic storms can occur from November to January

Environment - current issues: deforestation; soil erosion

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol,
Desertification, Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Marine Life
Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Tropical
Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note: includes 332 islands of which approximately 110 are
inhabited

@Fiji:People

Population: 832,494 (July 2000 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 33% (male 141,779; female 136,212)
15-64 years: 63% (male 263,127; female 262,686)
65 years and over: 4% (male 13,405; female 15,285) (2000 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.41% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 23.48 births/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 5.78 deaths/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: -3.6 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.88 male(s)/female
total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2000 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 14.45 deaths/1,000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 67.94 years
male: 65.54 years
female: 70.45 years (2000 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.89 children born/woman (2000 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Fijian(s)
adjective: Fijian

Ethnic groups: Fijian 51% (predominantly Melanesian with a Polynesian
admixture), Indian 44%, European, other Pacific Islanders, overseas
Chinese, and other 5% (1998 est.)

Religions: Christian 52% (Methodist 37%, Roman Catholic 9%), Hindu
38%, Muslim 8%, other 2%
note: Fijians are mainly Christian, Indians are Hindu, and there is a
Muslim minority (1986)

Languages: English (official), Fijian, Hindustani

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 91.6%
male: 93.8%
female: 89.3% (1995 est.)

@Fiji:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of the Fiji Islands
conventional short form: Fiji

Data code: FJ

Government type: republic
note: military coup leader Maj. Gen. Sitiveni RABUKA formally declared
Fiji a republic on 6 October 1987

Capital: Suva

Administrative divisions: 4 divisions and 1 dependency*; Central,
Eastern, Northern, Rotuma*, Western

Independence: 10 October 1970 (from UK)

National holiday: Independence Day, 10 October (1970)

Constitution: 10 October 1970 (suspended 1 October 1987); a new
constitution was proposed on 23 September 1988 and promulgated on 25
July 1990; amended 25 July 1997 to allow nonethnic Fijians greater say
in government and to make multiparty government mandatory; entered
into force 28 July 1998; note - the May 1999 election was the first
test of the amended constitution and introduced open voting - not
racially prescribed - for the first time at the national level

Legal system: based on British system

Suffrage: 21 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Ratu Sir Kamisese MARA (acting president
since 15 December 1993, president since 12 January 1994); Vice
President Ratu Josefa Iloilo ULUIVUDA (since 18 January 1999)
head of government: Prime Minister Mahendra CHAUDHRY (since 18 May
1999); Deputy Prime Ministers Tupeni BABA (since NA 1999) and Adi
Kuini Vuikaba SPEED (since NA 1999)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the prime minister from among the
members of Parliament and is responsible to Parliament
note: there is also a Presidential Council that advises the president
on matters of national importance and a Great Council of Chiefs which
consists of the highest ranking members of the traditional chiefly
system
elections: president elected by the Great Council of Chiefs for a
five-year term; prime minister appointed by the president
election results: Ratu Sir Kamisese MARA elected president; percent of
Great Council of Chiefs vote - NA

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament consists of the Senate (32
seats; 14 appointed by the Great Council of Chiefs, nine appointed by
the prime minister, eight appointed by the leader of the opposition,
and one appointed by the council of Rotuma) and the House of
Representatives (71 seats; 23 reserved for ethnic Fijians, 19 reserved
for ethnic Indians, three reserved for other ethnic groups, one
reserved for the Rotuman constituency encompassing the whole of Fiji,
and 25 open; members serve five-year terms)
elections: House of Representatives - last held 11 May 1999 (next to
be held NA May 2004)
election results: House of Representatives - percent of vote by party
- NA; seats by party - Fiji Labor Party 37, others 34

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, judges are appointed by the president

Political parties and leaders: Christian Fellowship Party (Veitokani
ni Lewenivanua Vakarisito Party) or VLV (primarily Methodist Fijian)
; Conservative Party of Fiji or CPF ; Fiji
Conservative Party or FCP ; Fiji Independent Labor (Muslim)
; Fiji Indian Congress Party ; Fiji Indian
Liberal Party ; Fiji Labor Party or FLP [Mahendra
CHAUDHRY]; Fijian Association Party or FAP ; Fijian
Nationalist Party or FNP ; Fijian Political Party
or SVT (primarily Fijian) ; Four Corners
Party ; General Electors' Association ;
General Voters Party or GVP ; National Federation Party or
NFP (primarily Indian) ; National Unity Party [Apisai
TORA]
note: in early 1995, ethnic Fijian members of the All National
Congress or ANC merged with the Fijian Association or FA; the
remaining members of the ANC have renamed their party the General
Electors' Association

International organization participation: ACP, AsDB, C, CCC, CP,
ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO,
ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ISO (subscriber), ITU, OPCW,
PCA, Sparteca, SPC, SPF, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNIKOM,
UNMIBH, UNMIK, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador "Ratu" Napolioni MASIREWA
chancery: Suite 240, 2233 Wisconsin Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20007
telephone:  (202) 337-8320
FAX:  (202) 337-1996

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Osman SIDDIQUE
embassy: 31 Loftus Street, Suva
mailing address: P. O. Box 218, Suva
telephone:  314466
FAX:  300081

Flag description: light blue with the flag of the UK in the upper
hoist-side quadrant and the Fijian shield centered on the outer half
of the flag; the shield depicts a yellow lion above a white field
quartered by the cross of Saint George featuring stalks of sugarcane,
a palm tree, bananas, and a white dove

@Fiji:Economy

Economy - overview: Fiji, endowed with forest, mineral, and fish
resources, is one of the most developed of the Pacific island
economies, though still with a large subsistence sector. Sugar exports
and a growing tourist industry are the major sources of foreign
exchange. Sugar processing makes up one-third of industrial activity.
Roughly 300,000 tourists visit each year, including thousands of
Americans following the start of regularly scheduled non-stop air
service from Los Angeles. Fiji's growth slowed in 1997 because the
sugar industry suffered from low world prices and rent disputes
between farmers and landowners. Drought in 1998 further damaged the
sugar industry, but its recovery in 1999 contributed to robust GDP
growth. Long-term problems include low investment and uncertain
property rights.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $5.9 billion (1999 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 7.8% (1999 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $7,300 (1999 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 16.5%
industry: 25.5%
services: 58% (1998 est.)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 0% (1999 est.)

Labor force: 235,000

Labor force - by occupation: subsistence agriculture 67%, wage earners
18%, salary earners 15% (1987)

Unemployment rate: 6% (1997 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $540.65 million
expenditures: $742.65 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1997 est.)

Industries: tourism, sugar, clothing, copra, gold, silver, lumber,
small cottage industries

Industrial production growth rate: 2.9% (1995)

Electricity - production: 550 million kWh (1998)

Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 20%
hydro: 80%
nuclear: 0%
other: 0% (1998)

Electricity - consumption: 512 million kWh (1998)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1998)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1998)

Agriculture - products: sugarcane, coconuts, cassava (tapioca), rice,
sweet potatoes, bananas; cattle, pigs, horses, goats; fish

Exports: $393 million (f.o.b., 1998)

Exports - commodities: sugar 32%, clothing, gold, processed fish,
lumber

Exports - partners: Australia 34%, UK 18%, other Pacific island
countries 11%, US 11%, NZ 5%, Japan 5% (1997)

Imports: $612 million (f.o.b., 1998)

Imports - commodities: machinery and transport equipment, petroleum
products, food, chemicals

Imports - partners: Australia 45%, NZ 15%, Japan 7%, US 5%, Singapore
4% (1997)

Debt - external: $213 million (1997)

Economic aid - recipient: $40.3 million (1995)

Currency: 1 Fijian dollar (F$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Fijian dollars (F$) per US$1 - 1.9654 (January 2000),
1.9696 (1999), 1.9868 (1998), 1.4437 (1997), 1.4033 (1996), 1.4063
(1995)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Fiji:Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 65,000 (1995)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 4,300 (1998)

Telephone system: modern local, interisland, and international
(wire/radio integrated) public and special-purpose telephone,
telegraph, and teleprinter facilities; regional radio communications
center
domestic: NA
international: access to important cable links between US and Canada
as well as between NZ and Australia; satellite earth station - 1
Intelsat (Pacific Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 13, FM 40, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios: 500,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: NA

Televisions: 21,000 (1997)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 2 (1999)

@Fiji:Transportation

Railways:
total: 597 km; note - belongs to the government-owned Fiji Sugar
Corporation
narrow gauge: 597 km 0.610-m gauge (1995)

Highways:
total: 3,440 km
paved: 1,692 km
unpaved: 1,748 km (1996 est.)

Waterways: 203 km; 122 km navigable by motorized craft and
200-metric-ton barges

Ports and harbors: Labasa, Lautoka, Levuka, Savusavu, Suva

Merchant marine:
total: 6 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 11,870 GRT/14,787 DWT
ships by type: chemical tanker 2, passenger 1, petroleum tanker 1,
roll-on/roll-off 1, specialized tanker 1 (1999 est.)

Airports: 25 (1999 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 3
over 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (1999 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 22
914 to 1,523 m: 5
under 914 m: 17 (1999 est.)

@Fiji:Military

Military branches: Republic of Fiji Military Forces (RFMF; includes
ground and naval forces)

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 223,496 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males age 15-49: 123,051 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 9,426 (2000 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $24 million (FY98)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 1.1% (FY98)

@Fiji:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

______________________________________________________________________



FINLAND

@Finland:Introduction

Background: Ruled by Sweden from the 12th to the 19th centuries and by
Russia from 1809, Finland finally won its independence in 1917. During
World War II, it was able to successfully defend its freedom and fend
off invasions by the Soviet Union and Germany. In the subsequent half
century, the Finns have made a remarkable transformation from a
farm/forest economy to a diversified modern industrial economy; per
capita income is now on par with Western Europe. As a member of the
European Union, Finland was the only Nordic state to join the euro
system at its initiation in January 1999.

@Finland:Geography

Location: Northern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia,
and Gulf of Finland, between Sweden and Russia

Geographic coordinates: 64 00 N, 26 00 E

Map references: Europe

Area:
total: 337,030 sq km
land: 305,470 sq km
water: 31,560 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Montana

Land boundaries:
total: 2,628 km
border countries: Norway 729 km, Sweden 586 km, Russia 1,313 km

Coastline: 1,126 km (excludes islands and coastal indentations)

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 6 nm
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
exclusive fishing zone: 12 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm (in the Gulf of Finland - 3 nm)

Climate: cold temperate; potentially subarctic, but comparatively mild
because of moderating influence of the North Atlantic Current, Baltic
Sea, and more than 60,000 lakes

Terrain: mostly low, flat to rolling plains interspersed with lakes
and low hills

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Baltic Sea 0 m
highest point: Haltiatunturi 1,328 m

Natural resources: timber, copper, zinc, iron ore, silver

Land use:
arable land: 8%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 0%
forests and woodland: 76%
other: 16% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 640 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: NA

Environment - current issues: air pollution from manufacturing and
power plants contributing to acid rain; water pollution from
industrial wastes, agricultural chemicals; habitat loss threatens
wildlife populations

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air
Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile
Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty,
Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species,
Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine
Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer
Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94,
Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants,
Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol

Geography - note: long boundary with Russia; Helsinki is northernmost
national capital on European continent; population concentrated on
small southwestern coastal plain

@Finland:People

Population: 5,167,486 (July 2000 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 18% (male 478,497; female 459,646)
15-64 years: 67% (male 1,747,738; female 1,712,058)
65 years and over: 15% (male 295,177; female 474,370) (2000 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.17% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 10.8 births/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 9.73 deaths/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: 0.58 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.04 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.62 male(s)/female
total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2000 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 3.82 deaths/1,000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 77.41 years
male: 73.74 years
female: 81.2 years (2000 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.7 children born/woman (2000 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Finn(s)
adjective: Finnish

Ethnic groups: Finn 93%, Swede 6%, Lapp 0.11%, Roma 0.12%, Tatar 0.02%

Religions: Evangelical Lutheran 89%, Greek Orthodox 1%, none 9%, other
1%

Languages: Finnish 93.4% (official), Swedish 5.9% (official), small
Lapp- and Russian-speaking minorities

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 100% (1980 est.)
male: NA%
female: NA%

@Finland:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Finland
conventional short form: Finland
local long form: Suomen Tasavalta
local short form: Suomi

Data code: FI

Government type: republic

Capital: Helsinki

Administrative divisions: 6 provinces (laanit, singular - laani);
Aland, Etela-Suomen Laani, Ita-Suomen Laani, Lansi-Suomen Laani,
Lappi, Oulun Laani

Independence: 6 December 1917 (from Russia)

National holiday: Independence Day, 6 December (1917)

Constitution: 17 July 1919

Legal system: civil law system based on Swedish law; Supreme Court may
request legislation interpreting or modifying laws; accepts compulsory
ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Tarja HALONEN (since 1 March 2000)
head of government: Prime Minister Paavo LIPPONEN (since 13 April
1995) and Deputy Prime Minister Sauli NIINISTO (since 13 April 1995)
cabinet: Council of State or Valtioneuvosto appointed by the
president, responsible to Parliament
elections: president elected by popular vote for a six-year term;
election last held 6 February 2000 (next to be held NA February 2006);
prime minister and deputy prime minister appointed from the majority
party by the president after parliamentary elections
election results: Tarja HALONEN elected president; percent of vote -
Tarja HALONEN (SDP) 51.6%, Esco AHO (Kesk) 48.4%
note: government coalition - SFP, Kok, Leftist Alliance (People's
Democratic Union and Democratic Alternative), SFP, and Green Union

Legislative branch: unicameral Parliament or Eduskunta (200 seats;
members are elected by popular vote on a proportional basis to serve
four-year terms)
elections: last held 21 March 1999 (next to be held NA March 2003)
election results: percent of vote by party - SDP 22.9%, Kesk 22.5%,
Kok 21.0%, Leftist Alliance (Communist) 10.9%, SFP 5.1%, Green Union
7.2%, SKL 4.2%; seats by party - SDP 51, Kesk 48, Kok 46, Leftist
Alliance (Communist) 20, SFP 11, Green Union 11, SKL 10, other 3

Judicial branch: Supreme Court or Korkein Oikeus, judges appointed by
the president

Political parties and leaders: Center Party or Kesk ;
Ecological Party or EPV ; Finnish Christian Union or
SKL ; Green Union ; Leftist Alliance
(Communist) composed of People's Democratic League and Democratic
Alternative ; Liberal People's Party or LKP [Pekka
RYTILA]; National Coalition (conservative) Party or Kok [Sauli
NIINISTO]; Rural Party or SMP ; Social Democratic
Party or SDP ; Swedish People's Party or SFP [(Johan)
Ole NORRBACK]; Young Finns 

Political pressure groups and leaders: Communist Workers Party [Timo
LAHDENMAKI]; Constitutional Rightist Party; Finnish Communist
Party-Unity ; Finnish Pensioners Party

International organization participation: AfDB, AsDB, Australia Group,
BIS, CBSS, CCC, CE, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, EIB, EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, G-
9, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC,
IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM,
ISO, ITU, NAM (guest), NC, NEA, NIB, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW,
OSCE, PCA, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL,
UNIKOM, UNMIBH, UNMIK, UNMOGIP, UNMOP, UNTSO, UPU, WEU (observer),
WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Jaakko Tapani LAAJAVA
chancery: 3301 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone:  (202) 298-5800
FAX:  (202) 298-6030
consulate(s) general: Los Angeles and New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Eric EDELMAN
embassy: Itainen Puistotie 14A, FIN-00140, Helsinki
mailing address: APO AE 09723
telephone:  (9) 171931
FAX:  (9) 174681

Flag description: white with a blue cross that extends to the edges of
the flag; the vertical part of the cross is shifted to the hoist side
in the style of the Dannebrog (Danish flag)

@Finland:Economy

Economy - overview: Finland has a highly industrialized, largely
free-market economy, with per capita output roughly that of the UK,
France, Germany, and Italy. Its key economic sector is manufacturing -
principally the wood, metals, engineering, telecommunications, and
electronics industries. Trade is important, with exports equaling more
than one-third of GDP. Except for timber and several minerals, Finland
depends on imports of raw materials, energy, and some components for
manufactured goods. Because of the climate, agricultural development
is limited to maintaining self-sufficiency in basic products.
Forestry, an important export earner, provides a secondary occupation
for the rural population. The economy has come back from the recession
of 1990-92, which had been caused by economic overheating, depressed
foreign markets, and the dismantling of the barter system between
Finland and the former Soviet Union. Rapidly increasing integration
with Western Europe - Finland was one of the 11 countries joining the
euro monetary system (EMU) on 1 January 1999 - will dominate the
economic picture over the next several years. Growth in 2000 will
probably be at the same level as in 1999, enough to continue the
decline in unemployment from its current high level.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $108.6 billion (1999 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 3.5% (1999 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $21,000 (1999 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 5%
industry: 32%
services: 63% (1997)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 4.2%
highest 10%: 21.6% (1991)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1% (1999 est.)

Labor force: 2.533 million

Labor force - by occupation: public services 32%, industry 22%,
commerce 14%, finance, insurance, and business services 10%,
agriculture and forestry 8%, transport and communications 8%,
construction 6%

Unemployment rate: 10% (1999 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $41 billion
expenditures: $41 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1997
est.)

Industries: metal products, shipbuilding, pulp and paper, copper
refining, foodstuffs, chemicals, textiles, clothing

Industrial production growth rate: 4.8% (1999)

Electricity - production: 75.299 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 41.62%
hydro: 19.59%
nuclear: 27.59%
other: 11.2% (1998)

Electricity - consumption: 79.278 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - exports: 300 million kWh (1998)

Electricity - imports: 9.55 billion kWh (1998)

Agriculture - products: cereals, sugar beets, potatoes; dairy cattle;
fish

Exports: $43 billion (f.o.b., 1998)

Exports - commodities: machinery and equipment, chemicals, metals;
timber, paper, and pulp

Exports - partners: EU 56% (Germany 12%, UK 9%, Sweden 9%, France 5%),
US 7%, Russia 6%, Japan (1998)

Imports: $30.7 billion (f.o.b., 1998)

Imports - commodities: foodstuffs, petroleum and petroleum products,
chemicals, transport equipment, iron and steel, machinery, textile
yarn and fabrics, fodder grains

Imports - partners: EU 60% (Germany 15%, Sweden 12%, UK 7%), US 8%,
Russia 7%, Japan 6% (1998)

Debt - external: $30 billion (December 1993)

Economic aid - donor: ODA, $379 million (1997)

Currency: 1 markka (FMk) or Finmark = 100 pennia

Exchange rates: euros per US$1 - 0.9867 (January 2000), 0.9386 (1999);
markkaa (FMk) per US$1 - 5.3441 (1998), 5.1914 (1997), 4.5936 (1996),
4.3667 (1995)
note: on 1 January 1999, the EU introduced a common currency that is
now being used by financial institutions in some member countries at a
fixed rate of 5.94573 markkaa per euro; the euro will replace the
local currency in consenting countries for all transactions in 2002

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Finland:Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 2.861 million (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 2,162,574 (1997)

Telephone system: modern system with excellent service
domestic: cable, microwave radio relay, and an extensive cellular net
take provide of domestic needs
international: 1 submarine cable; satellite earth stations - access to
Intelsat transmission service via a Swedish satellite earth station, 1
Inmarsat (Atlantic and Indian Ocean regions); note - Finland shares
the Inmarsat earth station with the other Nordic countries (Denmark,
Iceland, Norway, and Sweden)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 2, FM 186, shortwave 1 (1998)

Radios: 7.7 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 130 (plus 385 repeaters) (1995)

Televisions: 3.2 million (1997)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 36 (1999)

@Finland:Transportation

Railways:
total: 5,865 km
broad gauge: 5,865 km 1.524-m gauge (2,192 km electrified; 480 km
double- or multiple-track) (1998)

Highways:
total: 77,895 km
paved: 49,853 km (including 473 km of expressways)
unpaved: 28,042 km (1998 est.)

Waterways: 6,675 km total (including Saimaa Canal); 3,700 km suitable
for steamers

Pipelines: natural gas 580 km

Ports and harbors: Hamina, Helsinki, Kokkola, Kotka, Loviisa, Oulu,
Pori, Rauma, Turku, Uusikaupunki, Varkaus

Merchant marine:
total: 101 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,185,966 GRT/1,153,089
DWT
ships by type: bulk 9, cargo 23, chemical tanker 6, passenger 1,
petroleum tanker 11, rail car carrier 1, roll-on/roll-off 38,
short-sea passenger 12 (1999 est.)

Airports: 157 (1999 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 69
over 3,047 m: 3
2,438 to 3,047 m: 26
1,524 to 2,437 m: 10
914 to 1,523 m: 20
under 914 m: 10 (1999 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 88
914 to 1,523 m: 6
under 914 m: 82 (1999 est.)

@Finland:Military

Military branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, Frontier Guard (includes Sea
Guard)

Military manpower - military age: 17 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 1,262,526 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males age 15-49: 1,041,795 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 34,651 (2000 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $1.8 billion (FY98)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 2% (FY98)

@Finland:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

______________________________________________________________________



FRANCE

@France:Introduction

Background: Although ultimately a victor in World Wars I and II,
France suffered extensive losses in its empire, wealth, manpower, and
rank as a dominant nation-state. Since 1958, it has constructed a
presidential democracy resistant to the instabilities experienced in
earlier parliamentary democracies. In recent years, its reconciliation
and cooperation with Germany have proved central to the economic
integration of Europe, including the advent of the euro in January
1999. Today, France is at the forefront of European states seeking to
exploit the momentum of monetary union to advance the creation of a
more unified and capable European defense and security apparatus.

@France:Geography

Location: Western Europe, bordering the Bay of Biscay and English
Channel, between Belgium and Spain, southeast of the UK; bordering the
Mediterranean Sea, between Italy and Spain

Geographic coordinates: 46 00 N, 2 00 E

Map references: Europe

Area:
total: 547,030 sq km
land: 545,630 sq km
water: 1,400 sq km
note: includes only metropolitan France, but excludes the overseas
administrative divisions

Area - comparative: slightly less than twice the size of Colorado

Land boundaries:
total: 2,889 km
border countries: Andorra 56.6 km, Belgium 620 km, Germany 451 km,
Italy 488 km, Luxembourg 73 km, Monaco 4.4 km, Spain 623 km,
Switzerland 573 km

Coastline: 3,427 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 24 nm
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm (does not apply to the Mediterranean)
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: generally cool winters and mild summers, but mild winters and
hot summers along the Mediterranean

Terrain: mostly flat plains or gently rolling hills in north and west;
remainder is mountainous, especially Pyrenees in south, Alps in east

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Rhone River delta -2 m
highest point: Mont Blanc 4,807 m

Natural resources: coal, iron ore, bauxite, fish, timber, zinc, potash

Land use:
arable land: 33%
permanent crops: 2%
permanent pastures: 20%
forests and woodland: 27%
other: 18% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 16,300 sq km (1995 est.)

Natural hazards: flooding; avalanches

Environment - current issues: some forest damage from acid rain (major
forest damage occurred as a result of severe December 1999 windstorm);
air pollution from industrial and vehicle emissions; water pollution
from urban wastes, agricultural runoff

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air
Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile
Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty,
Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species,
Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life
Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber
83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants,
Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol

Geography - note: largest West European nation; occasional strong,
cold, dry, north-to-northwesterly wind known as mistral

@France:People

Population: 59,329,691 (July 2000 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 19% (male 5,719,502; female 5,448,608)
15-64 years: 65% (male 19,345,269; female 19,322,902)
65 years and over: 16% (male 3,849,783; female 5,643,627) (2000 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.38% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 12.27 births/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 9.14 deaths/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: 0.66 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.68 male(s)/female
total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2000 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 4.51 deaths/1,000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 78.76 years
male: 74.85 years
female: 82.89 years (2000 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.75 children born/woman (2000 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Frenchman(men), Frenchwoman(women)
adjective: French

Ethnic groups: Celtic and Latin with Teutonic, Slavic, North African,
Indochinese, Basque minorities

Religions: Roman Catholic 90%, Protestant 2%, Jewish 1%, Muslim (North
African workers) 1%, unaffiliated 6%

Languages: French 100%, rapidly declining regional dialects and
languages (Provencal, Breton, Alsatian, Corsican, Catalan, Basque,
Flemish)

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99%
male: 99%
female: 99% (1980 est.)

@France:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: French Republic
conventional short form: France
local long form: Republique Francaise
local short form: France

Data code: FR

Government type: republic

Capital: Paris

Administrative divisions: 22 regions (regions, singular - region);
Alsace, Aquitaine, Auvergne, Basse-Normandie, Bourgogne, Bretagne,
Centre, Champagne-Ardenne, Corse, Franche-Comte, Haute-Normandie,
Ile-de-France, Languedoc-Roussillon, Limousin, Lorraine,
Midi-Pyrenees, Nord-Pas-de-Calais, Pays de la Loire, Picardie,
Poitou-Charentes, Provence-Alpes-Cote d'Azur, Rhone-Alpes
note: metropolitan France is divided into 22 regions (including the
"territorial collectivity" of Corse or Corsica) and is subdivided into
96 departments; see separate entries for the overseas departments
(French Guiana, Guadeloupe, Martinique, Reunion) and the overseas
territorial collectivities (Mayotte, Saint Pierre and Miquelon)

Dependent areas: Bassas da India, Clipperton Island, Europa Island,
French Polynesia, French Southern and Antarctic Lands, Glorioso
Islands, Juan de Nova Island, New Caledonia, Tromelin Island, Wallis
and Futuna
note: the US does not recognize claims to Antarctica

Independence: 486 (unified by Clovis)

National holiday: National Day, Taking of the Bastille, 14 July (1789)

Constitution: 28 September 1958, amended concerning election of
president in 1962, amended to comply with provisions of EC Maastricht
Treaty in 1992; amended to tighten immigration laws 1993

Legal system: civil law system with indigenous concepts; review of
administrative but not legislative acts

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Jacques CHIRAC (since 17 May 1995)
head of government: Prime Minister Lionel JOSPIN (since 3 June 1997)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the
suggestion of the prime minister
elections: president elected by popular vote for a seven-year term;
election last held 23 April and 7 May 1995 (next to be held by May
2002); prime minister nominated by the National Assembly majority and
appointed by the president
election results: Jacques CHIRAC elected president; percent of vote,
second ballot - Jacques CHIRAC (RPR) 52.64%, Lionel JOSPIN (PS) 47.36%

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament or Parlement consists of the
Senate or Senat (321 seats - 296 for metropolitan France, 13 for
overseas departments and territories, and 12 for French nationals
abroad; members are indirectly elected by an electoral college to
serve nine-year terms; elected by thirds every three years) and the
National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale (577 seats; members are
elected by popular vote under a single-member majoritarian system to
serve five-year terms)
elections: Senate - last held 27 September 1998 (next to be held
September 2001); National Assembly - last held 25 May-1 June 1997
(next to be held NA May 2002)
election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by
party - RPR 99, UDC 52, DL 47, PS 78, PCF 16, other 29; National
Assembly - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PS 245, RPR
140, UDF 109, PCF 37, PRS 13, MEI 8, MDC 7, LDI-MPF 1, FN 1, various
left 9, various right 7

Judicial branch: Supreme Court of Appeals or Cour de Cassation, judges
are appointed by the president from nominations of the High Council of
the Judiciary; Constitutional Council or Conseil Constitutionnel,
three members appointed by the president, three members appointed by
the president of the National Assembly, and three appointed by the
president of the Senate; Council of State or Conseil d'Etat

Political parties and leaders: Citizens Movement or MdC [Jean Pierre
CHEVENEMENT]; Democratic Force or FD ; Ecology Gereration
or GE ; French Communist Party or PCF ;
Independent Ecological Movement or MEI ; Left
Radical Party or PRG (previously Radical Socialist Party or PRS and
the Left Radical Movement or MRG) ; Liberal
Democracy or DL (originally Republican Party or PR) ;
Movement for France or LDI-MPF ; National Center
of Independents and Peasants or CNIP ; National Front or
FN ; National Front-National Movement [Bruno
MEGRET]; Popular Party for French Democracy or PPDF [Herve de
CHARETTE]; Radical Party or RRRS ; Rally for the
Republic or RPR ; Reformers' Movement or MR
; Socialist Party or PS ; The
Greens (Les Verts) ; The Right (La Droite)
; Union for French Democracy or UDF (coalition of UDC,
FD, RRRS, PPDF) ; Union of the Center or UDC [leader
NA]

Political pressure groups and leaders: Communist-controlled labor
union (Confederation Generale du Travail) or CGT, nearly 2.4 million
members (claimed); independent labor union or Force Ouvriere, 1
million members (est.); independent white-collar union or
Confederation Generale des Cadres, 340,000 members (claimed); National
Council of French Employers (Conseil National du Patronat Francais) or
CNPF or Patronat; Socialist-leaning labor union (Confederation
Francaise Democratique du Travail) or CFDT, about 800,000 members
(est.)

International organization participation: ACCT, AfDB, AsDB, Australia
Group, BDEAC, BIS, CCC, CDB (non-regional), CE, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECA
(associate), ECE, ECLAC, EIB, EMU, ESA, ESCAP, EU, FAO, FZ, G- 5, G-
7, G-10, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD,
IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, InOC, Intelsat, Interpol,
IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MINURSO, MIPONUH, MONUC, NAM (guest), NATO, NEA,
NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, SPC, UN, UN Security
Council, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNIKOM, UNITAR, UNMIBH,
UNMIK, UNOMIG, UNRWA, UNTSO, UNU, UPU, WADB (nonregional), WCL, WEU,
WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Francois V. BUJON DE L'ESTANG
chancery: 4101 Reservoir Road NW, Washington, DC 20007
telephone:  (202) 944-6000
FAX:  (202) 944-6166
consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles,
Miami, New Orleans, New York, and San Francisco

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Felix G. ROHATYN
embassy: 2 Avenue Gabriel, 75382 Paris Cedex 08
mailing address: PSC 116, APO AE 09777
telephone:  (1) 43-12-22-22
FAX:  (1) 42 66 97 83
consulate(s) general: Marseille, Strasbourg

Flag description: three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side),
white, and red; known as the French Tricouleur (Tricolor); the design
and colors are similar to a number of other flags, including those of
Belgium, Chad, Ireland, Cote d'Ivoire, and Luxembourg; the official
flag for all French dependent areas

@France:Economy

Economy - overview: France's economy combines modern capitalistic
methods with extensive, but declining, government intervention. The
government retains considerable influence over key segments of each
sector, with majority ownership of railway, electricity, aircraft, and
telecommunication firms. It has been gradually relaxing its control
over these sectors since the early 1990s. The government is slowly
selling off holdings in France Telecom, in Air France, and in the
insurance, banking, and defense industries. Meanwhile, large tracts of
fertile land, the application of modern technology, and subsidies have
combined to make France the leading agricultural producer in Western
Europe. Persistently high unemployment will continue to pose a major
problem for the government; a 35-hour work week is being introduced.
France has shied away from cutting exceptionally generous social
welfare benefits or the enormous state bureaucracy, preferring to pare
defense spending and raise taxes to keep the deficit down. France
joined 10 other EU members to launch the euro on 1 January 1999.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $1.373 trillion (1999 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 2.7% (1999 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $23,300 (1999 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 3.3%
industry: 26.1%
services: 70.6% (1998)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 2.5%
highest 10%: 24.9% (1989)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 0.5% (1999 est.)

Labor force: 25.4 million (1994)

Labor force - by occupation: services 69%, industry 26%, agriculture
5% (1995)

Unemployment rate: 11% (1999 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $325 billion
expenditures: $360 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1999 est.)

Industries: steel, machinery, chemicals, automobiles, metallurgy,
aircraft, electronics, mining; textiles, food processing; tourism

Industrial production growth rate: 2% (1999 est.)

Electricity - production: 480.972 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 10.77%
hydro: 12.45%
nuclear: 76.24%
other: 0.54% (1998)

Electricity - consumption: 389.254 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - exports: 62 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - imports: 3.95 billion kWh (1998)

Agriculture - products: wheat, cereals, sugar beets, potatoes, wine
grapes; beef, dairy products; fish

Exports: $304.7 billion (f.o.b., 1999)

Exports - commodities: machinery and transportation equipment,
chemicals, iron and steel products; agricultural products, textiles
and clothing

Exports - partners: EU 63% (Germany 16%, UK 10%, Italy 9%, Spain 9%,
Belgium-Luxembourg 8%), US 7% (1998)

Imports: $280.8 billion (f.o.b., 1999)

Imports - commodities: crude oil, machinery and equipment, chemicals;
agricultural products

Imports - partners: EU 62% (Germany 17%, Italy 10%, Belgium-Luxembourg
8%, UK 8%, Spain 7%), US 9% (1998)

Debt - external: $117.6 billion (1996 est.)

Economic aid - donor: ODA, $6.3 billion (1997)

Currency: 1 French franc (F) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: euros per US$1 - 0.9867 (January 2000), 0.9386 (1999);
French francs (F) per US$1 - 5.65 (January 1999), 5.8995 (1998),
5.8367 (1997), 5.1155 (1996), 4.9915 (1995)
note: on 1 January 1999, the EU introduced a common currency that is
now being used by financial institutions in some member countries at a
fixed rate of 6.55957 French francs per euro; the euro will replace
the local currency in consenting countries for all transactions in
2002

Fiscal year: calendar year

@France:Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 34.86 million (yearend 1998)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 11.078 million (yearend 1998)

Telephone system: highly developed
domestic: extensive cable and microwave radio relay; extensive
introduction of fiber-optic cable; domestic satellite system
international: satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (with total of 5
antennas - 2 for Indian Ocean and 3 for Atlantic Ocean), NA Eutelsat,
1 Inmarsat (Atlantic Ocean region); HF radiotelephone communications
with more than 20 countries

Radio broadcast stations: AM 41, FM about 3,500 (this figure is an
approximation and includes many repeaters), shortwave 2 (1998)

Radios: 55.3 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 574 (plus 9,634 repeaters) (1995)

Televisions: 34.8 million (1997)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 128 (1999)

@France:Transportation

Railways:
total: 31,939 km (31,940 km are operated by French National Railways
(SNCF); 14,176 km of SNCF routes are electrified and 12,132 km are
double- or multiple-tracked)
standard gauge: 31,840 km 1.435-m gauge
narrow gauge: 99 km 1.000-m gauge (1998)

Highways:
total: 893,300 km
paved: 893,300 km (including 10,300 km of expressways)
unpaved: 0 km (1998 est.)

Waterways: 14,932 km; 6,969 km heavily traveled

Pipelines: crude oil 3,059 km; petroleum products 4,487 km; natural
gas 24,746 km

Ports and harbors: Bordeaux, Boulogne, Cherbourg, Dijon, Dunkerque, La
Pallice, Le Havre, Lyon, Marseille, Mullhouse, Nantes, Paris, Rouen,
Saint Nazaire, Saint Malo, Strasbourg

Merchant marine:
total: 55 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,155,286 GRT/1,693,030
DWT
ships by type: bulk 3, cargo 5, chemical tanker 6, combination bulk 1,
container 5, liquified gas 4, multi-functional large load carrier 1,
passenger 3, petroleum tanker 16, roll-on/roll-off 6, short-sea
passenger 4, specialized tanker 1 (1999 est.)
note: France also maintains a captive register for French-owned ships
in Iles Kerguelen (French Southern and Antarctic Lands) (1998 est.)

Airports: 474 (1999 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 267
over 3,047 m: 14
2,438 to 3,047 m: 30
1,524 to 2,437 m: 92
914 to 1,523 m: 74
under 914 m: 57 (1999 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 207
1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
914 to 1,523 m: 76
under 914 m: 127 (1999 est.)

Heliports: 3 (1999 est.)

@France:Military

Military branches: Army (includes Marines), Navy (includes Naval Air),
Air Force (includes Air Defense), National Gendarmerie

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 14,619,317 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males age 15-49: 12,167,421 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 402,987 (2000 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $39.831 billion (FY97)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 2.5% (FY97)

@France:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: Madagascar claims Bassas da India, Europa
Island, Glorioso Islands, Juan de Nova Island, and Tromelin Island;
Comoros claims Mayotte; Mauritius claims Tromelin Island; territorial
dispute between Suriname and French Guiana; territorial claim in
Antarctica (Adelie Land); Matthew and Hunter Islands east of New
Caledonia claimed by France and Vanuatu

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for and consumer of South American
cocaine and Southwest Asian heroin

______________________________________________________________________



FRENCH GUIANA

@French Guiana:Introduction

Background: First settled by the French in 1604, French Guiana was the
site of notorious penal settlements until 1951. The European Space
Agency launches its communication satellites from Kourou.

@French Guiana:Geography

Location: Northern South America, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean,
between Brazil and Suriname

Geographic coordinates: 4 00 N, 53 00 W

Map references: South America

Area:
total: 91,000 sq km
land: 89,150 sq km
water: 1,850 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Indiana

Land boundaries:
total: 1,183 km
border countries: Brazil 673 km, Suriname 510 km

Coastline: 378 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; hot, humid; little seasonal temperature variation

Terrain: low-lying coastal plains rising to hills and small mountains

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Bellevue de l'Inini 851 m

Natural resources: bauxite, timber, gold (widely scattered), cinnabar,
kaolin, fish

Land use:
arable land: 0%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 0%
forests and woodland: 90%
other: 10% (1996 est.)

Irrigated land: 20 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: high frequency of heavy showers and severe
thunderstorms; flooding

Environment - current issues: NA

Geography - note: mostly an unsettled wilderness

@French Guiana:People

Population: 172,605 (July 2000 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 31% (male 27,116; female 25,902)
15-64 years: 64% (male 59,690; female 50,621)
65 years and over: 5% (male 4,694; female 4,582) (2000 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.93% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 22.44 births/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 4.76 deaths/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: 11.59 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.18 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 1.02 male(s)/female
total population: 1.13 male(s)/female (2000 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 13.99 deaths/1,000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 76.1 years
male: 72.77 years
female: 79.6 years (2000 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.21 children born/woman (2000 est.)

Nationality:
noun: French Guianese (singular and plural)
adjective: French Guianese

Ethnic groups: black or mulatto 66%, white 12%, East Indian, Chinese,
Amerindian 12%, other 10%

Religions: Roman Catholic

Languages: French

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 83%
male: 84%
female: 82% (1982 est.)

@French Guiana:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Department of Guiana
conventional short form: French Guiana
local long form: none
local short form: Guyane

Data code: FG

Dependency status: overseas department of France

Government type: NA

Capital: Cayenne

Administrative divisions: none (overseas department of France)

Independence: none (overseas department of France)

National holiday: National Day, Taking of the Bastille, 14 July (1789)

Constitution: 28 September 1958 (French Constitution)

Legal system: French legal system

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Jacques CHIRAC of France (since 17 May
1995), represented by Prefect Dominique VIAN (since NA January 1997)
head of government: President of the General Council Andre LECANTE
(since NA March 1998); President of the Regional Council Antoine KARAM
(since 22 March 1992)
cabinet: NA
elections: French president elected by popular vote for a seven-year
term; prefect appointed by the French president on the advice of the
French Ministry of Interior; presidents of the General and Regional
Councils are appointed by the members of those councils

Legislative branch: unicameral General Council or Conseil General (19
seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve six-year terms)
and a unicameral Regional Council or Conseil Regional (31 seats;
members are elected by popular vote to serve six-year terms)
elections: General Council - last held 20-27 March 1994 (next to be
held NA 2000); Regional Council - last held 15 March 1998 (next to be
held NA 2004)
election results: General Council - percent of vote by party - NA;
seats by party - PSG 8, FDG 4, RPR 1, other left 2, other right 2,
other 2; Regional Council - percent of vote by party - PS 28.28%,
various left parties 22.56%, RPR 15.91%, independents 8.6%, Walwari
Committee 6%; seats by party - PS 11, various left parties 9, RPR 6,
independents 3, Walwari Committee 2
note: one seat was elected to the French Senate on 27 September 1998
(next to be held NA September 2007); results - percent of vote by
party - NA; seats by party - NA; 2 seats were elected to the French
National Assembly on 25 May - 1 June 1997 (next to be held NA 2002);
results - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - RPR 1, PSG 1

Judicial branch: Court of Appeals or Cour d'Appel (highest local court
based in Martinique with jurisdiction over Martinique, Guadeloupe, and
French Guiana)

Political parties and leaders: Action Democrate Guiana or ADG [Andre
LECANTE]; Democratic and European Rally of the Senate or RDSE [leader
NA]; Guianese Socialist Party or PSG ; Guyana
Democratic Forces or FDG ; Nationalist Popular Party
of Guyana (Parti Nationaliste Populaire Guiana) or PNPG ;
Rally for the Republic or RPR ; Socialist Party or
PS  (may be a subset of PSG); Union for French
Democracy or UDF ; Union of Social Democrats (Union des
Socialistes Democates) or USD  (umbrella group of
RPR and UDF); Walwari Committee 

International organization participation: FZ, WCL, WFTU

Diplomatic representation in the US: none (overseas department of
France)

Diplomatic representation from the US: none (overseas department of
France)

Flag description: the flag of France is used

@French Guiana:Economy

Economy - overview: The economy is tied closely to that of France
through subsidies and imports. Besides the French space center at
Kourou, fishing and forestry are the most important economic
activities. The large reserves of tropical hardwoods, not fully
exploited, support an expanding sawmill industry which provides sawn
logs for export. Cultivation of crops is limited to the coastal area,
where the population is largely concentrated; rice and manioc are the
major crops. French Guiana is heavily dependent on imports of food and
energy. Unemployment is a serious problem, particularly among younger
workers.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $1 billion (1998 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: NA%

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $6,000 (1998 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: NA%
industry: NA%
services: NA%

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.5% (1992)

Labor force: 58,800 (1997)

Labor force - by occupation: services, government, and commerce 60.6%,
industry 21.2%, agriculture 18.2% (1980)

Unemployment rate: 21.4% (1998 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $225 million
expenditures: $390 million, including capital expenditures of $105
million (1996)

Industries: construction, shrimp processing, forestry products, rum,
gold mining

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - production: 430 million kWh (1998)

Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 100%
hydro: 0%
nuclear: 0%
other: 0% (1998)

Electricity - consumption: 400 million kWh (1998)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1998)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1998)

Agriculture - products: rice, manioc (tapioca), sugar, cocoa,
vegetables, bananas; cattle, pigs, poultry

Exports: $155 million (f.o.b., 1997)

Exports - commodities: shrimp, timber, gold, rum, rosewood essence,
clothing

Exports - partners: France 62%, Switzerland 7%, US 2% (1997)

Imports: $625 million (c.i.f., 1997)

Imports - commodities: food (grains, processed meat), machinery and
transport equipment, fuels and chemicals

Imports - partners: France 52%, US 14%, Trinidad and Tobago 6% (1997)

Debt - external: $1.2 billion (1988)

Economic aid - recipient: $NA

Currency: 1 French franc (F) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: euros per US$1 - 0.9867 (January 2000), 0.9386 (1999);
French francs (F) per US$1 - 5.65 (January 1999), 5.8995 (1998),
5.8367 (1997), 5.1155 (1996), 4.9915 (1995)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@French Guiana:Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 47,000 (1995)

Telephones - mobile cellular: NA

Telephone system:
domestic: fair open wire and microwave radio relay system
international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 2, FM 14 (including 6 repeaters),
shortwave 6 (including 5 repeaters) (1998)

Radios: 104,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 3 (plus eight low-power repeaters)
(1997)

Televisions: 30,000 (1997)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): NA

@French Guiana:Transportation

Railways: 0 km (1995)

Highways:
total: 1,817 km
paved: 727 km
unpaved: 1,090 km (1995 est.)

Waterways: 460 km, navigable by small oceangoing vessels and river and
coastal steamers; 3,300 km navigable by native craft

Ports and harbors: Cayenne, Degrad des Cannes, Saint-Laurent du Maroni

Merchant marine: none (1999 est.)

Airports: 11 (1999 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 4
over 3,047 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 2
under 914 m: 1 (1999 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 7
914 to 1,523 m: 2
under 914 m: 5 (1999 est.)

@French Guiana:Military

Military branches: French Forces, Gendarmerie

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 48,445 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males age 15-49: 31,367 (2000 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $NA

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: NA%

Military - note: defense is the responsibility of France

@French Guiana:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: Suriname claims area between Riviere Litani
and Riviere Marouini (both headwaters of the Lawa)

Illicit drugs: small amount of marijuana grown for local consumption;
minor transshipment point to Europe

______________________________________________________________________



FRENCH POLYNESIA

@French Polynesia:Introduction

Background: The French annexed various Polynesian island groups during
the 19th century. In September 1995, France stirred up widespread
protests by resuming nuclear testing on the Mururoa atoll after a
three-year moratorium. The tests were suspended in January 1996.

@French Polynesia:Geography

Location: Oceania, archipelago in the South Pacific Ocean, about
one-half of the way from South America to Australia

Geographic coordinates: 15 00 S, 140 00 W

Map references: Oceania

Area:
total: 4,167 sq km (118 islands and atolls)
land: 3,660 sq km
water: 507 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly less than one-third the size of
Connecticut

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 2,525 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical, but moderate

Terrain: mixture of rugged high islands and low islands with reefs

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
highest point: Mont Orohena 2,241 m

Natural resources: timber, fish, cobalt, hydropower

Land use:
arable land: 1%
permanent crops: 6%
permanent pastures: 5%
forests and woodland: 31%
other: 57% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: occasional cyclonic storms in January

Environment - current issues: NA

Geography - note: includes five archipelagoes; Makatea in French
Polynesia is one of the three great phosphate rock islands in the
Pacific Ocean - the others are Banaba (Ocean Island) in Kiribati and
Nauru

@French Polynesia:People

Population: 249,110 (July 2000 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 30% (male 38,736; female 37,197)
15-64 years: 65% (male 83,986; female 76,973)
65 years and over: 5% (male 6,127; female 6,091) (2000 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.78% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 19.01 births/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 4.41 deaths/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: 3.14 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.09 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 1.01 male(s)/female
total population: 1.07 male(s)/female (2000 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 9.3 deaths/1,000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 74.79 years
male: 72.47 years
female: 77.22 years (2000 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.28 children born/woman (2000 est.)

Nationality:
noun: French Polynesian(s)
adjective: French Polynesian

Ethnic groups: Polynesian 78%, Chinese 12%, local French 6%,
metropolitan French 4%

Religions: Protestant 54%, Roman Catholic 30%, other 16%

Languages: French (official), Tahitian (official)

Literacy:
definition: age 14 and over can read and write
total population: 98%
male: 98%
female: 98% (1977 est.)

@French Polynesia:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Territory of French Polynesia
conventional short form: French Polynesia
local long form: Territoire de la Polynesie Francaise
local short form: Polynesie Francaise

Data code: FP

Dependency status: overseas territory of France since 1946

Government type: NA

Capital: Papeete

Administrative divisions: none (overseas territory of France); there
are no first-order administrative divisions as defined by the US
Government, but there are 5 archipelagic divisions named Archipel des
Marquises, Archipel des Tuamotu, Archipel des Tubuai, Iles du Vent,
and Iles Sous-le-Vent
note: Clipperton Island is administered by France from French
Polynesia

Independence: none (overseas territory of France)

National holiday: National Day, Taking of the Bastille, 14 July (1789)

Constitution: 28 September 1958 (French Constitution)

Legal system: based on French system

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Jacques CHIRAC of France (since 17 May
1995), represented by High Commissioner of the Republic Paul RONCIERE
(since NA 1994)
head of government: President of the Territorial Government of French
Polynesia Gaston FLOSSE (since 4 April 1991); President of the
Territorial Assembly Justin ARAPARI (since 13 May 1996)
cabinet: Council of Ministers; president submits a list of members of
the Territorial Assembly for approval by them to serve as ministers
elections: French president elected by popular vote for a seven-year
term; high commissioner appointed by the French president on the
advice of the French Ministry of Interior; president of the
Territorial Government and the president of the Territorial Assembly
are elected by the members of the assembly

Legislative branch: unicameral Territorial Assembly or Assemblee
Territoriale (41 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve
five-year terms)
elections: last held 12 May 1996 (next to be held NA 2001)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party -
People's Rally for the Republic (Gaullist) 22, Independent Front for
the Liberation of Polynesia 10, New Fatherland Party 5, other 4
note: one seat was elected to the French Senate on 24 September 1989
(next to be held NA September 1998); results - percent of vote by
party - NA; seats by party - UC 1; two seats were elected to the
French National Assembly on 25 May - 1 June 1997 (next to be held NA
2002); results - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party -
People's Rally for the Republic (Gaullist) 2

Judicial branch: Court of Appeal or Cour d'Appel; Court of the First
Instance or Tribunal de Premiere Instance; Court of Administrative Law
or Tribunal Administratif

Political parties and leaders: Centrist Union or UC ;
Entente Polynesian ; Haere i Mua ;
Independent Front for the Liberation of Polynesia (Tavini Huiraatira)
; Independent Party (Ia Mana Te Nunaa) [Jacques
DROLLET]; New Fatherland Party (Ai'a Api) ; People's
Rally for the Republic (Tahoeraa Huiraatira) ;
Polynesian Union Party (includes Te Tiarama and Pupu Here Ai'a Party)
; Pupu Taina ; Te Aratia Ote Nunaa
(Tinomana Ebb); Te e'a No Maohi Nui 

International organization participation: ESCAP (associate), FZ,
ICFTU, SPC, WMO

Diplomatic representation in the US: none (overseas territory of
France)

Diplomatic representation from the US: none (overseas territory of
France)

Flag description: two narrow red horizontal bands encase a wide white
band; centered on the white band is a disk with blue and white wave
pattern on the lower half and gold and white ray pattern on the upper
half; a stylized red, blue and white ship rides on the wave pattern;
the French flag is used for official occasions

@French Polynesia:Economy

Economy - overview: Since 1962, when France stationed military
personnel in the region, French Polynesia has changed from a
subsistence economy to one in which a high proportion of the work
force is either employed by the military or supports the tourist
industry. Tourism accounts for about one-fourth of GDP and is a
primary source of hard currency earnings. The small manufacturing
sector primarily processes agricultural products. The territory
benefited from a five-year (1994-98) development agreement with France
aimed principally at creating new jobs.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $2.6 billion (1997 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: NA%

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $10,800 (1997 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 4%
industry: 18%
services: 78% (1997)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1.5% (1994)

Labor force: 118,744 (of which 70,044 are employed) (1988)

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 13%, industry 19%, services
68% (1997)

Unemployment rate: 15% (1992 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $1 billion
expenditures: $900 million, including capital expenditures of $185
million (1996)

Industries: tourism, pearls, agricultural processing, handicrafts

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - production: 360 million kWh (1998)

Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 59.72%
hydro: 40.28%
nuclear: 0%
other: 0% (1998)

Electricity - consumption: 335 million kWh (1998)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1998)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1998)

Agriculture - products: coconuts, vanilla, vegetables, fruits;
poultry, beef, dairy products

Exports: $212 million (f.o.b., 1996)

Exports - commodities: cultured pearls 50%, coconut products,
mother-of-pearl, vanilla, shark meat (1997)

Exports - partners: US 11%, France 6% (1997)

Imports: $860 million (c.i.f., 1996)

Imports - commodities: fuels, foodstuffs, equipment

Imports - partners: France 44.7%, US 13.9% (1994)

Debt - external: $NA

Economic aid - recipient: $450.4 million (1995)

Currency: 1 Comptoirs Francais du Pacifique franc (CFPF) = 100
centimes

Exchange rates: Comptoirs Francais du Pacifique francs (CFPF) per US$1
- 117.67 (January 2000), 111.93 (1999), 107.25 (1998), 106.11 (1997),
93.00 (1996), 90.75 (1995); note - linked at the rate of 18.18 CFPFs
to the French franc

Fiscal year: calendar year

@French Polynesia:Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 32,000 (1995)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 4,000 (1995)

Telephone system:
domestic: NA
international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 2, FM 14, shortwave 2 (1998)

Radios: 128,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 7 (plus 17 low-power repeaters) (1997)

Televisions: 40,000 (1997)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): NA

@French Polynesia:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways:
total: 792 km
paved: 792 km
unpaved: 0 km (1995 est.)

Ports and harbors: Mataura, Papeete, Rikitea, Uturoa

Merchant marine:
total: 4 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 5,240 GRT/7,765 DWT
ships by type: cargo 1, passenger/cargo 2, refrigerated cargo 1 (1999
est.)

Airports: 45 (1999 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 30
over 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 5
914 to 1,523 m: 17
under 914 m: 6 (1999 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 15
914 to 1,523 m: 5
under 914 m: 10 (1999 est.)

@French Polynesia:Military

Military branches: French Forces (includes Army, Navy, Air Force),
Gendarmerie

Military - note: defense is the responsibility of France

@French Polynesia:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

______________________________________________________________________



FRENCH SOUTHERN AND

______________________________________________________________________



GABON

@Gabon:Introduction

Background: Ruled by autocratic presidents since independence from
France in 1960, Gabon introduced a multiparty system and a new
constitution in the early 1990s that allowed for a more transparent
electoral process and for reforms of governmental institutions. A
small population, abundant natural resources, and foreign private
investment have helped make Gabon one of the more prosperous black
African countries.

@Gabon:Geography

Location: Western Africa, bordering the Atlantic Ocean at the Equator,
between Republic of the Congo and Equatorial Guinea

Geographic coordinates: 1 00 S, 11 45 E

Map references: Africa

Area:
total: 267,667 sq km
land: 257,667 sq km
water: 10,000 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Colorado

Land boundaries:
total: 2,551 km
border countries: Cameroon 298 km, Republic of the Congo 1,903 km,
Equatorial Guinea 350 km

Coastline: 885 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; always hot, humid

Terrain: narrow coastal plain; hilly interior; savanna in east and
south

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Mont Iboundji 1,575 m

Natural resources: petroleum, manganese, uranium, gold, timber, iron
ore, hydropower

Land use:
arable land: 1%
permanent crops: 1%
permanent pastures: 18%
forests and woodland: 77%
other: 3% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 40 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: NA

Environment - current issues: deforestation; poaching

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered
Species, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer
Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94,
Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

@Gabon:People

Population: 1,208,436
note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the
effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life
expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population
and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age
and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2000 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 33% (male 201,737; female 200,764)
15-64 years: 61% (male 371,359; female 364,982)
65 years and over: 6% (male 34,478; female 35,116) (2000 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.08% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 27.6 births/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 16.83 deaths/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.98 male(s)/female
total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2000 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 96.3 deaths/1,000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 50.08 years
male: 48.94 years
female: 51.26 years (2000 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.73 children born/woman (2000 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Gabonese (singular and plural)
adjective: Gabonese

Ethnic groups: Bantu tribes including four major tribal groupings
(Fang, Eshira, Bapounou, Bateke), other Africans and Europeans
154,000, including 6,000 French and 11,000 persons of dual nationality

Religions: Christian 55%-75%, Muslim less than 1%, animist

Languages: French (official), Fang, Myene, Bateke, Bapounou/Eschira,
Bandjabi

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 63.2%
male: 73.7%
female: 53.3% (1995 est.)

@Gabon:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Gabonese Republic
conventional short form: Gabon
local long form: Republique Gabonaise
local short form: Gabon

Data code: GB

Government type: republic; multiparty presidential regime (opposition
parties legalized in 1990)

Capital: Libreville

Administrative divisions: 9 provinces; Estuaire, Haut-Ogooue,
Moyen-Ogooue, Ngounie, Nyanga, Ogooue-Ivindo, Ogooue-Lolo,
Ogooue-Maritime, Woleu-Ntem

Independence: 17 August 1960 (from France)

National holiday: Independence Day, 17 August (1960) (Gabon granted
full independence from France)

Constitution: adopted 14 March 1991

Legal system: based on French civil law system and customary law;
judicial review of legislative acts in Constitutional Chamber of the
Supreme Court; compulsory ICJ jurisdiction not accepted

Suffrage: 21 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President El Hadj Omar BONGO (since 2 December 1967)
head of government: Prime Minister Jean-Francois NTOUTOUME-EMANE
(since 23 January 1999)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister in
consultation with the president
elections: president elected by popular vote for a seven-year term;
election last held 6 December 1998 (next to be held NA 2005); prime
minister appointed by the president
election results: President El Hadj Omar BONGO reelected; percent of
vote - El Hadj Omar BONGO 66.6%, Pierre MAMBOUNDOU 16.5%, Fr. Paul
M'BA-ABESSOLE 13.4%

Legislative branch: bicameral legislature consists of the Senate (91
seats) and the National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale (120 seats);
members are elected by direct popular vote to serve five-year terms
elections: National Assembly - last held 15 and 29 December 1996 (next
to be held NA December 2001); Senate - last held 26 January and 9
February 1997 (next to be held in January 2002)
election results: National Assembly - percent of vote by party - NA;
seats by party - PDG 89, PGP 9, RNB 6, CLR 3, UPG 2, USG 2,
independents 4, others 5; Senate - percent of vote by party - NA;
seats by party - PDG 53, RNB 20, PGP 4, ADERE 3, RDP 1, CLR 1,
independents 9

Judicial branch: Supreme Court or Cour Supreme consisting of three
chambers - Judicial, Administrative, and Accounts; Constitutional
Court; Courts of Appeal; Court of State Security; County Courts

Political parties and leaders: African Forum for Reconstruction or FAR
; Circle of Liberal Reformers or CLR [General Jean Boniface
ASSELE]; Democratic and Republican Alliance or ADERE
; Gabonese Democratic Party or PDG, former
sole party ; Gabonese
Party for Progress or PGP ;
Gabonese People's Union or UPG ; Gabonese Socialist
Union or USG ; National Rally of Woodcutters (Bucherons) or
RNB ; People's Unity Party or PUP [Louis
Gaston MAYILA]; Rally for Democracy and Progress or RDP ;
Social Democratic Party or PSD 

International organization participation: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, BDEAC, CCC,
CEEAC, ECA, FAO, FZ, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, IDA, IDB,
IFAD, IFC, IFRCS (associate), ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat,
Interpol, IOC, ITU, NAM, OAU, OIC, OPCW, UDEAC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO,
UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Paul BOUNDOUKOU-LATHA
chancery: Suite 200, 2034 20th Street NW, Washington, DC 20009
telephone:  (202) 797-1000
FAX:  (202) 332-0668
consulate(s): New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador James V. LEDESMA
embassy: Boulevard de la Mer, Libreville
mailing address: B. P. 4000, Libreville
telephone:  76 20 03 through 76 20 04, 74 34 92
FAX:  74 55 07

Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of green (top), yellow,
and blue

@Gabon:Economy

Economy - overview: Gabon enjoys a per capita income four times that
of most nations of sub-Saharan Africa. This has supported a sharp
decline in extreme poverty; yet because of high income inequality a
large proportion of the population remains poor. Gabon depended on
timber and manganese until oil was discovered offshore in the early
1970s. The oil sector now accounts for 50% of GDP. Gabon continues to
face fluctuating prices for its oil, timber, manganese, and uranium
exports. Despite the abundance of natural wealth, the economy is
hobbled by poor fiscal management. In 1992, the fiscal deficit widened
to 2.4% of GDP, and Gabon failed to settle arrears on its bilateral
debt, leading to a cancellation of rescheduling agreements with
official and private creditors. Devaluation of its Francophone
currency by 50% on 12 January 1994 sparked a one-time inflationary
surge, to 35%; the rate dropped to 6% in 1996. The IMF provided a
one-year standby arrangement in 1994-95 and a three-year Enhanced
Financing Facility (EFF) at near commercial rates beginning in late
1995. Those agreements mandate progress in privatization and fiscal
discipline. France provided additional financial support in January
1997 after Gabon had met IMF targets for mid-1996. In 1997, an IMF
mission to Gabon criticized the government for overspending on
off-budget items, overborrowing from the central bank, and slipping on
its schedule for privatization and administrative reform. The rebound
of oil prices in 1999 helped growth, but drops in production hampered
Gabon from fully realizing potential gains. With support from higher
oil prices, growth will move up in 2000-01.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $7.9 billion (1999 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 1.7% (1999 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $6,500 (1999 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 10%
industry: 60%
services: 30% (1999 est.)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.9% (1999 est.)

Labor force: 600,000

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 60%, services and government
25%, industry and commerce 15%

Unemployment rate: 21% (1997 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $1.5 billion
expenditures: $1.3 billion, including capital expenditures of $302
million (1996 est.)

Industries: food and beverage; textile; lumbering and plywood; cement;
petroleum extraction and refining; manganese, uranium, and gold
mining; chemicals; ship repair

Industrial production growth rate: 2.3% (1995)

Electricity - production: 1.025 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 27.8%
hydro: 72.2%
nuclear: 0%
other: 0% (1998)

Electricity - consumption: 953 million kWh (1998)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1998)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1998)

Agriculture - products: cocoa, coffee, sugar, palm oil, rubber;
cattle; okoume (a tropical softwood); fish

Exports: $2.4 billion (f.o.b., 1999 est.)

Exports - commodities: crude oil 75%, timber, manganese, uranium
(1998)

Exports - partners: US 68%, China 9%, France 8%, Japan 3% (1998)

Imports: $1.2 billion (f.o.b., 1999 est.)

Imports - commodities: machinery and equipment, foodstuffs, chemicals,
petroleum products, construction materials

Imports - partners: France 39%, US 6%, Cameroon 5%, Netherlands 5%,
Cote d'Ivoire, Japan (1998)

Debt - external: $4.6 billion (1999 est.)

Economic aid - recipient: $331 million (1995)

Currency: 1 Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (CFAF) = 100
centimes

Exchange rates: Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (CFAF) per US$1
- 647.25 (January 2000), 615.70 (1999), 589.95 (1998), 583.67 (1997),
511.55 (1996), 499.15 (1995)
note: since 1 January 1999, the CFAF is pegged to the euro at a rate
of 655.957 CFA francs per euro

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Gabon:Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 32,000 (1995)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 4,000 (1995)

Telephone system:
domestic: adequate system of cable, microwave radio relay,
tropospheric scatter, radiotelephone communication stations, and a
domestic satellite system with 12 earth stations
international: satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 6, FM 7, shortwave 6 (1998)

Radios: 208,000 (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 4 (plus five low-power repeaters)
(1997)

Televisions: 63,000 (1997)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 1 (1999)

@Gabon:Transportation

Railways:
total: 649 km (Gabon State Railways or OCTRA)
standard gauge: 649 km 1.435-m gauge; single track (1994)

Highways:
total: 7,670 km
paved: 629 km (including 30 km of expressways)
unpaved: 7,041 km (1996 est.)

Waterways: 1,600 km perennially navigable

Pipelines: crude oil 270 km; petroleum products 14 km

Ports and harbors: Cap Lopez, Kango, Lambarene, Libreville, Mayumba,
Owendo, Port-Gentil

Merchant marine:
total: 1 ship (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 2,419 GRT/3,205 DWT
ships by type: cargo 1 (1999 est.)

Airports: 61 (1999 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 11
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 8
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (1999 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 50
1,524 to 2,437 m: 9
914 to 1,523 m: 16
under 914 m: 25 (1999 est.)

@Gabon:Military

Military branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, Republican Guard (charged
with protecting the president and other senior officials), National
Gendarmerie, National Police

Military manpower - military age: 20 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 278,251 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males age 15-49: 143,278 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 11,291 (2000 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $91 million (FY96)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 1.6% (FY96)

@Gabon:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: maritime boundary dispute with Equatorial
Guinea because of disputed sovereignty over islands in Corisco Bay

______________________________________________________________________



GAMBIA

______________________________________________________________________



GAZA STRIP

@Gaza Strip:Introduction

Background: The Israel-PLO Declaration of Principles on Interim
Self-Government Arrangements (the DOP), signed in Washington on 13
September 1993, provides for a transitional period not exceeding five
years of Palestinian interim self-government in the Gaza Strip and the
West Bank. Under the DOP, Israel agreed to transfer certain powers and
responsibilities to the Palestinian Authority, which includes a
Palestinian Legislative Council elected in January 1996, as part of
interim self-governing arrangements in the West Bank and Gaza Strip. A
transfer of powers and responsibilities for the Gaza Strip and Jericho
took place pursuant to the Israel-PLO 4 May 1994 Cairo Agreement on
the Gaza Strip and the Jericho Area and in additional areas of the
West Bank pursuant to the Israel-PLO 28 September 1995 Interim
Agreement, the Israel-PLO 15 January 1997 Protocol Concerning
Redeployment in Hebron, the Israel-PLO 23 October 1998 Wye River
Memorandum, and the 4 September 1999 Sharm el-Sheikh Agreement. The
DOP provides that Israel will retain responsibility during the
transitional period for external security and for internal security
and public order of settlements and Israeli citizens. Permanent status
is to be determined through direct negotiations, which resumed in
September 1999 after a three-year hiatus.

@Gaza Strip:Geography

Location: Middle East, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Egypt
and Israel

Geographic coordinates: 31 25 N, 34 20 E

Map references: Middle East

Area:
total: 360 sq km
land: 360 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly more than twice the size of Washington,
DC

Land boundaries:
total: 62 km
border countries: Egypt 11 km, Israel 51 km

Coastline: 40 km

Maritime claims: Israeli-occupied with current status subject to the
Israeli-Palestinian Interim Agreement - permanent status to be
determined through further negotiation

Climate: temperate, mild winters, dry and warm to hot summers

Terrain: flat to rolling, sand- and dune-covered coastal plain

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Mediterranean Sea 0 m
highest point: Abu 'Awdah (Joz Abu 'Auda) 105 m

Natural resources: arable land

Land use:
arable land: 24%
permanent crops: 39%
permanent pastures: 0%
forests and woodland: 11%
other: 26% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 120 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: NA

Environment - current issues: desertification; salination of fresh
water; sewage treatment

Geography - note: there are 24 Israeli settlements and civilian land
use sites in the Gaza Strip (August 1999 est.)

@Gaza Strip:People

Population: 1,132,063
note: in addition, there are some 6,500 Israeli settlers in the Gaza
Strip (July 2000 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 50% (male 289,954; female 275,628)
15-64 years: 47% (male 271,365; female 263,197)
65 years and over: 3% (male 13,792; female 18,127) (2000 est.)

Population growth rate: 3.97% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 43.14 births/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 4.31 deaths/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: 0.83 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.76 male(s)/female
total population: 1.03 male(s)/female (2000 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 25.97 deaths/1,000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 70.82 years
male: 69.58 years
female: 72.11 years (2000 est.)

Total fertility rate: 6.55 children born/woman (2000 est.)

Nationality:
noun: NA
adjective: NA

Ethnic groups: Palestinian Arab and other 99.4%, Jewish 0.6%

Religions: Muslim (predominantly Sunni) 98.7%, Christian 0.7%, Jewish
0.6%

Languages: Arabic, Hebrew (spoken by Israeli settlers and many
Palestinians), English (widely understood)

Literacy:
definition: NA
total population: NA%
male: NA%
female: NA%

@Gaza Strip:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Gaza Strip
local long form: none
local short form: Qita Ghazzah

Data code: GZ

@Gaza Strip:Economy

Economy - overview: Economic conditions in the Gaza Strip - under the
responsibility of the Palestinian Authority since the Cairo Agreement
of May 1994 - have deteriorated since the early 1990s. Real per capita
GDP for the West Bank and Gaza Strip (WBGS) declined 36% between 1992
and 1996 owing to the combined effect of falling aggregate incomes and
robust population growth. The downturn in economic activity was
largely the result of Israeli closure policies - the imposition of
generalized border closures in response to security incidents in
Israel - which disrupted previously established labor and commodity
market relationships between Israel and the WBGS. The most serious
negative social effect of this downturn has been the emergence of
chronic unemployment; average unemployment rates in the WBGS during
the 1980s were generally under 5%; by the mid-1990s this level had
risen to over 20%. Since 1997 Israel's use of comprehensive closures
has decreased and, in 1998, Israel implemented new policies to reduce
the impact of closures and other security procedures on the movement
of Palestinian goods and labor. In October 1999, Israel permitted the
opening of a safe passage between the Gaza Strip and the West Bank in
accordance with the 1995 Interim Agreement. These changes to the
conduct of economic activity have fueled a moderate economic recovery
in 1998-99.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $1.17 billion (1999 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 4.6% (1999 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $1,060 (1999 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 33%
industry: 25%
services: 42% (1995 est., includes West Bank)

Population below poverty line: NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 5% (includes West Bank) (1999 est.)

Labor force: NA

Labor force - by occupation: services 66%, industry 21%, agriculture
13% (1996)

Unemployment rate: 14.5% (includes West Bank) (1998 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $1.6 billion
expenditures: $1.73 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
note: includes West Bank (1999 est.)

Industries: generally small family businesses that produce textiles,
soap, olive-wood carvings, and mother-of-pearl souvenirs; the Israelis
have established some small-scale modern industries in an industrial
center

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - production: 0 kWh (1998)

Electricity - consumption: NA kWh

Electricity - imports: NA kWh; note - electricity supplied by Israel

Agriculture - products: olives, citrus, vegetables; beef, dairy
products

Exports: $682 million (includes West Bank) (f.o.b., 1998 est.)

Exports - commodities: citrus, flowers

Exports - partners: Israel, Egypt, West Bank

Imports: $2.5 billion (c.i.f., 1998 est.) (includes West Bank)

Imports - commodities: food, consumer goods, construction materials

Imports - partners: Israel, Egypt, West Bank

Debt - external: $108 million (includes West Bank) (1997 est.)

Economic aid - recipient: $800 million pledged (includes West Bank)
(1999)

Currency: 1 new Israeli shekel (NIS) = 100 new agorot

Exchange rates: new Israeli shekels (NIS) per US$1 - 4.2260 (November
1999), 3.8001 (1998), 3.4494 (1997), 3.1917 (1996), 3.0113 (1995)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Gaza Strip:Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 95,729 (total for Gaza Strip and West
Bank) (1997)

Telephones - mobile cellular: NA

Telephone system:
domestic: rudimentary telephone services provided by an open wire
system
international: NA

Radio broadcast stations: AM 0, FM 0, shortwave 0 (1998)

Radios: NA; note - most Palestinian households have radios (1999)

Television broadcast stations: 2 (operated by the Palestinian
Broadcasting Corporation) (1997)

Televisions: NA; note - most Palestinian households have televisions
(1997)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 3 (1999)

@Gaza Strip:Transportation

Railways:
total: NA km; note - one line, abandoned and in disrepair, little
trackage remains

Highways:
total: NA km
paved: NA km
unpaved: NA km
note: small, poorly developed road network

Ports and harbors: Gaza

Airports: 2 (1999 est.)
note: includes Gaza International Airport that opened on 24 November
1998 as part of agreements stipulated in the September 1995 Oslo II
Accord and the 23 October 1998 Wye River Memorandum

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 1
over 3,047 m: 1 (1999 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 1
under 914 m: 1 (1999 est.)

@Gaza Strip:Military

Military branches: NA

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $NA

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: NA%

@Gaza Strip:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: West Bank and Gaza Strip are
Israeli-occupied with current status subject to the
Israeli-Palestinian Interim Agreement - permanent status to be
determined through further negotiation

______________________________________________________________________



GEORGIA

@Georgia:Introduction

Background: Georgia was absorbed into the Russian Empire in the 19th
century. Independent for three years (1918-1921) following the Russian
revolution, it was forcibly incorporated into the USSR until the
Soviet Union dissolved in 1991. Russian troops remain garrisoned at
four military bases and as peacekeepers in the separatist regions of
Abkhazia and South Ossetia. The country continues to move toward a
market economy and greater integration with Western institutions.

@Georgia:Geography

Location: Southwestern Asia, bordering the Black Sea, between Turkey
and Russia

Geographic coordinates: 42 00 N, 43 30 E

Map references: Commonwealth of Independent States

Area:
total: 69,700 sq km
land: 69,700 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than South Carolina

Land boundaries:
total: 1,461 km
border countries: Armenia 164 km, Azerbaijan 322 km, Russia 723 km,
Turkey 252 km

Coastline: 310 km

Maritime claims: NA

Climate: warm and pleasant; Mediterranean-like on Black Sea coast

Terrain: largely mountainous with Great Caucasus Mountains in the
north and Lesser Caucasus Mountains in the south; Kolkhet'is Dablobi
(Kolkhida Lowland) opens to the Black Sea in the west; Mtkvari River
Basin in the east; good soils in river valley flood plains, foothills
of Kolkhida Lowland

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Black Sea 0 m
highest point: Mt'a Mqinvartsveri (Gora Kazbek) 5,048 m

Natural resources: forests, hydropower, manganese deposits, iron ore,
copper, minor coal and oil deposits; coastal climate and soils allow
for important tea and citrus growth

Land use:
arable land: 9%
permanent crops: 4%
permanent pastures: 25%
forests and woodland: 34%
other: 28% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 4,000 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: earthquakes

Environment - current issues: air pollution, particularly in Rust'avi;
heavy pollution of Mtkvari River and the Black Sea; inadequate
supplies of potable water; soil pollution from toxic chemicals

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate
Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous
Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution,
Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

@Georgia:People

Population: 5,019,538 (July 2000 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 20% (male 517,829; female 497,155)
15-64 years: 67% (male 1,630,814; female 1,755,323)
65 years and over: 13% (male 238,090; female 380,327) (2000 est.)

Population growth rate: -0.62% (2000 est.)

Birth rate: 10.87 births/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Death rate: 14.52 deaths/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Net migration rate: -2.57 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2000 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.93 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.63 male(s)/female
total population: 0.91 male(s)/female (2000 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 52.94 deaths/1,000 live births (2000 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 64.48 years
male: 60.9 years
female: 68.23 years (2000 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.41 children born/woman (2000 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Georgian(s)
adjective: Georgian

Ethnic groups: Georgian 70.1%, Armenian 8.1%, Russian 6.3%, Azeri
5.7%, Ossetian 3%, Abkhaz 1.8%, other 5%

Religions: Georgian Orthodox 65%, Muslim 11%, Russian Orthodox 10%,
Armenian Apostolic 8%, unknown 6%

Languages: Georgian 71% (official), Russian 9%, Armenian 7%, Azeri 6%,
other 7%
note: Abkhaz (official in Abkhazia)

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99%
male: 100%
female: 98% (1989 est.)

@Georgia:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Georgia
local long form: none
local short form: Sak'art'velo
former: Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic

Data code: GG

Government type: republic

Capital: T'bilisi

Administrative divisions: 53 rayons (raionebi, singular - raioni), 9
cities* (k'alak'ebi, singular - k'alak'i), and 2 autonomous
republics** (avtomnoy respubliki, singular - avtom respublika);
Abashis, Abkhazia or Ap'khazet'is Avtonomiuri Respublika** (Sokhumi),
Adigenis, Ajaria or Acharis Avtonomiuri Respublika** (Bat'umi),
Akhalgoris, Akhalk'alak'is, Akhalts'ikhis, Akhmetis, Ambrolauris,
Aspindzis, Baghdat'is, Bolnisis, Borjomis, Chiat'ura*, Ch'khorotsqus,
Ch'okhatauris, Dedop'listsqaros, Dmanisis, Dushet'is, Gardabanis,
Gori*, Goris, Gurjaanis, Javis, K'arelis, Kaspis, Kharagaulis,
Khashuris, Khobis, Khonis, K'ut'aisi*, Lagodekhis, Lanch'khut'is,
Lentekhis, Marneulis, Martvilis, Mestiis, Mts'khet'is, Ninotsmindis,
Onis, Ozurget'is, P'ot'i*, Qazbegis, Qvarlis, Rust'avi*, Sach'kheris,
Sagarejos, Samtrediis, Senakis, Sighnaghis, T'bilisi*, T'elavis,
T'erjolis, T'et'ritsqaros, T'ianet'is, Tqibuli*, Ts'ageris,
Tsalenjikhis, Tsalkis, Tsqaltubo*, Vanis, Zestap'onis, Zugdidi*,
Zugdidis
note: administrative divisions have the same names as their
administrative centers (exceptions have the administrative center name
following in parentheses)

Independence: 9 April 1991 (from Soviet Union)

National holiday: Independence Day, 26 May (1991)

Constitution: adopted 17 October 1995

Legal system: based on civil law system

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Eduard Amvrosiyevich SHEVARDNADZE
(previously elected chairman of the Government Council 10 March 1992,
Council has since been disbanded; previously elected chairman of
Parliament 11 October 1992; president since 26 November 1995); note -
the president is both the chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Eduard Amvrosiyevich SHEVARDNADZE
(previously elected chairman of the Government Council 10 March 1992,
Council has since been disbanded; previously elected chairman of
Parliament 11 October 1992; president since 26 November 1995); note -
the president is both the chief of state and head of government
cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term;
election last held 5 November 1995 (next to be held 9 April 2000)
election results: Eduard SHEVARDNADZE elected president; percent of
vote - Eduard SHEVARDNADZE 74%

Legislative branch: unicameral Supreme Council (commonly referred to
as Parliament) or Umaghiesi Sabcho (235 seats; members are elected by
popular vote to serve four-year terms)
elections: last held 31 October 1999 (next to be held NA 2003)
election results: percent of vote by party - CUG 41.85%, AGUR 25.65%,
IWSG 7.8%, all other parties received less than 7% each; seats by
party - CUG 130, AGUR 59, IWSG 15, Abkhaz deputies 12, independents
14, other 5

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, judges elected by the Supreme Council
on the president's recommendation; Constitutional Court

Political parties and leaders: Citizen's Union of Georgia or CUG
; Georgian United Communist Party or UCPG
; Greens Party [Giorgi
GACHECHILADZE]; Industry Will Save Georgia or IWSG ;
Labor Party ; National Democratic Party or NDP
; National Independent Party or NIP
; People's Party ;
Socialist Party or SPG ; Union for "Revival"
Party or AGUR ; Union of Traditionalists or UGT
; United Republican Party or URP [Nodar NATADZE,
chairman]

Political pressure groups and leaders: Georgian refugees from Abkhazia
(Abkhaz faction in Georgian Parliament); separatist elements in the
breakaway region of Abkhazia; supporters of the late ousted President
Zviad GAMSAKHURDYA remain a source of opposition

International organization participation: BSEC, CCC, CE, CE (guest),
CIS, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS,
ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO
(correspondent), ITU, OPCW, OSCE, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU,
WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO (applicant)

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Tedo JAPARIDZE
chancery: Suite 300, 1615 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC
20009
telephone:  (202) 387-2390
FAX:  (202) 393-4537

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Kenneth S. YALOWITZ
embassy: #25 Antoneli Street, T'bilisi 380026
mailing address: use embassy street address
telephone:  (32) 989-967
FAX:  (32) 933-759

Flag description: maroon field with small rectangle in upper hoist
side corner; rectangle divided horizontally with black on top, white
below

@Georgia:Economy

Economy - overview: Georgia's economy has traditionally revolved
around Black Sea tourism; cultivation of citrus fruits, tea, and
grapes; mining of manganese and copper; and output of a small
industrial sector producing wine, metals, machinery, chemicals, and
textiles. The country imports the bulk of its energy needs, including
natural gas and oil products. Its only sizable internal energy
resource is hydropower. Despite the severe damage the economy has
suffered due to civil strife, Georgia, with the help of the IMF and
World Bank, made substantial economic gains since 1995, increasing GDP
growth and slashing inflation. The Georgian economy continues to
experience large budget deficits due to a failure to collect tax
revenues. Georgia also still suffers from energy shortages; it
privatized the distribution network in 1998, and deliveries are
steadily improving. Georgia is pinning its hopes for long-term
recovery on the development of an international transportation
corridor through the key Black Sea ports of P'ot'i and Bat'umi. The
growing trade deficit, continuing problems with tax evasion and
corruption, and political uncertainties cloud the short-term economic
picture. However, revived investment could spur higher economic growth
in 2000, perhaps up to 6%.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $11.7 billion (1999 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 3.5% (1999 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $2,300 (1999 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 32%
industry: 23%
services: 45% (1999 est.)

Population below poverty line: 60% (1999 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 19% (1999 est.)

Labor force: 3.08 million (1997)

Labor force - by occupation: industry and construction 20%,
agriculture and forestry 40%, services 40% (1999 est.)

Unemployment rate: 14.5% (1998 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $364 million
expenditures: $568 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1998)

Industries: steel, aircraft, machine tools, electric locomotives,
trucks, tractors, textiles, shoes, chemicals, wood products, wine

Industrial production growth rate: -0.3% (1998 est.)

Electricity - production: 6.96 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 14.66%
hydro: 85.34%
nuclear: 0%
other: 0% (1998)

Electricity - consumption: 6.123 billion kWh (1998)

Electricity - exports: 700 million kWh (1998)

Electricity - imports: 350 million kWh (1998)

Agriculture - products: citrus, grapes, tea, vegetables, potatoes;
livestock

Exports: $330 million (1999 est.)

Exports - commodities: citrus fruits, tea, wine, other agricultural
products; diverse types of machinery and metals; chemicals; fuel
reexports; textiles

Exports - partners: Russia 27%, Turkey 20%, Azerbaijan 10%, Armenia 8%
(1997)

Imports: $840 million (1999 est.)

Imports - commodities: fuel, grain and other foods, machinery and
parts, transport equipment

Imports - partners: EU 22%, Russia 15%, Turkey 12%, Azerbaijan 12%, US
7% (1997)

Debt - external: $1.8 billion (1998)

Economic aid - recipient: $212.7 million (1995)

Currency: 1 lari (GEL) = 100 tetri

Exchange rates: lari per US$1 (end of period) - 1.9503 (December
1999), 2.0245 (1999), 1.3898 (1998), 1.2975 (1997), 1.2628 (1996),
1.24 (December 1995)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Georgia:Communications

Telephones - main lines in use: 554,000 (1995)

Telephones - mobile cellular: 150 (1995)

Telephone system:
domestic: local - T'bilisi and K'ut'aisi have cellular telephone
networks with about 10,000 customers total; urban areas 20
telephones/100 people; rural areas 4 telephones/100 people; intercity
- a fiber-optic line connects T'bilisi to K'ut'aisi (Georgia's second
largest city); nationwide pager service
international: Georgia and Russia are working on a fiber-optic line
between P'ot'i and Sochi (Russia); present international service is
available by microwave, landline, and satellite through the Moscow
switch; international electronic mail and telex service available

Radio broadcast stations: AM 7, FM 12, shortwave 4 (1998)

Radios: 3.02 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations: 12 (plus repeaters) (1998)

Televisions: 2.57 million (1997)

Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 5 (1999)

@Georgia:Transportation

Railways:
total: 1,583 km in common carrier service; does not include industrial
lines
broad gauge: 1,583 km 1.520-m gauge (1993)

Highways:
total: 20,700 km
paved: 19,354 km
unpaved: 1,346 km (1996 est.)

Pipelines: crude oil 370 km; refined products 300 km; natural gas 440
km (1992)

Ports and harbors: Bat'umi, P'ot'i, Sokhumi

Merchant marine:
total: 17 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 103,080 GRT/158,803 DWT
ships by type: cargo 10, chemical tanker 1, petroleum tanker 6 (1999
est.)

Airports: 28 (1994 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 14
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 7
1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
914 to 1,523 m: 1
under 914 m: 1 (1994 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 14
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 5
under 914 m: 6 (1994 est.)

Transportation - note: transportation network is in poor condition and
disrupted by ethnic conflict, criminal activities, and fuel shortages;
network lacks maintenance and repair

@Georgia:Military

Military branches: Ground Forces, Navy, Air Force, Air Defense Forces,
Naval Forces, National Guard, Republic Security Forces (internal and
border troops)

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 1,291,190 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males age 15-49: 1,021,072 (2000 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 40,694 (2000 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $27 million (FY99)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 1% (FY99)

Military - note: a CIS peacekeeping force consisting of Russian troops
is deployed in the Abkhazia region of Georgia together with a UN
military observer group; a Russian peacekeeping battalion is deployed
in South Ossetia

@Georgia:Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

Illicit drugs: limited cultivation of cannabis and opium poppy, mostly
for domestic consumption; used as transshipment point for opiates via
Central Asia to Western Europe and Russia

______________________________________________________________________



GERMANY

@Germany:Introduction

Background: As Western Europe's richest and most populous nation,
Germany remains a key member of the continent's economic, political,
and defense organizations. European power struggles immersed the
country in two devastating World Wars in the first half of the 20th
century and left the country occupied by the victorious Allied powers
of the US, UK, France, and the Soviet Union in 1945. With the advent
of the Cold War, two German states were formed in 1949: the western
Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) and the eastern German Democratic
Republic (GDR). The democratic FRG embedded itself in key Western
economic and security organizations, the EC and NATO, while the
communist GDR was on the front line of the Soviet-led Warsaw Pact. The
decline of the USSR and the end of the Cold War allowed for German
unification in 1990. Since then Germany has expended considerable
funds to bring eastern productivity and wages up to western standards.
In January 1999, Germany and 10 other EU countries formed a common
European currency, the euro.

@Germany:Geography

Location: Central Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea and the North Sea,
between the Netherlands and Poland, south of Denmark

Geographic coordinates: 51 00 N, 9 00 E

Map references: Europe

Area:
total: 357,021 sq km
land: 349,223 sq km
water: 7,798 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Montana

Land boundaries:
total: 3,621 km
border countries: Austria 784 km, Belgium 167 km, Czech Republic 646
km, Denmark 68 km, France 451 km, Luxembourg 138 km, Netherlands 577
km, Poland 456 km, Switzerland 334 km

Coastline: 2,389 km

Maritime claims:
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: temperate and marine; cool, cloudy, wet winters and summers;
occasional warm foehn wind

Terrain: lowlands in north, uplands in center, Bavarian Alps in south

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Freepsum Lake -2 m
highest point: Zugspitze 2,963 m

Natural resources: iron ore, coal, potash, timber, lignite, uranium,
copper, natu